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  • Washington, D.C : The World Bank  (14,053)
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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy Study
    Keywords: Anchoring and Mooring ; Energy ; Energy Resources Development ; Energy Yield ; Environment ; Environment and Energy Efficiency ; Floating Solar Photovoltaics ; FSPV Ecosystem ; HSE ; Inverter ; Power Plants
    Abstract: This report builds a compelling case for India to look beyond land and institute an ecosystem that supports the installation and operationalization of floating solar photovoltaics (FSPV) power plants. Since these plants are installed on the underutilized surfaces of large water bodies, no land needs to be diverted from other uses. The installation of FSPVs also spurs job creation and catalyzes the development of a domestic value chain as some of the components, such as floaters, need to bemanufactured close to installation sites. They also provide a range of other benefits as they generate relatively more power than ground-mounted solar plants (due to the cooling effect of water) and better utilize shared infrastructure such as transmission systems, wherever available
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (210 pages)
    Series Statement: International Debt Report
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Bonds ; Creditor ; Data ; Debt ; Debtor ; Developing ; Development ; Economic ; FDI ; Finance ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Government ; Interest Payments ; Interest Rates ; Loans ; Maturity ; Principal ; Private Sector ; Public Sector ; Statistics
    Abstract: The International Debt Report (IDR) is a longstanding annual publication of the World Bank featuring external debt statistics and analysis for the 122 countries that report to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System. IDR 2023 is the 50th annual edition and includes (1) analyses of external debt stocks and flows as of end-2022 for these countries; (2) the macroeconomic and debt outlook for 2023 and beyond; (3) a focus on improved public debt transparency and the quality of debt reporting; (4) a discussion of the need for innovative approaches to debt management; (5) a commentary on how the International Debt Statistics database serves as an indispensable resource for researchers and policy makers; and (6) a one-page snapshot of relevant debt indicators and summary of debt stocks and flows for six years (2010 and 2018-22) for each country, plus global income group and regional aggregates. Unique in its coverage of the important trends and issues fundamental to the financing of low- and middle-income countries, IDR 2023 is an indispensable resource for governments, economists, investors, financial consultants, academics, bankers, and the entire development community. For more information on IDR 2023 and related products, please visit the World Bank's Debt Statistics website at www.worldbank.org/debtstatistics
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Crisis ; Sahel ; Shocks ; Social Protection ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The Sahel region of Africa faces multiple crises, which further compound structural economic and human development challenges. The Sahel is one of the world's poorest regions and displays some of the lowest levels of human capital globally. Violence and insecurity in the Sahel have significantly increased in the past decade, with several countries experiencing active armed conflict and unrest. The impacts of climate change compound existing vulnerabilities and risks. Finally, the external shocks of the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine have impacted the Sahel, eroding purchasing power and aggravating poverty. Adaptive Social Protection (ASP) plays a critical role in preventing or mitigating the negative impacts of shocks and boosting resilience for long-term development. ASP has emerged as a flexible and dynamic approach to social protection during the past decade. It combines and exploits synergies between social protection, disaster risk management (DRM), and climate change adaptation. Adaptive Social Protection (ASP) plays a critical role in preventing or mitigating the negative impacts of shocks and boosting resilience for long-term development. The Sahel's vulnerability and exposure to shocks and crises is set to increase with accelerating climate change, calling for a shift from often externally funded, ad hoc responses toward building sustainable, government-led system. Over the past decade, ASP has been on a remarkable trajectory in the Sahel, and this is an appropriate time to take stock of the situation. This report provides an overview of the state of ASP across six Sahelian countries - Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, and Senegal - as well as a set of recommendations for actions to strengthen the adaptiveness and responsiveness of existing systems to shocks
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Damages ; Earthquake ; Environment ; Grade Methodology ; Herat Province ; Natural Disasters
    Abstract: Following the Herat province (Western Afghanistan) earthquake sequence of October 7 to 15, 2023, the World Bank carried out a remote desk-based assessment of the physical damages using the Global RApid post-disaster Damage Estimation (GRADE) methodology. The objective of the assessment is to develop a model-based estimate of the direct physical (economic) damages to residential buildings (houses), non-residential buildings (e.g., education, health, worship, commercial, industrial assets) and infrastructure (e.g., transport, power, water, telecommunications), and to evaluate the spatial distribution of damages in order to support the development of a roadmap for recovery and reconstruction. This report summarizes the key findings of the assessment
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Equity ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Interventions ; Fiscal Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Policy Reforms
    Abstract: The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) is facing economic challenges. The country is experiencing a growth slowdown with high levels of public debt. Growing current expenditure and debt service obligations amid sluggish tax revenue led to a widening fiscal deficit in the early 2010s, which remained high into the 2020s despite fiscal consolidation efforts. COVID-19 and deteriorating macroeconomic conditions have disrupted human capital investment and are expected to have worsened the incidence of poverty and inequality. Fiscal policy can be an instrument to address these challenges, but its role has been constrained by a precarious fiscal position. This report analyzes the distributive effects of the Lao fiscal system and potential reforms to address current economic challenges. The analysis adopts the Commitment to Equity (CEQ) methodology to assess the distributional impact of the Lao fiscal system on household welfare. The methodology disaggregates income to include or exclude fiscal interventions to analyze the impact of the fiscal system and each intervention on poverty and inequality. Fiscal interventions can be classified into three categories according to how they are imposed on households: direct interventions (direct taxes, social security contributions, and cash transfers), indirect interventions (indirect taxes and subsidies), and in-kind interventions (public health and education). The framework assesses how progressive a fiscal system and each fiscal intervention are and measures their impacts on poverty and inequality
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study
    Keywords: East Asia ; FDI ; FDI Policy Reforms ; Foreign Direct Investment ; International Economics and Trade ; Liberalization ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Abstract: A new report from the World Bank Group focuses on the trends in foreign direct investment (FDI), which encompasses foreign investment in new or existing firms and production facilities. FDI is a subset of overall capital flows, but it is perhaps the most critical because of its potential development impact and stability relative to other cross-border capital flows. Foreign capital flows to developing countries fell to an estimated USD 662 billion in 2022 from an average of over USD 1 trillion in the decade preceding the COVID-19 pandemic. Declining investment flows to developing markets largely reflect weaker macroeconomic prospects, geopolitical tensions, as well as the lasting impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The trend is also linked to the ongoing process of shifting global value chains and the transformation of investment in terms of modes of entry, sources, and sectors, among other dimensions. Growing climate change impacts, rising interest rates, and policy changes in advanced countries--such as incentives for green investments and localization of supply chains for key technologies--have also had far-reaching implications for the allocation of investment across the globe. The study seeks to provide a granular analysis of shifts in foreign direct investment flows and policy trends and suggests responses that developing countries may consider in order to reverse recent declines and to enable more private capital to support their development needs
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Access and Coverage ; Equity ; Financing ; Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; PHCPI Framework ; PHP ; Quality
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the primary health care (PHC) system in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), an assessment that the World Bank conducted in consultation with the Ministry of Health and Human Services (MHHS) of the government of RMI. The assessment provides an opportunity to understand the performance of RMI's PHC system, highlighting important areas of strengths and opportunities to address ongoing challenges. The assessment uses the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) framework, which organizes various domains and subdomains of primary care using a logic model approach that encompasses the traditional inputs and outputs of a system, emphasizing service delivery and performance
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (49 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Wahby, Sarah Job Finding and Separation among Syrian refugees in Jordan and Their Hosts during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Keywords: Covid-19 Impact on Refugees ; Human Rights ; Involuntary Resettlement Law ; Job Finding ; Job Separation ; Labor Market Inequality ; Labor Markets ; Law and Development ; Refugee Camps and Resilience ; Refugees ; Social Development ; Social Protections and Labor ; Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement
    Abstract: Refugees face important barriers to participation in the formal market, which locks them in informal employment and makes them more vulnerable to shocks. Using data from Jordan, this paper compares the job finding and separation rates of Syrian refugees to those of their hosts before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings show the change in these rates over time for Syrians to be similar to those of their Jordanian hosts prior to the pandemic, with a significant divergence after the start of the pandemic. Distinguishing between Syrians living in camps and those living in host communities shows that the Syrian disadvantage was entirely explained by living in camps
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; FDI ; Foreign Direct Investment ; FX ; Import Bans ; Improved Welfare ; Inflation ; International Economics and Trade ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Oil Flows ; Private Sector Credit
    Abstract: Important reform decisions have been taken for Nigeria to avoid a fiscal cliff, and temporary compensation is being provided to help the poorest and most vulnerable households. In May and June 2023, the incoming administration undertook two critical policy decisions, which have resulted in price and exchange rate adjustments in the second half of the year. Targeted cash transfers are helping to cushion the adjustment to higher gasoline prices. On fiscal policy, budget planning for the next several years is consistent with sustaining the fiscal savings from the subsidy reform and mobilizing more revenues. However, the reforms are yet to be completed to fully realize the economic benefits. The FX market has remained volatile and is still in a period of continuing adjustment to the new policy approach. Revenue gains from the FX reform are visible, but more clarity is needed on oil revenues, including the fiscal benefits from the PMS subsidy reform. The economic outlook for Nigeria in the short to medium term hinges on the continuation and effectiveness of its macroeconomic stabilization agenda. Successful implementation of the initiated reforms will be the first step toward improving Nigeria's growth prospect. Moving decisively onto a higher long-term growth and poverty reduction path requires not only a stable macroeconomic environment but also concerted structural reforms
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (43 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Cameron, Lisa Leveraging Women's Views to Influence Gender Norms around Women Working: Evidence from an Online Intervention in Indonesia
    Keywords: Gender ; Gender Equality ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Women Employment ; Women In The Workforce
    Abstract: How to influence social norms that drive behavior in relation to women's participation in employment is not well understood. Providing randomly selected participants with information on the extent of (i) women's support for women with children working; (ii) husband's support for sharing day-to-day childcare with wives; and (iii) mothers' and mother-in-law's support for working women, increased the probability of choosing an online career mentoring course for women over a shopping voucher of equal value by 25 percent. Information beyond women's support for working women further increased support for women working for some groups, although not strongly so
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Employment ; Inclusive Society ; Income Inequality ; Labor Markets ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Structural Drivers ; Wage
    Abstract: This report is intended to inform public debate and policymaking on income inequality in Thailand. It aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of income inequality in Thailand and identify opportunities to promote more inclusive growth. The analysis uses a wealth of data from a variety of sources (detailed in Appendix A) to examine the pattern, structure, and drivers of income inequality in the country, with a special focus on inequality and labor market supply-side factors. It is structured as follows. This section has laid the foundation for analysis, examining historical trends in both consumption - and income-based measures of inequality while providing geographic context and data on public perceptions about inequality. It also provided a summary of literature findings. Section 2 analyzes the pandemic's impacts on inequality, including the role that social assistance played in mitigating its effects but also the potential scarring effects on children's human capital development. Section 3 examines the structural drivers of inequality and its persistence, focusing on the role of inequality of opportunity in human capital development and access to basic services. Finally, Section 4 provides policy options to create a more inclusive society by addressing the root causes of persistent inequality and mitigating the challenges brought about by the pandemic. In particular, since a significant share of the poor in Thailand are engaged in agriculture, the report underscores that improving farm incomes is crucial for alleviating poverty and reducing inequality. As such, Section 4 draws its recommendations from a recent study on the key challenges and opportunities facing Thai farmers to raise agricultural productivity and incomes
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (36 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Gatti, Roberta Dysfunctional Family Management: Family-Managed Businesses and the Quality of Management Practices
    Keywords: Business Environment ; Family Owned Businesses ; Management Practices ; Managerial Talent ; Private Equity ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development
    Abstract: Better managed firms perform better. Existing evidence has shown that family-managed firms have poorer management practices. Several reasons have been proposed. Limiting to family members reduces the talent pool of potential managers. Family management creates disincentives for other talented workers given that the environment is not meritocratic. Family managers themselves may be less motivated given that they may not have to compete for the position. This study scales up the evidence by exploring the relationship between family managers and management practices for about 9,000 medium and large firms across 41 developing and advanced economies. The study contributes to the literature by investigating several internal and external operating factors that attenuate or accentuate the relationship between family management and the quality of management practices. The engagement of governments in terms of corruption and political connections is found to be influential
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (34 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Ambler, Kate Rural Labor and Long Recall Loss
    Keywords: Employment and Unemployment ; Labor Supply ; Poverty Reduction ; Rural Household Survey ; Rural Labor ; Social Protections and Labor ; Unemployment
    Abstract: Surveys frequently rely on annual recall to capture individuals' labor activities over the preceding year. This paper uses a panel of rural households in Malawi for a survey experiment to test the effect of a long, annual recall window on reported labor supply relative to a set of quarterly interviews. The paper documents large losses in reported labor participation using the long recall window with reductions of over 20 percent of reported activities and months worked and a 2.5 times greater incidence of reported unemployment relative to the shorter window. These losses are greater for activities further in the past and especially for individuals whose labor supply is reported by other family members, reaching up to 50 percent for some outcomes. The profile of households' primary respondents, predominantly male and older, and differential effects by age further suggest that long recall may cause meaningful biases in the resulting data for women and younger household members
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  • 14
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (43 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Fietz, Katharina Exit Patterns from Brazil's Bolsa Familia and the Role of the Local Labor Market
    Keywords: Bolsa Familia ; Conditional Cash Transfer ; Dynamic Means-Tested Cash Transfer ; Labor Market ; Poverty Reduction ; Rural Workers ; Social Protection Program Graduation ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Can rising tides in the labor market lift the poor out of social assistance Although a substantial literature has studied the capacity of safety nets to expand automatically during labor market shocks, less is known about the dynamics of social assistance when labor market conditions improve, and who may benefit from positive changes. This paper studies how rising formal employment at the municipal level affects the likelihood of beneficiary families to exit Bolsa Familia, Brazil's dynamic means-tested cash transfer. The analysis exploits panel data from Brazil's vast social registry, matched with seven years of Bolsa Familia payroll information and formal employment records. The data reveal that the Bolsa Familia program displays significant and heterogeneous dynamism, with beneficiaries with higher levels of education and fewer constraints to labor supply taking fewer years to exit. The analysis then uses fixed-effects estimates, combined with an instrumental variable approach, to identify the effects of exogenous changes in the local labor market on exits. The findings show that the increase in local employment leads to a small, statistically significant rise in the probability of exiting from Bolsa Familia. These effects are concentrated in households with spare labor supply and those with medium levels of education
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (48 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Cortina Toro, Magdalena Little Nomads: Economic and Social Impacts of Migration on Children
    Keywords: Child Migration ; Education Services ; Migration ; Migration Influence on Children ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This paper reviews the main findings from 110 studies produced between 1990 and 2023, focusing on the impact of migration on various child groups affected through the migration path, including left-behind, immigrant (including voluntary and forced), and native children. The findings reveal that migration's influence on children's outcomes is complex and context- dependent, and it is dramatically influenced by household demographics and public policies. Key findings include the following: (i) left-behind children benefit from remittances but experience dramatic declines in their cognitive and non-cognitive development due to parental absence; (ii) immigrant children generally fare better than those in their origin countries but still underperform compared to native children in host countries; and (iii) the impacts of migration on native children is largely dependent on the adjustment of public service supply to the increased demand for public services. In cases where education services expand to meet rising demand, the effect on native children can be minimal or even positive. The paper emphasizes the need for more experimental or quasi-experimental research examining the effectiveness of programs supporting migrant and minor host children and calls for longitudinal data collection for better understanding the challenges and needs of migrant children, particularly in developing countries
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (49 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Gascoigne, Jon The Welfare Cost of Drought in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Change and Health ; Draught ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Household Consumption ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development ; Social Protection and Climate Change
    Abstract: This paper quantifies the impact of drought on household consumption for five main agroecological zones in Africa, developing vulnerability (or damage) functions of the relationship between rainfall deficits and poverty. Damage functions are a key element in models that quantify the risk of extreme weather and the impacts of climate change. Although these functions are commonly estimated for storm or flood damages to buildings, they are less often available for income losses from droughts. The paper takes a regional approach to the analysis, developing standardized hazard definitions and methods for matching hazard and household data, allowing survey data from close to 100,000 households to be used in the analysis. The damage functions are used to quantify the impact of historical weather conditions on poverty for eight countries, highlighting the risk to poverty outcomes that weather variability causes. National poverty rates are 1-12 percent higher, depending on the country, under the worst weather conditions relative to the best conditions observed in the past 13 years. This amounts to an increase in the total poverty gap that ranges from USD 4 million to USD 2.4 billion (2011 purchasing power parity)
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (32 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Canavire Bacarreza, Gustavo Fiscal Incidence on the Island: Grenada's Fiscal System and Its Incidence
    Keywords: Consumption ; Fiscal Incidence ; Fiscal Policy Interventions ; Inequality ; Living Standards ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Expenditure ; Public Revenue ; Social Transfers ; Tax ; Taxation and Subsidies
    Abstract: This paper examines the distributional effects of fiscal policy in Grenada. Using data from the 2017-18 Living Conditions and Household Budgets Survey and following the Commitment to Equity analysis framework, the paper estimates the effects of fiscal policy interventions on inequality and poverty. It analyzes the distributional incidence of direct and indirect taxes, direct transfers provided by social transfers and school feeding programs, and in-kind transfers generated by public services in health and education. The results show that Grenada has a tax system that is neutral on the value-added tax side and progressive on the personal income tax side. Furthermore, direct transfers make a modest contribution to poverty reduction and are almost neutral in their distributive impact. The results contribute to the understanding of who bears the burden of taxation and benefits from transfers and of how Grenada's fiscal system can improve its redistributive effect
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (39 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Stacy, Brian Missing Evidence: Tracking Academic Data Use around the World
    Keywords: Academia ; Academic Research Article Survey ; Country Data Analysis ; Developing Country Research Study ; Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Language Processing ; Poverty and Policy ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Data-driven research on a country is key to producing evidence-based public policies. Yet little is known about where data-driven research is lacking and how it could be expanded. This paper proposes a method for tracking academic data use by country of subject, applying natural language processing to open-access research papers. The model's predictions produce country estimates of the number of articles using data that are highly correlated with a human-coded approach, with a correlation of 0.99. Analyzing more than 1 million academic articles, the paper finds that the number of articles on a country is strongly correlated with its gross domestic product per capita, population, and the quality of its national statistical system. The paper identifies data sources that are strongly associated with data-driven research and finds that availability of subnational data appears to be particularly important. Finally, the paper classifies countries into groups based on whether they could most benefit from increasing their supply of or demand for data. The findings show that the former applies to many low- and lower-middle-income countries, while the latter applies to many upper-middle- and high-income countries
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Broadband Infrastructure ; Digital Divide ; Digitalization ; ICT Legal and Regulatory Framework ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Internet ; Outdated Legal Frameworks
    Abstract: Equitable access to broadband services is imperative to narrow the digital divide and for more people to benefit from digitalization. Compared to other ASEAN countries, the Philippines' internet connectivity lags in affordability, speed, and access, creating an uneven landscape for digital participation. Limited internet access curbs digital potential for citizens and businesses, with peri-urban connectivity being critical to future growth. The country's poor broadband infrastructure is rooted in outdated policy frameworks that stifle investment in rural areas and foster a market with weak competition, both of which hinder broadband expansion. Binding constraints underlying the Philippines' poor broadband infrastructure are inter-related, requiring a comprehensive package of reforms to yield desired entry, investment, and sector performance outcomes. The open access in data transmission (OADT) bill is a promising, viable start, among several proposals in Congress. Policymakers can build on immediate reforms through the open access bill as an entry point to broader and medium- to longer-term digital connectivity agenda. The cost of inaction - loss of growth opportunity, people remaining unequipped for future jobs, and widening of the digital divide - is too high for the Philippines
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Zimbabwe assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Zimbabwe perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Zimbabwe on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Zimbabwe; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Zimbabwe; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Zimbabwe; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Zimbabwe
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Jamaica assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Jamaica perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Jamaica on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Jamaica; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Jamaica; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Jamaica; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Jamaica
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Conflict and Fragility ; CPE ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Drought and Climate Shocks ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Mavroeconomic Vulnerabilities ; Unsustainable Development ; Weak Business Environment
    Abstract: The objective of this Country Program Evaluation (CPE) is to assess how well the World Bank Group supported Ethiopia in addressing key challenges that constrained its development and how that support adapted over time to respond to changing circumstances, an evolving relationship, and lessons from experience. The evaluation will cover fiscal years (FY)13-23. The time period is selected to include the last two Bank Group strategies to support Ethiopia and coincides with the period of theprevious two political administrations. The evaluation aims to inform the next Bank Group-supported Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Ethiopia expected in FY25
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Food Security ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy ; Real Sector
    Abstract: Notwithstanding slower global growth and lingering impacts of recent catastrophic floods, private sector activity, outside the oil sector, has been supported by a relative return to peace, and higher government spending. Nevertheless, the economy is estimated to have contracted by 0.4 percent in FY23/24, reflecting drags from oil production. Supported by a successful exchange rate liberalization, inflation averaged -3.2 percent in 2022 and around 3 percent in the first nine months of 2023. Monetary policy has tightened in recent months, but it remains imperative that the central bank refrain from financing the fiscal deficit. The FY23/24 budget projects a smaller financing gap of about 13 percent of budget expenditures comparedto previous years. However, financing vulnerabilities remain high because of limited fiscal and external liquidity buffers and limited debt-carrying capacity
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Fiscal Capacity Estimation ; Fiscal Policy ; Intergovernmental Transfers ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Subnational Tax Effort ; Tax Reform ; Taxation and Subsidies
    Abstract: This paper discusses the application of the conceptual framework for potential revenue estimation using Indonesia's existing macroeconomic indicators. The authors find that Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP), population, and urbanization rate are good predictors for most tax sources. These three indicators also predicted the total district's OSRs well, providing an empirical foundation for an aggregated macro-based model to estimate all OSRs using the abovementioned variables. The rest of the paper is structured as follows: section 1 provides a description of Indonesia's system of intergovernmental transfers and subnational taxation. It shows subnational fiscal reliance on transfers rather than OSRs. Section 2 makes the case for reforming the DAU formula and explains recent efforts by the Government of Indonesia on that front. Section 3 discusses the limited existing empirical literature on estimating potential revenues for transfers formula. Section 4 explains and applies our conceptual framework for potential revenue estimation. It also provides the empirical justification to use an aggregated approach to estimation rather than estimating each individual tax base. Section 5 applies the aggregated approach to estimating potential revenues. Section 6 discusses the equity implications and makes the case for using district fixed effects. Finally, section 7 provides a conclusion of this paper
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Guinea assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Guinea perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Guinea on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Guinea; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Guinea; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Guinea; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Guinea
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Firm-Level ; Global Statistics ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Procurement ; WBES
    Abstract: Public procurement is at the intersection between the public and the private sectors. Policy makers and practitioners are increasingly paying attention to the potential catalytic role of public procurement to promote economic growth and inclusive and sustainable development, for example through participation of SMEs and women-owned firms in this market. However, despite a growing academic literature, there is still limited evidence on the link between public procurement and firms, which this paper contributes to address in two ways. First, this paper provides guidance on how to design a high-quality firm-level survey to study public procurement from the perspective of firms. Second, this paper presents some of the statistics and stylized facts that can be generated on public procurement from the existing World Bank Enterprise Surveys data, covering more than 150 countries worldwide. To sustain evidence-based policies in public procurement, firm-level survey data can be a valuable source of information on public procurement market. In particular, it can capture dimensions such as views and perceptions of firms that cannot be observed from e-government procurement data, it allows to study firms that never entered the public procurement market, and it provides data for countries that have not adopted an eGP system yet. Together with legislative and institutional reviews, and the analysis of transactional procurement data, firm-level survey data can be used to identify weaknesses of a public procurement system and inform reform efforts. This paper is part of a broader effort to continuously expand the available data, statistics, and tools for evidence-based policy making in public procurement
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (26 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Thomas, Alastair VAT Rate Structures in Theory and Practice
    Keywords: Economic Theory and Research ; Law and Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Redistribution ; Reduced Rates ; Tax Law ; Tax Rate ; Tax Reform ; Value Added Tax (VAT)
    Abstract: Most countries' value-added tax (VAT) systems apply reduced VAT rates to a selection of expenditure items in order to achieve distributional goals, and (to a lesser extent) social and cultural objectives. This paper assesses the case for applying reduced VAT rates, with a particular focus on OECD countries where reduced rates feature prominently. It examines both the theoretical and empirical evidence, as well as practical considerations, and concludes that the case for reduced VAT rates is weak. In particular, the optimal indirect tax literature finds no redistributive role for reduced VAT rates when other more direct instruments are available. These theoretical findings are supported by the empirical literature that shows reduced VAT rates to be a poorly targeted means of supporting lower income households, particularly when compared to targeted cash transfer programs. Similarly, reduced VAT rates are unlikely to be a well-targeted way to encourage consumption of merit goods, while they also create significant administrative complexity. These findings have significant implications for tax reform in both developed and developing economies. In particular, where countries have the administrative capacity to implement effectively targeted cash transfer programs, they should use these programs to support poorer households instead of reduced VAT rates
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  • 28
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (97 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als AlAzzawi, Shireen Female Headship and Poverty in the Arab Region: Analysis of Trends and Dynamics Based on a New Typology
    Keywords: Female-Headed Households (FHH) ; Female-Headedness Typology ; Gender ; Household Survey Data ; Poverty Dynamics ; Poverty Feminization ; Poverty Reduction ; Synthetic Panels
    Abstract: Various challenges are thought to render female-headed households (FHHs) vulnerable to poverty in the Arab region. Yet, previous studies have had mixed results and the absence of household panel survey data hinders analysis of poverty dynamics. This paper addresses these challenges by proposing a novel typology of FHHs and analyzes synthetic panels constructed from 20 rounds of repeated cross-sectional surveys spanning the past two decades from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Mauritania, the West Bank and Gaza, and Tunisia. The paper finds that the definition of FHHs matters for measuring poverty levels and dynamics. Most types of FHHs are less poor than non--FHHs on average, but FHHs with a major share of female adults are generally poorer. FHHs are more likely to escape poverty than households on average, but FHHs without children are the most likely to do so. While more children are generally associated with more poverty for FHHs, there is heterogeneity across countries in addition to heterogeneity across measures of FHHs. The findings provide useful inputs for social protection and employment programs aiming at reducing gender inequalities and poverty in the Arab region
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (24 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Floreani, Vincent A Costing Disasters: Hedonic Pricing, Neighborhood Effects, and the Nepal Gorkha Earthquakes
    Keywords: Climate Change Economics ; Earthquakes ; Environment ; Hedonic Price ; Housing Prices ; Imputed Rent ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Microsimulation ; Natural Disaster ; Natural Disasters ; Neighborhood Effects ; Spatial Economics ; Welfare
    Abstract: Disasters are frequent and clearly harmful in developing countries, but precisely estimating their overall cost and distributional impact is challenging. This paper proposes a microsimulation approach to do so rapidly, borrowing concepts from both poverty analysis and urban economics. Because housing prices reflect the present value of a specific bundle of living conditions, local earnings opportunities, and local access to services, their change in the aftermath of a disaster can be interpreted as a measure of the welfare cost incurred by households. A hedonic pricing function is used to estimate such changes based on the destruction experienced by the dwellings themselves, but also on the overall destruction suffered by their surrounding areas. The first element captures the damage from worse living conditions, whereas the second captures the loss from diminished earnings opportunities and access to services. The proposed approach is illustrated by estimating the cost of the 2015 Gorkha earthquakes in Nepal. Overall, the estimated impact is comparable to that from the official assessment. But its spatial distribution is significantly different due to the pivotal influence of neighborhood effects
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Mongolia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Mongolia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Mongolia on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Mongolia; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Mongolia; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Mongolia; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Mongolia
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Ghana assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Ghana perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Ghana on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Ghana; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Ghana; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Ghana; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Ghana
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  • 32
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: IDA ; Private Investment ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Private Sector Window (PSW)
    Abstract: The private sector is essential for creating jobs and prosperity in poor countries, but developing it is challenging, especially in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS). The IDA Private Sector Window (PSW) is a blended finance facility that enables the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and third-party private sector investors to conduct high-risk transactions in International Development Association (IDA) countries and FCS countries. This evaluation aims to assess the usage, market development potential, and enabling factors of the PSW. The evaluation assesses how the usage of the PSW has changed from its inception in 2017 to 2023 and explores its potential market development effects and its enabling factors, namely concessionality (for IFC and MIGA) and additionality (for IFC). Concessionality is the level of subsidy needed for IFC and MIGA to offer transactions in PSW-eligible countries at market prices. Additionality is the unique support IFC brings to private investments (on a project basis) that is not offered by commercial sources of finance. It comprises financial and nonfinancial additionality. This evaluation assesses the PSW across three IDA cycles: IDA18, which covers FY18-20; IDA19, which covers FY21-22; and IDA20, which covers FY23-25. It updates the 2021 IEG early-stage assessment of the PSW (FY18-20) and complements the IDA20 PSW Mid-Term Review, which was prepared jointly by IDA, IFC, and MIGA
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (47 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Horton, Susan Estimating Economic Costs of Unhealthy Diets: A Proposed Methodology
    Keywords: Agrifood Policy ; Cancer ; Diet Quality ; Food Choices ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Healthcare Costs ; Non-Communicable Disease ; Nutrition ; Obesity ; Undernutrition
    Abstract: Healthy diets have been characterized as responding to four universal principles--nutrient adequacy, dietary diversity, macronutrient balance, and moderation. With rising incomes, diet concerns globally have shifted from inadequacy of nutrients and lack of diversity, to lack of balance and moderation. This has occurred alongside declining rates of stunting and wasting in children under five and increasing rates of overweight and obesity across a broad age span. Calculations undertaken for low- and middle-income countries for policy and advocacy purposes of the economic cost of unhealthy diets have used nutritional status as a proxy or have made estimates of the impact of noncommunicable diseases by simply adding up known risks of individual diet factors. Both these methods have problems. This paper proposes a new methodology, taking advantage of recent, more holistic, measures of diet quality. Preliminary regression results are presented using cross-country data and the Global Dietary Recommendations Score and Minimum Dietary Diversity for women. The results suggest that diet quality variables generally have the expected signs, but there are also clear limitations of using cross-country data. The methodology could be applied in future to a limited number of broadly representative low- and middle-income countries data sets containing both diet recall data as well as measures of noncommunicable disease risk status. The analysis suggests that this work could inform policies such as the repurposing of existing agrifood policies to complement existing public health policies, to reduce the economic and health burdens imposed by unhealthy diets
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  • 34
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (46 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Kalliny, Marize Are Global Value Chains Women Friendly in Developing Countries? Evidence from Firm-Level Data
    Keywords: Firm-Level Data ; Gender ; Gender and Economics ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Trade ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Gendered Entrepreneur Data ; Global Value Chain ; Women's Empowerment ; Women's Trade Participation
    Abstract: Despite the efforts made to increase women's inclusion in the economy, they are still underrepresented in trade in general and in global value chains in particular. Thus, this paper aims at examining the impact of global value chains on women's trade participation as entrepreneurs and employees. It also analyzes how this effect is moderated through external (gender provisions in trade agreements) and internal (investment climate variables) factors. The analysis uses firm-level data for 154 developing economies and emerging markets with a special focus on the Middle East and North Africa region, being one of the regions with the lowest female labor force participation. The main findings show that global value chains integration increases the likelihood of being a female owner and the share of female employees, especially production ones. A less robust negative effect is found for the impact on being a female top manager. These effects are moderated by the inclusion of gender provisions in trade agreements and by the characteristics of the investment climate (especially tax policy, access to finance, and corruption). These results remain robust after controlling for the endogeneity of global value chains using an instrumental variable approach and a propensity score estimation method where the treatment is being part of a global value chains. Thus, global value chains can be perceived as a tool that boosts women's empowerment in emerging economies, especially in the Middle East and North Africa region
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (18 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Mohieldin, Mahmoud Could Digital Inclusion Close the Gender Economic Gap in the MENA Region?
    Keywords: Access and Connectivity ; Connectivity and Gender Equity ; Digital Divide ; Equitable Development ; Female Labor Market ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Empowerment ; Gender and Economics ; Gender and Law ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Internet Access ; Labor Markets ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Closing the gender digital divide by ensuring equal access to and benefit of the internet may reduce economic inequalities and close the gender gap in employment by providing new economic opportunities and facilitating access to market information. This paper estimates the impact of digital inclusion, measured by the Inclusive Internet Index on the female-to-male labor force participation ratio, while controlling for other economic and social factors. Using data from the World Development Indicators, the Economist Intelligence Unit database, and the World Bank's Women, Business and the Law database for 13 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region for four years (2018 to 2021), a pooled cross section dataset is constructed. The model is estimated using generalized least squares to control for heteroskedasticity. The results show that an inclusive internet environment would reduce the gender gap in the labor force. Other key drivers include the structure of the economic growth, norms, and gender roles in the society. These results are relevant for the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals agenda, mainly goals 5 and 10
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (38 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Ragui, Assaad Connecting People to Projects: A New Approach to Measuring Women's Employment in the Middle East and North Africa
    Keywords: Employment Survey Questionnaire ; Gender ; Gender and Rural Development ; Gender Informatics ; Household Enterprises ; Labor Market Panel Surveys ; Rural Development ; Rural Labor Markets ; Survey Design ; Women's Employment
    Abstract: Innovations to date in detecting women's employment have focused primarily on improving individual-level questions. This paper explores an alternative approach, using data on household enterprises and asking who participates in these activities. This research uses the latest waves of the Labor Market Panel Surveys for the Arab Republic of Egypt (2018) and Tunisia (2014). The research questions are (1) How do men's and women's employment rates change when adding enterprise-based detection questions to standard individual-level questions (2) Was the additional market employment detected with project-based approaches classified as subsistence work with individual measurement approaches (3) For which women is additional employment detected using project-based approaches The paper presents descriptive results on work based on the different approaches. It also estimates changes in state (being reclassified as working) from adding enterprise-level data. The findings show large increases in employment rates for rural women in both countries when including enterprise-based detection questions
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Anticorruption Agenda ; Governance ; Governance and Financial Sector ; Integrity Risks ; Law and Development ; Public Administration ; Public Procurement
    Abstract: The Armenia public sector accountability survey is instrumental in addressing the disparities between de jure laws and regulations and de facto practices and seeks to fill existing knowledge gaps and inform further definition and implementation of the government's anticorruption initiatives. The survey was implemented by the Corruption Prevention Commission (CPC) and the World Bank. It aimed to: (i) provide a comprehensive assessment of the patterns and determinants of integrity risks, and how they can impact productivity and performance in the public administration in Armenia; (ii) understand the perceptions of Armenian public servants regarding ongoing anticorruption initiatives, their awareness of integrity risks, and the needs for further interventions; and (iii) generate evidence, support and inform further definition of reforms and anticorruption initiatives that help address and counter weak integrity practices in the public sector in Armenia. By highlighting the disparities between de jure laws and de facto practices, particularly in terms of integrity within the public sector, this survey aimed to serve as a cornerstone for informing effective implementation in targeted interventions and bridging the gap between policy intentions and actual practices within Armenia's governance. The Armenia public sector accountability survey was aimed at public servants in selected public entities in Armenia, including central ministries and agencies, regional governments, and selected municipalities across the country. The analysis of the survey findings is anchored in the government production function conceptual framework and adjusted to explicitly take into account the drivers and consequences of corruption
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Kenya assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Kenya perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Kenya on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Kenya; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Kenya; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Kenya; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Kenya
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Conflict ; CPE ; Development Challenges ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Natural Disasters
    Abstract: This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) will assess the performance of the World Bank Group's support to Nepal in achieving its development objectives between 2014 and 2023. The evaluation will focus on the Bank Group's support to Nepal as it tackled its long-term development challenges while undertaking political and institutional reforms relating to the shift to federalism and responding to multiple shocks and disasters. This period covered by this evaluation spans the last two country strategies--the FY14-18 Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) and the FY19-23 Country Partnership Framework (CPF). The CPE will assess the adaptive relevance and coherence of the Bank Group-supported program by examining how the Bank Group has adapted its support over time in response to changing conditions and priorities. This will include an examination of the Bank Group's response to the 2015 earthquakes and the COVID-19 pandemic. The evaluation will assess the Bank Group's work in three important thematic areas--resilience to natural disasters, federalism, and jobs and private sector development--in greater depth
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; KIRIBATI ; PHP ; PHPCPI ; Vital Signs Profile
    Abstract: The assessment of Kiribati's primary health care (PHC) system, carried out by the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Kiribati under the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI), marks a unique opportunity to identify the system's strengths and gaps and to catalyze further improvements. The PHCPI tools, including the Vital Signs Profile (VSP) methodology, provide important insights into the country's PHC system and generate actionable policy recommendations for improvement
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (57 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Artuc, Erhan Trade, Outsourcing, and the Environment
    Keywords: Border Carbon Adjustment ; Carbon Policy and Trading ; Carbon Tariffs ; Carbon Tax ; CO2 Emission Leakage ; Environment ; Environment and Trade ; Environmental Policy ; International Economics and Trade ; Law and Development ; Tax Law
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of carbon taxation and border carbon adjustments in a setting where firms can choose to respond to taxation by abating or by outsourcing part of their production. For this, this paper sets up a general equilibrium trade model, calibrated with world trade and input-output data that features a discrete choice production structure, where the producers choose between outsourcing or abating emission-intensive intermediate production steps. The paper finds that border adjustments that cannot target scope 3 emissions can lead to outsourcing, and thus leakage, further down the value chain, but nevertheless induce higher abatement both in the countries that impose the border adjustment and in the ones affected by it
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (49 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als El Mekkaoui, Najat For Labor or for Divorce? Unilateral Divorce Laws and Women's Labor Outcomes
    Keywords: Demographic and Health Survey ; Divorce ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Social Policy ; Intra-Household Bargaining ; Labor and Employment Law ; Labor Markets ; Law and Development ; Mothers Labor Force Participation ; Social Protections and Labor ; Unilateral Divorce ; Women's Agency ; Women's Labor Force Participation
    Abstract: Despite substantial progress in closing the gender gap, women's labor force participation in the Middle East and North Africa remains one of the lowest globally, at a mere 18 percent. This paper investigates the effect of the introduction of unilateral divorce laws on women's labor outcomes, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey program that spans decades and a quasi-experimental difference-in-differences design in three countries: Morocco, the Arab Republic of Egypt, and Jordan. The results highlight that no-fault divorce legislation was associated with a modest increase in mothers' labor outcomes, measured by current employment, a few years after the reform. These findings are likely induced by a power shift and anticipatory effects that drive women into the labor force. However, when a longer time window is considered, 10 or more years after the reform, the study documents a negative effect of the reform on women's labor outcomes in Morocco, and a positive effect in the Arab Republic of Egypt and Jordan. These differences can be attributed to a set of countervailing effects, including social norms, labor market dynamics, and evolution of the legislation, that make the derived utility from marriage, in some cases, more attractive than that derived from employment, and vice versa. These findings partially confirm results from previous research on the relationship between no-fault divorce and women's agency and empowerment in the Middle East and North Africa region, but, at the same time, contrast with prominent perspectives on legislation that aims at reducing gender-based discrimination. Instead, they show that there might be undesired effects of legislation and provide a policy relevant discussion on that basis
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  • 43
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (59 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Robayo, Monica Reassessing Welfare Impacts of Bulgarian Fiscal Policy through a Child Poverty Perspective
    Keywords: Child Poverty ; Commitment To Equity (CEQ) Model ; Covid-19 Pandemic Impact on Child Poverty ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Incidence ; Fiscal Policy ; Living Standards ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development ; Social Spending ; Taxation
    Abstract: This paper delves into Bulgaria's persistent issue of child poverty, even amidst policy efforts at the European Union (EU) and national levels. The study updates a comprehensive fiscal incidence analysis using the Commitment to Equity (CEQ) model, considering COVID-19's impact and a child-focused perspective, and simulates child-related policy interventions' effectiveness in alleviating child poverty. Our results show that Bulgaria's fiscal system has a limited impact on the overall at-risk of poverty rate, though it shows potential in reducing poverty for lower income deciles. Bulgaria's fiscal system reduces inequality compared to other countries with similar income levels, primarily driven by the substantial influence of direct transfers, education, and health allocations. Nevertheless, the redistributive effect of direct taxes and transfers remains comparatively modest within Europe. The study emphasizes the progressive nature of Bulgaria's fiscal components, benefiting the poorest through social benefits. When applying a child lens, our results show that fiscal policy is not very effective in addressing child poverty, as it reduces it by just 0.3 percentage points. However, means-tested programs targeting families and children play a significant role in mitigating child poverty. This research also underscores that specific households in Bulgaria face heightened vulnerability and may not receive optimal support from fiscal measures, including households with three or more children and lone-parent households, especially those headed by lone females. Microsimulation results suggest that enhancing child tax deductions among low-income earners and refining the design of child benefits to improve targeting effectiveness and generosity can notably contribute to child poverty reduction. The paper offers insights into more equitable policy design in Bulgaria's pursuit of combating child poverty
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impact ; Covid-19 Impact ; Education ; Food Security ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital Accumulation and Utilization ; Inclusive Development ; Long-Term Economic Growth ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report is undertaken as a part of the Human Capital Project (HCP), a globalinitiative of the World Bank Group that aims to increase governments' awarenessof the importance of investing in people (World Bank date of publication not identifiedb). One of the maincomponents of the HCP is a cross-country metric--the Human Capital Index (HCI). The HCI estimates the amount of human capital a child born today can expect to accumulate by the age of 18, thus highlighting how current health and education outcomes shape the work productivity of the next generation. Moreover, given the cumulative nature of human capital, the HCI has clear milestones across the entire human life cycle: at birth, children need to survive; during childhood, they need to be well-nourished; at school age, they must complete all schooling and active adequate learning levels; and in adulthood, they need to stay in good health. Finally, the HCI includes a result: a score that ranges from 0 to 1. A country where an average child has virtually no risk of being stunted or dying before age five, receives high-quality education, and becomes a healthy adult, would have an HCI close to 1. Conversely, when the risk of being ill-nourished or prematurely dying is high, access to education is limited, and the quality of learning is low, the HCI would approach zero
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  • 45
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (79 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Amjad, Beenish Fiscal Policy, Poverty, and Inequality in a Constrained Environment: The Case of the West Bank and Gaza
    Keywords: Cash Transfer Program ; Commitment To Equity ; Comparative Analysis ; Fiscal Policy ; Indirect Taxes ; Inequality ; Inequality Reduction ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Tax Administration ; VAT
    Abstract: This report analyzes the distributional impacts of the main taxes and transfers on households' welfare in the West Bank and Gaza. The analysis uses the Commitment to Equity methodology, enabling comparison of the results to other countries where this framework has been applied. The report assesses the effects of government taxation, social expenditure, and indirect subsidies on poverty and inequality in the West Bank and Gaza. The results indicate that the combination of taxes and transfers modelled in the West Bank and Gaza reduces inequality by 6.5 Gini points but increases the national poverty headcount by 8.4 percentage points. These fiscal policy outcomes on poverty and inequality reduction are below average in terms of desirability compared to other lower-middle-income countries. The taxes and transfers modelled in the West Bank and Gaza achieve most inequality reduction through in-kind benefits from public basic education and public hospitals, followed by the Cash Transfer Program and the value-added tax (VAT). Their large impact on inequality reduction is explained by a combination of their progressivity and their size relative to household income. The redistributive effect of direct taxes, customs duties, and indirect subsidies is zero or close to zero. Indirect taxes represent the fiscal interventions contributing most to the increase in national poverty; customs duties followed by VAT represent the largest burden on households' incomes. Direct transfers from social protection cannot offset the impoverishment effect from indirect taxes because they have very limited coverage. Only the poorest decile is a net cash beneficiary after paying taxes and receiving cashable transfers. The rest of the deciles are net payers to the fiscal system. To decrease poverty and inequality in the West Bank and Gaza, the most significant policy recommendation to emerge from the analysis is to expand direct transfers to the second and third deciles to compensate for indirect tax burdens. Financing this reform is feasible through domestic tax mobilization or through rationalization of inefficient fuel and electricity subsidies that benefit the top income deciles most
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  • 46
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (56 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Feriga, Moustafa Amgad Moustafa Ahmed Moustafa The Impact of Climate Change on Work: Lessons for Developing Countries
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Change and Labor ; Environment ; Labor Demand ; Labor Supply ; Productivity
    Abstract: What is the impact of climate change on labor Reviewing the evidence, this paper finds five areas of potential impact. Climate change may have an immediate effect on labor demand, labor supply and time allocation, on-the-job productivity, and income and vulnerability among the self-employed. In the medium term, climate change may lead to a reallocation of labor across economic activities and across space. Impact estimates typically rely on fixed effect estimation. These estimates require care when interpreted as they typically reflect the short-term direct impact of past events and abstract from potential adaptation. The paper discusses emerging work trying to address this, analyzing the responses by firms, farms, households, and workers. Together, the existing evidence points toward six potential areas of government response. Potential labor policies include green jobs, green skills, labor-oriented adaptation, flexible work regulation, labor market integration, and social protection. The paper concludes by setting out avenues for future research in this field
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (14 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Atamanov, Aziz The Costs Come before the Benefits: Why Donors Should Invest More in Refugee Autonomy in Uganda
    Keywords: Communities and Human Settlements ; Development Assistance Need ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Displacement ; Financial Inclusion ; Human Migrations and Resettlements ; Humanitarian Aid ; International Economics and Trade ; International Migration ; Labor Market Inclusion ; Poverty Reduction ; Refugees ; Self-Reliance
    Abstract: When host countries allow refugees to earn income, two main groups benefit: refugees, who become financially autonomous, and international institutions that can reduce the humanitarian aid that would otherwise be needed to support refugees. Uganda is one of the more progressive countries when it comes to promoting the financial independence of refugees and shifting from humanitarian aid to development ways of working. This note considers how successful refugees in Uganda have been in becoming financially independent and estimates how assistance has been saved due to these efforts at economic inclusion. Using the international poverty line of USD 2.15 in 2017 purchasing power parities to proxy the costs of basic needs, the results suggest that the amount of total aid needed was reduced by almost 45 percent. They also show that many refugees live in poverty, implying that the present combination of aid and work is inadequate to assure a decent standard of living. While more assistance is needed in the short run, reductions in development assistance are feasible but require upfront investments in refugee earning capacity to realize them
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (32 pages)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Jakubowski, Maciej COVID-19, School Closures, and Student Learning Outcomes: New Global Evidence from PISA
    Keywords: Covid-19 Impact ; Education ; Educational Institutions and Facilities ; Effective Schools and Teachers ; International Student Achievement Tests ; Large-Scale International Learning Assessment ; Learning Loss ; Programme For International Student Assessment (PISA) ; Public Examination System ; School Closure Impact ; Student Achievement
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in significant disruption in schooling worldwide. This paper uses global test score data to estimate learning losses. It models the effect of school closures on achievement by predicting the deviation of the most recent results from a linear trend using data from all rounds of the Programme for International Student Assessment. Scores declined by an average of 14 percent of a standard deviation, roughly equal to seven months of learning. Losses were greater for students in schools that faced relatively longer closures, boys, immigrants, and disadvantaged students. Educational losses may translate into significant national income losses over time
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  • 49
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Governance ; Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; PHC ; Primary Health Care Performance ; Vital Signs Profile
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the Vital Signs Profile (VSP) assessment conducted by the World Bank and the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) in collaboration with Fiji's Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MHMS). The VSP provides an opportunity to assess the state of the primary health care (PHC) system in Fiji, highlighting areas of strength and challenges through the lens of the PHCPI framework. The framework organizes various domains and subdomains of primary health care using a logic model approach that encompasses the traditional inputs and outputs of PHC systems and emphasizes the capacity and processes of PHC service delivery and performance. Notably, while PHCPI recognizes the role of social determinants of health and intersectoral health promotion and prevention efforts as important factors influencing population health, the VSP is primarily focused on aspects of health service delivery. Fiji is one of four Pacific countries - alongside Kiribati, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Solomon Islands that have, with support of the World Bank, used PHCPI tools to take stock of current performance, safeguard what works well, and lay out a vision for areas requiring improvement
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Accreditation Policies ; Childhood Development ; Early Childhood Development ; Early Education ; ECED ; Education ; GOI
    Abstract: Investments in early years of education and childhood development are among the most cost-effective and beneficial a country can make to tackle learning poverty, promote healthy child development, and enhance shared prosperity. Over the past two decades, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) has scaled up its commitment to early childhood education and development (ECED) through various educational reforms, policies, programs, and financial investments. With the expansion of Indonesia's ECED system, the GoI has committed to improving its quality since the early 2000s. As a key mechanism to raise the quality of ECED services, the GoI actively encourages PAUD centers to become accredited. An analysis of factors that influence whether and how PAUD centers participate in the accreditation system is helpful to inform continuous quality improvement of Indonesia's ECED services. The World Bank is providing the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology (MoECRT) technical assistance and advice to improve Indonesia's ECED system. Supported by the Learning for Human Capital Development Programmatic Advisory Services and Analytics (PASA), this study was conducted to inform further improvements to Indonesia's ECED accreditation system. This report presents the findings from the abovementioned ECED accreditation system assessment and is organized in four main sections after an introduction. Section I describes the study's background and the country context, with emphasis on the ECED system and its quality assurance mechanisms. Section II details the methodology used. Section III presents a summary of the survey results. Section IV discusses the implications of the findings and outlines recommendations to inform accreditation policies and programs
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  • 51
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports