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  • 2005-2009  (713)
  • [Washington, D.C] : World Bank  (713)
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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4816
    Parallel Title: Ravallion, Martin The developing world's bulging (but vulnerable) "middle class
    Keywords: Middle class ; Middle class
    Abstract: "The "developing world's middle class" is defined here as those who are not poor when judged by the median poverty line of developing countries, but are still poor by US standards. The "Western middle class" is defined as those who are not poor by US standards. Although barely 80 million people in the developing world entered the Western middle class over 1990-2002, economic growth and distributional shifts allowed an extra 1.2 billion people to join the developing world's middle class. Four-fifths came from Asia, and half from China. Most of the new entrants remained fairly close to poverty, with incomes now bunched up just above
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4819
    Parallel Title: Mitra, Pradeep Convergence in institutions and market outcomes
    Keywords: Economics ; Economics
    Abstract: "This paper uses firm-level data from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Surveys to study the process of convergence of transition countries with developed market economies. The study focuses on competition and market structure, finance and the structure of lending to firms, and how firms respond to the economic environment by restructuring. The authors find substantial evidence of convergence in a number of dimensions. The pattern of growth at the country, sector, and firm levels shows rapid growth of the new private sector and of the micro and small-firm sectors, with the size distribution of firms moving toward the pattern observed in the surveys of developed market economies. In finance, increasing reliance on retained earnings in transition countries reflects a maturation of the sector as new firms come to rely less on informal and family sources of finance. The authors find evidence of an inverse-U pattern, with the peak of restructuring activity taking place in 2002, the middle of the period analyzed. Throughout, the regional patterns suggest greater convergence in the transition countries that joined the European Union in 2004 than in the other, lower-income transition economies. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4823
    Parallel Title: Kenny, Charles Why do people die in earthquakes?
    Keywords: Earthquakes ; Earthquakes
    Abstract: "Every year, around 60,000 people die worldwide in natural disasters. The majority of the deaths are caused by building collapse in earthquakes, and the great majority occurs in the developing world. This is despite the fact that engineering solutions exist that can almost completely eliminate the risk of such deaths. Why is this? The engineering solutions are both expensive and technically demanding, so that the benefit-cost ratio of such solutions is often unfavorable compared with other interventions designed to save lives in developing countries. Nonetheless, a range of public disaster risk-reduction interventions (including construction activities) are highly cost effective. The fact that such interventions often remain unimplemented or ineffectively executed points to a role for issues of political economy. Building regulations in developing countries appear to have limited impact in many cases, perhaps because of limited capacity and the impact of corruption. Public construction is often of low quality - perhaps for similar reasons. This suggests approaches that emphasize simple and limited disaster risk regulation covering only the most at-risk structures and that (preferably) can be monitored by non-experts. It also suggests a range of transparency and oversight mechanisms for public construction projects. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4827
    Parallel Title: Docquier, Frédéric Measuring skilled migration rates
    Keywords: Brain drain States, Small ; Migration, Internal ; States, Small Emigration and immigration ; Brain drain States, Small ; Migration, Internal ; States, Small Emigration and immigration
    Abstract: "Recent changes in information and communication technologies have contributed to a dramatic increase in the degree of integration and interdependency of countries, markets, and people. Against this background, one aspect of particular concern for small states is the international movement of people. This paper focuses on this particularly important aspect of globalization, with emphasis on the movement of skilled people and its relationship with country size. In addition to overall skilled migration, it provides evidence that controls for migration age in order to distinguish between those educated in the home country and those educated abroad. The authors discuss the growth implications of the brain drain from small countries and policies that may help control it. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4806
    Parallel Title: Byrd, William A Public finance, security, and development
    Keywords: Economic development ; Finance, Public ; Internal security ; Economic development ; Finance, Public ; Internal security
    Abstract: "Security is increasingly viewed as a key condition for economic growth and development. The authors argue that the work and impact of all development partners would be enhanced if the multiple linkages between public finance, security, and development were explicitly taken into account. At the extreme, in some cases better public finance management could have more impact on security than would more troops. The paper first outlines three core linkages between security and development-through the investment climate, human and social capital, and institutions. The authors then propose three complementary tools to analyze the security sector from the point of view of public finance management, service delivery, and governance. This conceptual framework is applied to the case of Afghanistan. The paper closes by drawing some conclusions about possible entry points for dialogue in this difficult area. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4810
    Parallel Title: Münich, Daniel Unemployment and worker-firm matching
    Keywords: Unemployment ; Unemployment ; Unemployment ; Unemployment
    Abstract: "The paper tests three hypotheses about the causes of unemployment in the Central-East European transition economies and in a benchmark market economy (Western part of Germany). The first hypothesis (H1) is that unemployment is caused by inefficient matching. Hypothesis 2 (H2) is that unemployment is caused by low demand. Hypothesis 3 (H3) is that restructuring is at work. Our estimates suggest that the west and east German parts of Germany, Czech Republic and Slovakia are consistent with H2 and H3. Hungary provides limited support to all three hypotheses. Poland is consistent with H1. The economies in question hence contain one broad group of countries and one or two special cases. The group comprises the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic and (possibly) East Germany. These countries resemble West Germany in that they display increasing returns to scale in matching and unemployment appears to be driven by restructuring and low demand. The East German case is complex because of its major active labor market policies and a negative trend in efficiency in matching. In some sense, East Germany resembles more Poland, which in addition to restructuring and low demand for labor appears to suffer from a structural mismatch reflected in relatively low returns to scale in matching. Finally, our data provide evidence that goes counter to one of the main predictions of the theories of transition, namely that the turnover (inflow) rate in the transition countries would rise dramatically at the start of the transition, be temporarily very high and gradually decline and approach the level observed in otherwise similar market economies such as West Germany. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4814
    Parallel Title: Chen, Dandan Vocational schooling, labor market outcomes, and college entry
    Keywords: Education, Secondary ; Vocational education ; Education, Secondary ; Vocational education
    Abstract: "This paper examines the differentiated outcomes of vocational and general secondary academic education, particularly in terms of employment opportunities, labor market earnings, and access to tertiary education in Indonesia. With data from a panel of two waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey in 1997 and 2000, the paper tracks a cohort of high school students in 1997 to examine their schooling and employment status in 2000. The findings demonstrate that: (1) attendance at vocational secondary schools results in neither market advantage nor disadvantage in terms of employment opportunities and/or earnings premium; (2) attendance at vocational schools leads to significantly lower academic achievement as measured by national test scores; and (3) There is no stigma attached to attendance at vocational schools that results in a disadvantage in access to tertiary education; rather, it is the lower academic achievement associated with attendance at vocational school that lowers the likelihood of entering college. The empirical approach of this paper addresses two limitations of the existing literature in this area. First, it takes into account the observation censoring issue due to college entry when evaluating labor market outcomes of secondary school graduates. Second, using an instrumental variable approach, the paper also treats endogeneity of household choice of vocational versus academic track of secondary education, teasing out the net effect of secondary school choice on labor market and schooling outcomes. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4818
    Parallel Title: Vollmer, Sebastian Political institutions and human development
    Keywords: Democracy Economic aspects ; Economic development ; Democracy Economic aspects ; Economic development
    Abstract: "Institutions are a major field of interest in the study of development processes. The authors contribute to this discussion concentrating our research on political institutions and their effect on the non-income dimensions of human development. First, they elaborate a theoretical argument why and under what conditions democracies compared to autocratic political systems might perform better with regards to the provision of public goods. Due to higher redistributive concerns matched to the needs of the population democracies should show a higher level of human development. In the following they analyze whether our theoretical expectations are supported by empirical facts. The authors perform a static panel analysis over the period of 1970 to 2003. The model confirms that living in a democratic system positively affects human development measured by life expectancy and literacy rates even controlling for GDP. By analyzing interaction effects they find that the performance of democracy is rather independent of the circumstances. However, democracy leads to more redistribution in favor of health provision in more unequal societies. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4855
    Parallel Title: Estache, Antonio Bidders' entry and auctioneer's rejection
    Abstract: "Limited competition has been a serious concern in infrastructure procurement. Importantly, however, there are normally a number of potential bidders initially showing interest in proposed projects. This paper focuses on tackling the question why these initially interested bidders fade out. An empirical problem is that no bids of fading-out firms are observable. They could decide not to enter the process at the beginning of the tendering or may be technically disqualified at any point in the selection process. This paper applies the double selection model to procurement data from road development projects in developing countries and examines why competition ends up restricted. It shows that bidders are self-selective and auctioneers also tend to limit participation depending on the size of contracts. Therefore, limited competition would likely lead to high infrastructure procurement costs. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 3/5/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4842
    Parallel Title: Torre, Augusto de la Regulatory reform
    Keywords: Subprime mortgage loans ; Subprime mortgage loans
    Abstract: "The Subprime crisis largely resulted from failures to internalize systemic risk evenly across financial intermediaries and recognize the implications of Knightian uncertainty and mood swings. A successful reform of prudential regulation will need to integrate more harmoniously the three paradigms of moral hazard, externalities, and uncertainty. This is a tall order because each paradigm leads to different and often inconsistent regulatory implications. Moreover, efforts to address the central problem under one paradigm can make the problems under the others worse. To avoid regulatory arbitrage and ensure that externalities are uniformly internalized, all prudentially regulated intermediaries should be subjected to the same capital adequacy requirements, and unregulated intermediaries should be financed only by regulated intermediaries. Reflecting the importance of uncertainty, the new regulatory architecture will also need to rely less on markets and more on "holistic" supervision, and incorporate countercyclical norms that can be adjusted in light of changing circumstances. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 3/17/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4846
    Parallel Title: Das Gupta, Monica Is there an incipient turnaround in Asia's "missing girls" phenomenon ?
    Keywords: Sex of children, Parental preferences for ; Sex ratio ; Sex of children, Parental preferences for ; Sex ratio
    Abstract: "The apparently inexorable rise in the proportion of "missing girls" in much of East and South Asia has attracted much attention amongst researchers and policy-makers. An encouraging trend was suggested by the case of South Korea, where child sex ratios were the highest in Asia but peaked in the mid-1990s and normalized thereafter. Using census data, we examine whether similar trends have begun to manifest themselves in the two large populous countries of this region, China and India. The data indicate that child sex ratios are peaking in these countries, and in many sub-national regions are beginning to trend towards less masculinization. This suggests that, with continuing vigorous efforts to reduce son preference, the "missing girls" phenomenon could be addressed in Asia. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4886
    Parallel Title: Deininger, Klaus W Longer-term economic impacts of self-help groups in India
    Keywords: Self-help groups ; Self-help groups
    Abstract: "Despite the popularity and unique nature of women's self-help groups in India, evidence of their economic impacts is scant. Based on two rounds of a 2,400 household panel, the authors use double differences, propensity score matching, and pipeline comparison to assess economic impacts of longer (2.5-3 years) exposure of a program that promoted and strengthened self-help programs in Andhra Pradesh in India. The analysis finds that longer program exposure has positive impacts on consumption, nutritional intake, and asset accumulation. Investigating heterogeneity of the impacts suggests that even the poorest households were able to benefit from the program. Furthermore, overall benefits would exceed program cost by a significant margin even under conservative assumptions. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4857
    Parallel Title: Robinson, Jonathan Transactional sex as a response to risk in Western Kenya
    Keywords: AIDS (Disease) ; Prostitutes Health and hygiene ; Prostitution Health aspects ; AIDS (Disease) ; Prostitutes Health and hygiene ; Prostitution Health aspects
    Abstract: "Formal and informal commercial sex work is a way of life for many poor women in developing countries. Though sex workers have long been identified as crucial in affecting the spread of HIV/AIDS, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, the nature of sex-for-money transactions remains poorly understood. Using a unique panel dataset constructed from 192 self-reported sex worker diaries which include detailed information on sexual behavior, labor supply, and health shocks, the authors find that sex workers adjust their supply of risky, better compensated sex to cope with unexpected health shocks, exposing themselves to increased risk of HIV infection. In particular, women are 3.1 percent more likely to see a client, 21.2 percent more likely to have anal sex, and 19.1 percent more likely to have unprotected sex on days in which a household member falls ill. Women also increase their supply of risky sex on days after missing work due to symptoms from a sexually transmitted infection. Given that HIV prevalence has been estimated at 9.8 percent in this part of Kenya, these behavioral responses entail significant health risks for sex workers and their partners, and suggest that sex workers are unable to cope with risk through other formal or informal consumption smoothing mechanisms. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4891
    Parallel Title: Neagu, Ileana Cristina Career placement of skilled migrants in the U.S. labor market
    Keywords: Foreign workers ; Skilled labor ; Foreign workers ; Skilled labor
    Abstract: "The initial occupational placements of male immigrants in the U.S. labor market vary significantly by country of origin even when education and other factors are taken into account. Does the heterogeneity persist over time? Using data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 U.S. Censuses, this study finds that the performance of migrants from countries with lower initial occupational placement levels improves at a higher rate compared with that of migrants originating from countries with higher initial levels. Nevertheless, the magnitude of convergence suggests full catch-up is unlikely. Country specific attributes are found to have less direct impact on the rate of assimilation than on the initial performance. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4865
    Parallel Title: Lloyd, P. J Global distortions to agricultural markets
    Keywords: Agricultural prices ; Agriculture Economic aspects ; Agriculture and state ; Agricultural prices ; Agriculture Economic aspects ; Agriculture and state
    Abstract: "Despite recent reforms, world agricultural markets remain highly distorted by government policies. Traditional indicators of those price distortions can be poor guides to the policies' economic effects. Recent theoretical literature provides indicators of trade and welfare-reducing effects of price and trade policies which this paper builds on to develop more-satisfactory indexes. The authors exploit a new Agricultural Distortion database to generate estimates of them for developing and high-income countries over the past half century. These better approximations of the trade and welfare effects of sector policies are generated without a formal model of global markets or even price elasticity estimates. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4869
    Parallel Title: Kinda, Tidiane Firms' productive performance and the investment climate in developing economies
    Keywords: Industrial productivity ; Investments ; Industrial productivity ; Investments
    Abstract: "Drawing on the World Bank Investment Climate Assessment surveys, this paper investigates the relationship between firm-level technical efficiency and the investment climate for 22 developing economies and eight manufacturing industries. The authors first propose three measures of firms' productive performance: labor productivity, total factor productivity, and technical efficiency. They show that, on average, enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa have performed poorly compared with other countries in the sample. The exception is Morocco, whose various measures of firm-level productivity rank close to the ones of the most productive economies. The analysis also reveals that the competitiveness of countries in the region has been handicapped by high unit labor cost, compared with main competitors like China and India. The empirical results show then? that the investment climate matters for firms' productive performance. This is true (depending on the industry) for the quality of various infrastructure, the experience and education level of the labor force, the cost of and access to financing, as well as different dimensions of the government-business relation. The analysis reveals that some industries, more exposed to international competition, are more sensitive to investment climate deficiencies. For some industries, this is also true for small and medium domestic enterprises that do not have the possibility to influence their investment climate or choose their location. These findings bear clear policy implications by showing that increasing firms' size and improving the investment climate (in particular of small and medium firms and industries more exposed to international competition) could constitute a powerful means of industrial development and competitiveness, in the Middle East and North Africa region in particular. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 3/25/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4815
    Parallel Title: Zaidi, Salman Main drivers of income inequality in Central European and Baltic countries
    Keywords: Income distribution ; Income distribution ; Income distribution ; Income distribution
    Abstract: "Present levels of income inequality in Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia remain considerably higher than their pre-transition levels, although the relative pace of change over time has varied quite a bit across countries. Using data from the 2006 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions, this paper finds that prevailing levels of income inequality in these countries continue to be low by international standards, and that this is in large part due to the very high redistributive impact of direct taxes and public transfers. In addition to the instrumental role of tax and transfer policies in redistributing income, the paper highlights the important role played by differences in education levels and labor market participation rates in explaining observed inequalities across people and across different regions (although not in explaining observed differences across countries). The paper includes an analysis of key factors that help explain observed variation across countries in the level of public support for redistribution, including peoples' economic background and relative success in life, whether they perceive poverty to be associated with factors within or outside the control of those it afflicts (for example, laziness/lack of willpower vs. injustice in society). "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4820
    Parallel Title: Kuegler, Alice A curse of comparison?
    Keywords: Income ; Income
    Abstract: "This paper proposes that individuals care about the relative income of proximate reference groups. Making use of self-reported life satisfaction as a proxy for unobservable utility, the relative income of siblings is tested for relevance as a reference point for new sample data from Venezuela. Having greater perceived income than one's siblings is found to be positively linked to individual life satisfaction. This evidence supplements the scarce economic research on reference groups, supporting the hypothesis that individuals with proximate characteristics and resembling opportunities in life serve as points of comparison. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4939
    Parallel Title: Foa, Roberto Social and governance dimensions of climate change
    Keywords: Climatic changes ; Natural disasters ; Climatic changes ; Natural disasters
    Abstract: "This paper addresses two vital concerns in the debate on adaptation to climate change. First, how can countries prepare to manage the impact of climate-change induced natural disasters? Second, how can countries ensure that they have the governmental institutions required to manage the phenomenal challenge of adaptation to climate change? A range of economic and institutional measures are tested for their potential effects on natural disaster resilience and the quality of environmental governance. The findings suggest an important role is played by social and political institutions in determining the ability of countries to adapt to climate change and respond to natural disasters, in particular in the degree to which countries have succeeded in gender empowerment and the development of a robust civil society and nonprofit sector. As the climate change challenge moves from that of "proving the facts" to that of "implementing change," the authors suggest that international policymakers, donors, and activists must increasingly focus on building domestic policy environments that are conducive to the delivery of more effective environmental legislation, for example through implementation of gender quotas and provision of support to civil society groups. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4836
    Parallel Title: Barrera Osorio, Felipe The use and misuse of computers in education
    Keywords: Computer-assisted instruction ; Computer-assisted instruction
    Abstract: "This paper presents the evaluation of the program Computers for Education. The program aims to integrate computers, donated by the private sector, into the teaching of language in public schools. The authors conduct a two-year randomized evaluation of the program using a sample of 97 schools and 5,201 children. Overall, the program seems to have had little effect on students' test scores and other outcomes. These results are consistent across grade levels, subjects, and gender. The main reason for these results seems to be the failure to incorporate the computers into the educational process. Although the program increased the number of computers in the treatment schools and provided training to the teachers on how to use the computers in their classrooms, surveys of both teachers and students suggest that teachers did not incorporate the computers into their curriculum. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4840
    Parallel Title: Lederman, Daniel The business of product innovation
    Keywords: New products ; Technological innovations ; New products ; Technological innovations
    Abstract: "It is so widely recognized that innovation is a key driver of economic growth that it is cliche to say so. This article studies product innovation by firms with data from 68 countries, covering more than 25,000 firms in eight manufacturing sectors. The author assesses the predictions of inter-disciplinary research on innovation by firms. The econometric evidence suggests that globalization and local knowledge increase the likelihood that firms will introduce new products. By contrast, domestic regulatory impediments to competition are not robustly correlated with product innovation. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4844
    Parallel Title: Ravallion, Martin Weakly relative poverty
    Keywords: Poverty ; Poverty
    Abstract: "Prevailing measures of relative poverty put an implausibly high weight on relative deprivation, such that measured poverty does not fall when all incomes grow at the same rate. This stems from the (implicit) assumption in past measures that very poor people incur a negligible cost of social inclusion. That assumption is inconsistent with evidence on the social roles of certain private expenditures in poor settings and with data on national poverty lines. The authors propose a new schedule of "weakly relative" lines that relax this assumption and estimate the implied poverty measures for 116 developing countries. The authors find that there is more relative poverty than past estimates have suggested. In 2005, one half of the population of the developing world lived in relative poverty, half of whom were absolutely poor. The total number of relatively poor rose over 1981-2005, despite falling numbers of absolutely poor. With sustained economic growth, the incidence of relative poverty becomes less responsive to further growth. Slower progress against relative poverty can thus be seen as the "other side of the coin" to success against absolute poverty. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4929
    Parallel Title: Keefer, Philip When do legislators pass on "pork"?
    Keywords: Economic development projects Finance ; India ; Economic development projects Finance ; India
    Abstract: "The authors examine a unique public spending program that is proliferating across developing countries, the constituency development fund, to investigate when legislators exert more effort on behalf of their constituents. Using data from India, they find that legislator effort is significantly lower in constituencies where voters are more attached to political parties. They are also lower in constituencies that are reserved for members of socially disadvantaged groups (lower castes), specifically in those reserved constituencies that are candidate strongholds. This result is robust to controls for alternate explanations and implies that legislators pass on pork when voters are more attached to political parties or influenced by identity issues. These findings have implications for the evaluation of constituency development funds. They also provide a new answer to a central issue in political economy, the conditions under which legislators seek to "bring home the pork" to constituents, that attaches great importance to the role of political parties. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4937
    Parallel Title: Klapper, Leora The impact of the business environment on the business creation process
    Keywords: Business enterprises Registration and transfer ; Entrepreneurship ; Business enterprises Registration and transfer ; Entrepreneurship
    Abstract: "New data from the 2008 World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey indicates a very strong and statistically significant relationship between entrepreneurship and a better business environment. Data for 100 countries on the number of total and newly registered corporations over an eight-year period (2000-2007) were collected directly from registrars of companies around the world. Data were also collected on the functioning and structure of business registries. Empirical evidence suggests that greater ease in starting a business and better governance are associated with increased entrepreneurial activity. After controlling for economic development (gross domestic product per capita), higher entrepreneurial activity is significantly associated with cheaper, more efficient business registration procedures and better governance. Although the degree of progress in the modernization of business registries varies greatly, countries usually have a common goal to evolve from a paper-based business registry to a one-stop, automated, web-enabled registry capable of delivering products and services online via transactions involving authenticated users and documents. Tests show that business registry modernization (often a component of broader private sector reforms) has a positive impact not only on the ease of creating a business, but also on new business registration. Overall, the data show that a quick, efficient, and cost-effective business registration process is critical for fostering formal sector entrepreneurship. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4868
    Parallel Title: Van Kooten, G. C Wind power development
    Keywords: Wind power ; Wind power
    Abstract: "This study reviews the prospects of wind power at the global level. Existing studies indicate that the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 1 percent of the global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 40 percent annual growth in wind generating capacity over the past 25 years. More than 98 percent of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. It has been estimated that wind power could supply 7 to 34 percent of global electricity needs by 2050. However, wind power faces a large number of technical, economic, financial, institutional, market, and other barriers. To overcome these barriers, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides these policies, climate change mitigation initiatives resulting from the Kyoto Protocol (e.g., CO2-emission reduction targets in developed countries and the Clean Development Mechanism in developing countries) have played a significant role in promoting wind power. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 3/19/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4872
    Parallel Title: Raddatz, Claudio E Multilateral debt relief through the eyes of financial markets
    Keywords: Debt relief ; Debt relief
    Abstract: "The economic benefits of debt relief for recipient countries have been the subject of arduous debate, at least partly motivated by the difficulty of identifying the causal effect of debt relief on economic performance-given that performance itself may drive the decision to grant relief. This paper conducts an event study to assess the economic consequences of multilateral debt relief for recipient countries that is robust to these reverse causality issues. It estimates the response of the stock prices of South African multinationals with subsidiaries in those countries to the announcement of debt relief initiatives, and shows that stock prices exhibit a significant increase above those of other firms, especially around the launching of the recent Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative. The improvement in financial markets' assessment of the value of these multinationals is consistent with lower expected levels of future taxation in the recipient countries. Overall, the results are consistent with the "debt overhang" argument for debt relief. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4906
    Parallel Title: Lin, Justin Yifu Development strategy, viability, and economic distortions in developing countries
    Keywords: Economics ; Government holding companies ; Economics ; Government holding companies
    Abstract: "This paper presents a three-sector static model to explore the rationale for a series of institutional distortions in developing countries. The authors argue that, after World War II, motivated by a belief in the development of state-of-the-art industries as a means for nation building, the majority of developing country governments attempted to accelerate the growth of advanced capital-intensive industries. However, since developing countries are relatively rich in labor or natural resource endowments but not in capital endowment, advanced capital-intensive industries were not adapted to the endowment structures of these developing countries at the time. Enterprises in those industries were non-viable in open, competitive markets and could not survive without government subsidization or protection. The model shows that, in order to mobilize resources into the capital-intensive, advanced sectors, it is necessary for governments to use distortionary policies such as taxes and subsidies, distortions of factor prices, directive allocation of resources, and nationalization of enterprises. Such distortions enable developing countries to set up advanced, capital-intensive industries in the early stage of their development. However, they also tend to suppress incentives, misallocate resources, and make the economy inefficient. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 28
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4910
    Parallel Title: Yamauchi, Futoshi Natural disasters, self-insurance and human capital investment
    Keywords: Human capital ; Natural disasters ; Human capital ; Natural disasters
    Abstract: "This paper examines the impacts of disasters on dynamic human capital production using panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi. The empirical results show that the accumulation of biological human capital prior to disasters helps children maintain investments in the post-disaster period. Biological human capital formed in early childhood (long-term nutritional status) plays a role of insurance with resilience to disasters by protecting schooling investment and outcomes, although disasters have negative impacts on investment. In Bangladesh, children with more biological human capital are less affected by the adverse effects of floods, and the rate of investment increases with the initial human capital stock in the post-disaster recovery process. In Ethiopia and Malawi, where droughts are rather frequent, exposure to highly frequent droughts in some cases reduces schooling investment but the negative impacts are larger among children embodying less biological human capital. Asset holdings prior to the disasters, especially the household's stock of intellectual human capital, also helps maintain schooling investments at least to the same degree as the stock of human capital accumulated in children prior to the disasters. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4934
    Parallel Title: De Mel, Suresh Innovative firms or innovative owners?
    Keywords: Small business ; Technological innovations ; Small business ; Technological innovations
    Abstract: "Innovation is key to technology adoption and creation, and to explaining the vast differences in productivity across and within countries. Despite the central role of the entrepreneur in the innovation process, data limitations have restricted standard analysis of the determinants of innovation to consideration of the role of firm characteristics. The authors develop a model of innovation that incorporates the role of both owner and firm characteristics, and use this to determine how product, process, marketing, and organizational innovations should vary with firm size and competition. They then use a new, large, representative survey from Sri Lanka to test this model and to examine whether and how owner characteristics matter for innovation. The survey also allows analysis of the incidence of innovation in micro and small firms, which have traditionally been overlooked in the study of innovation, despite these firms comprising the majority of firms in developing countries. The analysis finds that more than one-quarter of the microenterprises are engaging in innovation, with marketing innovations the most common. As predicted by the model, firm size has a stronger positive effect, and competition a stronger negative effect, on process and organizational innovations than on product innovations. Owner ability, personality traits, and ethnicity have a significant and substantial impact on the likelihood of a firm innovating, confirming the importance of the entrepreneur in the innovation process. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 30
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4938
    Parallel Title: MacCracken, Michael C Beyond mitigation
    Keywords: Climatic changes Risk management ; Environmental geotechnology ; Greenhouse gases ; Climatic changes Risk management ; Environmental geotechnology ; Greenhouse gases
    Abstract: "Global climate change is occurring at an accelerating pace, and the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are forcing climate change continue to increase. Given the present pace of international actions, it seems unlikely that atmospheric composition can be stabilized at a level that will avoid "dangerous anthropogenic interference" with the climate system, as called for in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Complicating the situation, as GHG emissions are reduced, reductions in the offsetting cooling influence of sulfate aerosols will create an additional warming influence, making an early transition to climate stabilization difficult. With significant reductions in emissions (mitigation) likely to take decades, and with the impacts of projected climate change-even with proactive adaptation-likely to be quite severe over the coming decades, additional actions to offset global warming and other impacts have been proposed as important complementary measures. Although a number of possible geoengineering approaches have been proposed, each has costs and side effects that must be balanced against the expected benefits of reduced climate impacts. However, substantial new research is needed before comparison of the relative benefits and risks of intervening is possible. A first step in determining whether geoengineering is likely to be a useful option is the initiation of research on four interventions to limit the increasing serious impacts: limiting ocean acidification by increasing the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and upper ocean; limiting the increasing intensity of tropical cyclones; limiting the warming of the Arctic and associated sea level rise; and sustaining or enhancing the existing sulfate cooling influence. In addition, in depth consideration is needed regarding the governance structure for an international geoengineering decision-making framework in the event that geoengineering becomes essential. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4808
    Parallel Title: Gorodnichenko, Yuriy Globalization and innovation in emerging markets
    Keywords: Globalization ; Technological innovations ; Globalization ; Technological innovations
    Abstract: "Globalization brings opportunities and pressures for domestic firms in emerging markets to innovate and improve their competitive position. Using data on firms in 27 transition economies, the authors test for the effects of globalization through the impact of increased competition and foreign direct investment on domestic firms' efforts to innovate (raise their capability) by upgrading their technology, improving the quality of their product or service, or acquiring certification. They find that competition has a negative effect on innovation, especially for firms further from the efficiency frontier, and we do not find support for an inverted U effect of competition on innovation. The authors show that the supply chain of multinational enterprises and international trade are important channels for domestic firms' innovation. They detect no evidence that firms in a more pro-business environment are more likely to display a positive or inverted U relationship between competition and innovation, or that they are more sensitive to foreign presence. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 32
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4899
    Parallel Title: Barbone, Luca The foreign-born population in the European Union and its contribution to national tax and benefit systems
    Keywords: Foreign workers ; Immigrants ; Foreign workers ; Immigrants
    Abstract: "Despite the purported surge in internal migration following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, data from the 2006 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions show that internal migrants are a relatively small share of the European Union's population. Depending on the exact definition used, only about 1 to 2 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries (members prior to the 2004 enlargement, not including Germany and Luxembourg) were born in other European Union countries, while the corresponding share for European Union-4 countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia) is even lower. By contrast, about 6 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries was born outside the European Union. On examining the demographic and socio-economic background of the migrant population (both from within as well as outside the European Union), this paper finds that migrants tend to include a concentration of both low as well as highly educated workers. Both sets of migrants uniformly contribute to raising the working-age population of receiving countries. Using data on average incomes and taxes paid and benefits received by migrant and non-migrant households, the authors find no evidence to support the contention that migrant workers contribute much less in taxes than the native-born population, or consume significantly higher benefits. On the contrary, our calculations suggest that migrant workers make a net contribution of approximately 42 billion euros to the national tax and benefit systems of European Union-13 countries. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4904
    Parallel Title: Beegle, Kathleen Frame-of-reference bias in subjective welfare regressions
    Keywords: Household surveys ; Household surveys
    Abstract: "Past research has found that subjective questions about an individuals' economic status do not correspond closely to measures of economic welfare based on household income or consumption. Survey respondents undoubtedly hold diverse ideas about what it means to be "poor" or "rich." Further, this heterogeneity may be correlated with other characteristics, including welfare, leading to frame-of-reference bias. To test for this bias, vignettes were added to a nationally representative survey of Tajikistan, in which survey respondents rank the economic status of the theoretical vignette households, as well as their own. The vignette rankings are used to reveal the respondent's own scale. The findings indicate that respondents hold diverse scales in assessing their welfare, but that there is little bias in either the economic gradient of subjective welfare or most other coefficients on covariates of interest. These results provide a firmer foundation for standard survey methods and regression specifications for subjective welfare data. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4915
    Parallel Title: Kessides, Ioannis Nicolaos Toward defining and measuring the affordability of public utility services
    Keywords: Public utilities ; Public utilities
    Abstract: "This paper reviews the progress made in the literature toward defining and measuring the affordability of utilities. It highlights the relative merits of alternate affordability metrics; the practical challenges to their operationalization, including the underlying data requirements; and their implications for the design, evaluation, and implementation of appropriate affordability programs. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4919
    Parallel Title: Bell, Clive AIDS and dualism
    Keywords: AIDS (Disease) Economic aspects ; AIDS (Disease) Economic aspects
    Abstract: "An AIDS epidemic threatens Ethiopia with a long wave of premature adult mortality, and thus with an enduring setback to capital formation and economic growth. The authors develop a two-sector model with three overlapping generations and intersectorally mobile labor, in which young adults allocate resources under rational expectations. They calibrate the model to the demographic and economic data, and perform simulations for the period ending in 2100 under alternative assumptions about mortality with and without the epidemic. Although the epidemic does not bring about a catastrophic economic collapse, which is hardly possible in view of Ethiopia's poverty and high background adult mortality, it does cause a permanent, downward displacement of the path of output per head, amounting to 10 percent in 2100. An externally funded program to combat the disease is socially very profitable. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4923
    Parallel Title: Khandker, Shahidur R Poverty and income seasonality in Bangladesh
    Keywords: Income ; Poverty ; Income ; Poverty
    Abstract: "Seasonal poverty in Bangladesh, locally known as monga, refers to seasonal deprivation of food during the pre-harvest season of Aman rice. An analysis of household income and expenditure survey data shows that average household income and consumption are much lower during monga season than in other seasons, and that seasonal income greatly influences seasonal consumption. However, lack of income and consumption smoothing is more acute in greater Rangpur, the North West region, than in other regions, causing widespread seasonal deprivation. The analysis shows that agricultural income diversification accompanied by better access to micro-credit, irrigation, education, electrification, social safety net programs, and dynamic labor markets has helped reduce seasonality in income and poverty in regions other than Rangpur in the recent past. Hence, government policies should promote income diversification through infrastructure investments and provide income transfers to the targeted poor to contain income seasonality and poverty in this impoverished part of Bangladesh. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 37
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4893
    Parallel Title: Dasgupta, Susmita Stockpiles of obsolete pesticides and cleanup priorities
    Keywords: Pesticides Risk mitigation ; Pesticides Risk mitigation
    Abstract: "Obsolete pesticides have accumulated in almost every developing country or economy in transition over the past several decades. Public health and environmental authorities are eager to reduce health threats by removing and decontaminating stockpile sites, but there are many sites, cleanup can be costly, and public resources are scarce. Under these conditions, it seems sensible to develop a methodology for prioritizing sites and treating them sequentially, as budgetary resources permit. This paper presents a methodology that develops cleanup priority indices for Tunisia. The approach integrates information on populations at risk, their proximity to stockpiles, and the relative toxic hazards of the stockpiles. The robustness of this approach is tested by varying model parameters widely and testing for stability in the rank-ordering of results. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4897
    Parallel Title: Hevia, Constantino Emerging market fluctuations
    Keywords: Business cycles ; Business cycles
    Abstract: "Aggregate fluctuations in emerging countries are quantitatively larger and qualitatively different in key respects from those in developed countries. Using data from Mexico and Canada, this paper decomposes these differences in terms of shocks to aggregate efficiency and shocks that distort the decisions of households about how much to invest, consume, and work in a standard model of a small open economy. The decomposition exercise suggests that most of these differences are explained by fluctuations in aggregate efficiency, distortions in labor decisions over the business cycle, and, most importantly, fluctuations in country risk. Other distortions are quantitatively less important. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4901
    Parallel Title: Available in another form Sea-level rise and storm surges
    Keywords: Global warming ; Natural disasters ; Storm surges ; Global warming ; Natural disasters ; Storm surges
    Abstract: "An increase in sea surface temperature is evident at all latitudes and in all oceans. The current understanding is that ocean warming plays a major role in intensified cyclone activity and heightened storm surges. The vulnerability of coastlines to intensified storm surges can be ascertained by overlaying Geographic Information System information with data on land, population density, agriculture, urban extent, major cities, wetlands, and gross domestic product for inundation zones likely to experience more intense storms and a 1 meter sea-level rise. The results show severe impacts are likely to be limited to a relatively small number of countries and a cluster of large cities at the low end of the international income distribution. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4905
    Parallel Title: Lin, Justin Yifu Industrial structure, appropriate technology and economic growth in less developed countries
    Keywords: Appropriate technology ; Technological innovations ; Appropriate technology ; Technological innovations
    Abstract: "The authors develop an endogenous growth model that combines structural change with repeated product improvement. That is, the technologies in one sector of the model become not only increasingly capital-intensive, but also progressively productive over time. Application of the basic model to less developed economies shows that the (optimal) industrial structure and the (most) appropriate technologies in less developed economies are endogenously determined by their factor endowments. A firm in a less developed country that enters a capital-intensive, advanced industry in a developed country would be nonviable owing to the relative scarcity of capital in the factor endowments of less developed countries. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4909
    Parallel Title: Yamauchi, Futoshi Risks, ex-ante actions and public assistance
    Keywords: Education ; Human capital ; Natural disasters ; Education ; Human capital ; Natural disasters
    Abstract: "This paper examines the impacts of natural disasters on schooling investments with special focus on the roles of ex-ante actions and ex-post responses using panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi. The importance of ex-ante actions depends on disaster risks and the likelihood of public assistance, which potentially creates substitution between the two actions. The findings show that higher future probabilities of disasters increase the likelihood of holding more human capital and/or livestock relative to land, and this asset-portfolio effect is significant in disaster prone areas. The empirical results support the roles of both ex-ante and ex-post responses (public assistance) in coping with disasters, but also show interesting variations across countries. In Ethiopia, public assistance plays a more important role than ex-ante actions to mitigate the impact of shocks on child schooling. In contrast, households in Malawi rely more on private ex-ante actions than public assistance. The Bangladesh example shows active roles of both ex-ante and ex-post actions. These observations are consistent with the finding on the relationship between ex-ante actions and disaster risks. The results also show that among ex-ante actions, human capital accumulated in the household prior to disasters helps mitigate the negative effects of disasters in both the short and long runs. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4913
    Parallel Title: Foster, Vivien Paying the price for unreliable power supplies
    Keywords: Electric power production ; Electric power production
    Abstract: "This paper documents the prevalence of in-house generation of electric power by firms in Sub-Saharan Africa and attempts to identify the underlying causes. The analysis is based on two data sources. The UDI World Electric Power Plants Data Base (WEPP), a global inventory of electric power generating units, provides a detailed inventory of in-house generation at the country level. The World Bank's Enterprise Survey Database captures business perceptions of the obstacles to enterprise growth for 8,483 currently operating firms in 25 African countries. Overall, so-called own generation by firms-which has been on the rise in recent years-accounts for about 6 percent of installed generation capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa (equivalent to at least 4,000 MW of installed capacity). However, this share doubles to around 12 percent in the low-income countries, the post-conflict countries, and more generally on the Western side of the continent. In a handful of countries own generation represents more than 20 percent of capacity. Rigorous empirical analysis shows that unreliable public power supplies is far from being the only or even the largest factor driving generator ownership. Firm characteristics have a major influence-in particular, the probability of owning a generator doubles in large firms relative to small ones. Our model predicts that the prevalence of own generation would remain high (at around 20 percent) even if power supplies were perfectly reliable, suggesting that other factors, such as emergency back-up and export regulations, play a critical role in the decision to own a generator. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4917
    Parallel Title: Borchert, Ingo The crisis-resilience of services trade
    Keywords: Service industries ; Service industries
    Abstract: "Much attention has focused on the impact of the current crisis on goods trade; hardly any on its impact on services trade. Using new trade data from the United States, and more aggregate data from other OECD countries, the authors show that services trade is weathering the current crisis much better than goods trade. As of February 2009, the value of US goods imports had declined year-on-year by 33 percent and the value of goods exports by 21 percent; services imports and exports each had declined by less than 7 percent. Within services, interesting patterns are emerging. Trade in goods-related transport services and crisis-related financial services has shrunk, as has expenditure on tourism abroad. But trade in a range of business, professional, and technical services is still increasing, with US exports growing even faster (at 10 percent) than US imports (at 7 percent). Developing countries like India, which are relatively specialized in business process outsourcing and information technology services, have suffered much smaller declines in total exports to the United States than countries like Brazil and China and regions like Africa, which are specialized in exports of goods, transport services, or tourism services. On the basis of new evidence from Indian services exporters, the authors suggest that services trade is buoyant relative to goods trade for two reasons: demand for a range of traded services is less cyclical, and services trade and production are less dependent on external finance. Even though few explicitly protectionist measures have so far been taken in services, the changing political climate and the widening boundaries of the state in crisis countries may introduce a national bias in firms' procurement and location choices. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4921
    Parallel Title: Wodon, Quentin May growth lead to higher deprivation despite higher satisfaction?
    Keywords: Economic development ; Income distribution ; Economic development ; Income distribution
    Abstract: "In a relative deprivation framework, unless inequality is reduced, growth is associated with both higher satisfaction and higher deprivation. This may help explain the discontent with growth despite its benefits. As is well known in the literature, knowledge of the population's mean income and Lorenz curve is all that is needed to analyze a distribution, so that this can also be used to assess the satisfaction and deprivation of each individual. Given the normalization used to derive the satisfaction and deprivation measures, satisfaction and deprivation add up to the mean income for the population as a whole as well as for each individual. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4925
    Parallel Title: Beine, Michel International migration, transfers of norms and home country fertility
    Keywords: Internationale Migration ; Soziale Norm ; Fertilität ; Bildungsverhalten ; Migranten ; Welt ; Emigration and immigration ; Fertility, Human ; Emigration and immigration ; Fertility, Human
    Abstract: "This paper examines the relationship between international migration and source country fertility. The impact of international migration on source country fertility may have a number of causes, including a transfer of destination countries' fertility norms and an incentive to acquire more education. It provides provide a rigorous test of the diffusion on of fertility norms using original and detailed data on migration. The results provide evidence of a significant transfer of fertility norms from migrants to their country of origin: a one percent decrease in the fertility norm to which migrants are exposed reduces home country fertility by about 0.3 percent for origin countries. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4856
    Parallel Title: Söderbom, Måns Market integration and structural transformation in a poor rural economy
    Keywords: Rural development ; Rural development
    Abstract: "By developing a simple theoretical model of the impact of market integration on sectoral output and employment in a poor rural setting, this paper demonstrates that trade can induce asymmetric growth. Under certain, plausible, assumptions, the non-farm sector will grow much faster than the agricultural sector when markets become integrated. Promoting market integration may thus be an effective way of encouraging diversification beyond agriculture and catalysing structural change in poor rural economies. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4860
    Parallel Title: Sinha, Nistha Long-term financial incentives and investment in daughters
    Keywords: Daughters ; Health status indicators ; Human capital ; Sex of children, Parental preferences for ; Daughters ; Health status indicators ; Human capital ; Sex of children, Parental preferences for
    Abstract: "Since the early 1990s, several states in India have introduced financial incentive programs to discourage son preference among parents and encourage investment in daughters' education and health. This study evaluates one such program in the state of Haryana, Apni Beti Apna Dhan (Our Daughter, Our Wealth). Since 1994, eligible parents in Haryana have been offered a financial incentive if they give birth to a daughter. The incentive consists of an immediate cash grant and a long-term savings bond redeemable on the daughter's 18th birthday provided she is unmarried, with additional bonuses for education. Although no specific program participation data are available, we estimate early intent-to-treat program effects on mothers (sex ratio among live children, fertility preferences) and children (mother's use of antenatal care, survival, nutritional status, immunization, schooling) using statewide household survey data on fertility and child health, and constructing proxies for household and individual program eligibility. The results based on this limited data imply that Apni Beti Apna Dhan had a positive effect on the sex ratio of living children, but inconclusive effects on mothers' preferences for having female children as well as total desired fertility. The findings also show that parents increased their investment in daughters' human capital as a result of the program. Families made greater post-natal health investments in eligible girls, with some mixed evidence of improving health status in the short and medium term. Further evidence also suggests that the early cohort of eligible school-age girls was not significantly more likely to attend school; however, conditional on first attending any school, they may be more likely to continue their education. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4864
    Parallel Title: Lloyd, P. J How do agricultural policy restrictions to global trade and welfare differ across commodities ?
    Keywords: Agricultural subsidies ; Agriculture and state ; Agricultural subsidies ; Agriculture and state
    Abstract: "For decades the world's agricultural markets have been highly distorted by national government policies, but very differently for different commodities. Hence a weighted average across countries of nominal rates of assistance or consumer tax equivalents for a product can be misleading as an indicator of the trade or welfare effects of policies affecting that product's global market. This is especially the case when some countries tax and others subsidize its production or consumption. This article develops a new set of more-satisfactory indicators for that purpose, drawing on the recent literature on trade restrictiveness indexes. It then exploits a global agricultural distortions database recently compiled by the World Bank to generate the first set of estimates of those two indicators for each of 28 key agricultural commodities from 1960 to 2004, based on a sample of 75 countries that together account for more than three-quarters of the world's production of those agricultural commodities. These reveal the considerable extent of reforms in agricultural policies of developing as well as high-income countries over the past two decades. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4941
    Parallel Title: Meadowcroft, James Climate change governance
    Keywords: Climatic changes Government policy ; Climatic changes Government policy
    Abstract: "Climate change governance poses difficult challenges for contemporary political/administrative systems. These systems evolved to handle other sorts of problems and must now be adapted to handle emerging issues of climate change mitigation and adaptation. This paper examines long-term climate governance, particularly in relation to overcoming "institutional inertia" that hampers the development of an effective and timely response. It argues that when the influence of groups that fear adverse consequences of mitigation policies is combined with scientific uncertainty, the complexity of reaching global agreements, and long time frames, the natural tendency is for governments to delay action, to seek to avoid antagonizing influential groups, and to adopt less ambitious climate programs. Conflicts of power and interest are inevitable in relation to climate change policy. To address climate change means altering the way things are being done today - especially in terms of production and consumption practices in key sectors such as energy, agriculture, and transportation. But some of the most powerful groups in society have done well from existing arrangements, and they are cautious about disturbing the status quo. Climate change governance requires governments to take an active role in bringing about shifts in interest perceptions so that stable societal majorities in favor of deploying an active mitigation and adaptation policy regime can be maintained. Measures to help effect such change include: building coalitions for change, buying off opponents, establishing new centers of economic power, creating new institutional actors, adjusting legal rights and responsibilities, and changing ideas and accepted norms and expectations. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4876
    Parallel Title: Larson, Donald F The performance of Bulgarian food markets during reform
    Keywords: Food supply ; Food supply
    Abstract: "Food policy often depends on markets and markets depend on institutions. But how good do institutions have to be before reforms can be launched? Relying on well timed surveys of agricultural prices and a joint study by the Government of Bulgaria and the World Bank on agricultural market institutions, this paper presents evidence that performance in food markets improved following significant policy reforms in Bulgaria, although public institutions remained weak. This suggests that even though strong institutions are preferred to weak ones, it can be costly and impractical to delay policy reforms until work on strengthening institutions is finished. Still, measured performance varied by place and by commodity, suggesting that markets developed at different tempos and that the distribution of benefits from improved markets was uneven. This points to the need to address the costs of adjustment as policies change. The paper introduces a new approach to measure market performance based on composite-error techniques. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4880
    Parallel Title: Available in another form Trends in household coverage of modern infrastructure services in Africa
    Keywords: Household surveys ; Infrastructure (Economics) ; Household surveys ; Infrastructure (Economics)
    Abstract: "Household surveys have long been used to estimate poverty and inequality trends, as well as trends in education and health indicators, but they have not been used to the same extent to assess trends in the access to or coverage of modern infrastructure services. In this paper, we use Demographic and Health Surveys from a larger sample of sub-Saharan African countries in order to collect comparable information across countries on coverage of piped water, flush toilets, electricity, and landline telephones over time. The results suggest that coverage rates for electricity, flush toilets have improved slightly over the last decade. Coverage of piped water has declined, at the same time as coverage of landline (as well as cellular) telephone has increased rapidly. The decline has been primarily in the urban areas while the infrastructure coverage has either increased or remained stable in rural Africa. For all four services, among the poorest households coverage remains virtually inexistent. If business as usual continues, it would take a very long time to reach universal or widely shared coverage even in countries where coverage has improved. These results point to the need to increase efforts by governments and international community to progressively increase access to modern infrastructure services in Africa. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4902
    Parallel Title: Braun, Matías Banking on politics
    Keywords: Bank directors ; Banking law ; Bank directors ; Banking law
    Abstract: "This paper presents new data from 150 countries showing that former cabinet members, central bank governors, and financial regulators are many orders of magnitude more likely than other citizens to become board members of banks. Countries where the politician-banker phenomenon is more prevalent have higher corruption and more powerful yet less accountable governments, but not better functioning financial systems. Regulation becomes more pro-banker where this happens more often. Furthermore, a higher fraction of the rents that are created accrue to bankers, former politicians are not more likely to be directors when their side is in power, and banks are more profitable without being more leveraged. Rather than supporting a public interest view, the evidence is consistent with a capture-type private interest story where, in exchange for a non-executive position at a bank in the future, politicians provide for beneficial regulation. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4914
    Parallel Title: Calderón, César Infrastructure and growth in Africa
    Keywords: Infrastructure (Economics)