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  • 2005-2009  (1,109)
  • World Bank  (1,109)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: ill , 30 cm
    DDC: 304.6/32/0962
    Keywords: Fertility ; Egypt ; Egypt ; Population ; Birth control ; Egypt
    Note: World Fertility Survey, International Statistical Institute , This project was conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey and with the collaboration of the World Bank"--T.p. verso , Includes bibliographical references
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C. : World Bank
    ISBN: 0821379240 (Sekundärausgabe) , 9780821379240 (Sekundärausgabe)
    Language: English
    Pages: Ill., col. map , 26 cm
    Edition: Online-Ausg. Online-Ressource World Bank E-Library ISBN 0821379240
    Edition: ISBN 9780821379240
    Edition: [Online-Ausg.]
    Series Statement: A World Bank country study
    DDC: 305.2350982
    Note: Online-Ausg.:
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C. : World Bank
    ISBN: 9780821382073 (Sekundärausgabe)
    Language: English
    Pages: 25 cm
    Edition: Online-Ausg. Online-Ressource World Bank E-Library ISBN 9780821382073 (pbk.)
    Edition: [Online-Ausg.]
    DDC: 305.5/630982
    Note: Online-Ausg.:
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    ISBN: 9780821377956
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (207 p)
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary
    Series Statement: Africa Development Indicators
    Abstract: Africa Development Indicators 2008/09 (ADI) provides the most detailed collection of data on Africa available in one volume. It puts together data from different sources, making it an essential tool for policy makers, researchers, and other people interested in Africa. This year’s ADI addresses the issue of youth employment. The report shows that success in addressing youth employment in will not be achieved and sustained through fragmented and isolated interventions. Instead it finds that an arching guideline for addressing the youth employment challenge is the need for an integrated strategy for rural development, growth and job creation - which covers the demand and the supply sides of the labor market and takes into account the youth mobility from rural to urban areas - combined with targeted interventions to help young people overcome disadvantages in entering and remaining in the labor market. This edition includes the Africa Development Indicators 2008/09 Single User CD-ROM and opening articles from leading economists reporting and analyzing key African economic and development issues
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington D.C : World Bank
    ISBN: 0821378406 , 0821378422 , 9780821378403 , 9780821378427
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (v. 〈1〉) , ill., tables , 28 cm
    Edition: World Bank eLibrary
    DDC: 336.3/435/091724
    Keywords: Debts, External Statistics ; Finance ; International finance ; Investments, Foreign ; Debts, External Statistics ; Finance ; International finance ; Investments, Foreign ; Debts, External ; Finance ; International finance ; Developing countries ; Developing countries ; Statistics ; Investments, Foreign
    Description / Table of Contents: v. 1: Review, analysis, and outlookv. 2: Summary and country tables.
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  • 6
    ISBN: 0821376519 , 9780821376515
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (xix, 474 p) , ill., maps , 24 cm
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary
    DDC: 362.196/9792
    Keywords: AIDS (Disease) ; AIDS (Disease) ; HIV Infections epidemiology ; HIV Infections prevention & control ; AIDS (Disease) ; HIV Infections ; HIV Infections
    Description / Table of Contents: HIV epidemiology : recent trends and lessons / David Wilson and Shilpa ChallaThe evolution of HIV/AIDS programs : recent and ongoing developments in selected areas / Albertus Voetberg -- Links between HIV/AIDS and development / Jorge Sava Abache -- Demographic and socioeconomic patterns of HIV/AIDS prevalence in Africa / Kathleen Beegle and Damien de Walque
    Description / Table of Contents: HIV/AIDS and social capital in a cross-section of countries / Antonio C. DavidFiscal space and sustainability of HIV/AIDS programs in Sub-Saharan Africa / Antonio C. David -- The financial architecture of the response to the HIV epidemic : challenges and sustainability issues / René Bonnel -- Impact of and response to HIV/AIDS : public policy challenges / Markus Haacker -- Gender and HIV/AIDS / Waafas Ofusu-Amaah, Nilufar Egamberdi, and Arunima Dhar
    Description / Table of Contents: The private sector and HIV/AIDS in Africa : recent developments and implications for policy / Frank G. Feeley III, Sydney Rosen, and Patrick J. ConnellyCommunity initiatives and HIV/AIDS / Elizabeth Ninan and Jean J. Delion -- HIV/AIDS and human resources for health / Christopher H. Herbt, Agnes Soucat, and Kate Tulenko -- Linkages between HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, tuberculosis, and nutrition / Elizabeth L. Lule ... [et al.] -- Strengthening health systems : the role of supply chains in addressing the HIV epidemic / Sangeeta Raja and James Bates -- The potential impact of HIV/AIDS interventions on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa : a simulation exercise for the World Bank / Lori Bollinger and John Stover.
    Note: Includes bibliographical references and index
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : World Bank
    ISBN: 0821380869 , 0821381776 , 9780821380864 , 9780821381779
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (x, 36 p) , ill , 26 cm
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary
    Series Statement: World Bank working paper no. 174
    DDC: 363.325/16
    Keywords: Terrorism Finance ; Terrorism Prevention ; Terrorism Finance ; Terrorism Prevention
    Description / Table of Contents: IntroductionValue card systems -- Mobile phone financial services -- Online banking and payment services -- Digital currency -- Conclusions.
    Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 34-36)
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : World Bank
    ISBN: 0821382225 , 0821382233 , 9780821382226 , 9780821382233
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (xx, 81 p) , ill , 26 cm
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary
    DDC: 339.4/20947
    Keywords: Cost and standard of living ; Cost and standard of living ; Households Economic aspects ; Households Economic aspects ; Cost and standard of living ; Cost and standard of living ; Households Economic aspects ; Households Economic aspects ; Cost and standard of living ; Cost and standard of living ; Households ; Households ; Asia, Central ; Europe, Eastern ; Asia, Central Economic conditions 21st century ; Europe, Eastern Economic conditions 21st century ; Asia, Central Economic conditions 21st century ; Europe, Eastern Economic conditions 21st century
    Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 75-77)
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  • 9
    ISBN: 0821379526 , 082137964X , 9780821379523 , 9780821379646
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (xii, 187 p) , ill., maps , 28 cm
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary
    Series Statement: Agriculture and rural development
    Keywords: Agricultural industries ; Agriculture Economic aspects ; Agricultural industries ; Agriculture Economic aspects ; Agricultural industries ; Agriculture
    Note: Includes bibliographical references and index
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    ISBN: 9780821381366
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (147 p)
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary
    Series Statement: Independent Evaluation Group Studies
    Abstract: The Annual Review of Development Effectiveness 2009 presents evidence on the World Bank’s efforts in two areas. Part I tracks the outcomes of Bank projects and country programs and the evolution of monitoring and evaluation (M&E). Part II examines the Bank’s support for environmentally sustainable development compatible with economic growth and poverty reduction. The Bank’s project performance rebounded in 2008, allaying concerns about the weakened performance in 2007. As previous ARDEs have shown, project performance has been improving gradually for 15 years according to the traditional measure -- percent of projects with satisfactory (versus unsatisfactory) outcomes. But IEG ratings of M&E quality for completed projects indicate considerable room for progress. Information to assess impacts continues to be lacking although preliminary data suggests improvements in baseline data collection. Bank support for the environment has recovered since 2002 due to new sources of concessional finance. The outcomes of environment projects have improved in recent years. A growing number of regional projects are addressing the shared use of water resources. New global partnerships are deepening the Bank’s involvement in climate change issues. But M&E remains weak: three-quarters of environment-related projects - those managed by sectors other than environment - lack reporting of environmental outcomes
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4809
    Parallel Title: Urdapilleta, Eduardo Banking in Brazil
    Keywords: Banks and banking ; Banks and banking
    Abstract: " The objective of this paper is to analyze the industry structure of banking services in Brazil in order to shed light on financial performance and its drivers at a disaggregated level. The study illustrates how differences across market segments - which tend to be averaged out in aggregate analysis - need to be taken into account when analyzing performance and designing public policy for the banking sector. In particular, retail banking is found to be less sensitive to price competition and to exhibit considerably higher returns than corporate banking. The authors identify and discuss the factors underlying revenues, costs, and risks in each market segment, and conclude with policy implications. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4811
    Parallel Title: Available in another form Effects of privatization and ownership in transition economies
    Keywords: Privatization ; Privatization
    Abstract: "The paper evaluates the effects of privatization in the post-communist economies and China. In post-communist economies privatization to foreign owners results in a rapid improvement in performance of firms, while performance effects of privatization to domestic owners are less impressive and vary across regions, coinciding with differences in policies and institutional development. In China relatively more estimates suggest that privatization to domestic owners improves the level of performance. Concentrated private ownership has a stronger positive effect on performance than dispersed ownership in the post-communist economies, but foreign joint ventures rather than wholly owned foreign firms have a positive effect in China. Worker or collective ownership does not have a negative effect. In the post-communist economies new firms are equally or more efficient than firms privatized to domestic owners, and foreign start-ups are more efficient than domestic ones. Privatization is not associated with lower employment. When accompanied by complementary reforms, privatization has a positive effect on economic growth. Three factors appear to drive the more positive effect of privatization to foreign than domestic owners. Domestic managers have more limited skills and access to world markets, domestically privatized firms have been more subject to tunneling and in some countries new large shareholders artificially decreased performance. The important policy implication is that privatization per se does not guarantee improved performance, at least not in the short- to medium-run. Type of private ownership, corporate governance, access to know-how and markets, and the legal and institutional system matter for firm performance. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4812
    Parallel Title: Kudo, Ines Measuring beginner reading skills
    Keywords: Education ; Reading ; Education ; Reading
    Abstract: "Based on analysis of reading performance data from 475 third-graders in Peru, this study makes recommendations on improving reading tests, choice of reading standards, and how to present the results at the school and individual levels. The paper reviews the literature on using reading skills measurement in the early grades to guide policymaking, strengthen accountability, and improve education quality. It uses data generated from the same students using two common approaches to measuring reading skills: an individually-administered oral fluency test, and a group-administered written comprehension test designed by the Ministry of Education for the 2006 universal standard test of second grade reading comprehension. These two approaches have sometimes been presented as competing alternatives, but the paper shows that it is better if they are used together, as complements. Based on psychometric analysis, the paper shows that both the oral and written tests adequately measured students' reading abilities. The results show that reading fluency and comprehension are correlated: fluent readers are more likely to understand what they read than non-fluent readers. The strength of the fluency-comprehension relationship depends on the level of fluency, the difficulty of the questions, and social characteristics of the school. The paper recommends using improved versions of both tests to evaluate early grade reading skills, as a central element of a system of accountability for results. It proposes a model for reporting test results desgned to highlight the importance of reading standards, mobilize the education community to reach them, track progress, and identify students in need of extra support. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4816
    Parallel Title: Ravallion, Martin The developing world's bulging (but vulnerable) "middle class
    Keywords: Middle class ; Middle class
    Abstract: "The "developing world's middle class" is defined here as those who are not poor when judged by the median poverty line of developing countries, but are still poor by US standards. The "Western middle class" is defined as those who are not poor by US standards. Although barely 80 million people in the developing world entered the Western middle class over 1990-2002, economic growth and distributional shifts allowed an extra 1.2 billion people to join the developing world's middle class. Four-fifths came from Asia, and half from China. Most of the new entrants remained fairly close to poverty, with incomes now bunched up just above
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4821
    Parallel Title: Wagstaff, Adam Social health insurance vs. tax-financed health systems
    Keywords: Health insurance ; Health insurance
    Abstract: "This paper exploits the transitions between tax-financed health care and social health insurance in the OECD countries over the period 1960-2006 to assess the effects of adopting social health insurance over tax finance on per capita health spending, amenable mortality, and labor market outcomes. The paper uses regression-based generalizations of difference-in-differences and instrumental variables to address the possible endogeneity of a country's health system. It finds that adopting social health insurance in preference to tax financing increases per capita health spending by 3-4 percent, reduces the formal sector share of employment by 8-10 percent, and reduces total employment by as much as 6 percent. For the most part, social health insurance adoption has no significant impact on amenable mortality, but for one cause-breast cancer among women-social health insurance systems perform significantly worse, with 5-6 percent more potential years of life lost. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4822
    Parallel Title: V. Del Carpio, Ximena Leveling the intra-household playing field
    Keywords: Child labor ; Transfer payments ; Child labor ; Transfer payments
    Abstract: "This paper analyzes changes in the allocation of child labor within the household in reaction to exogenous shocks created by a social program in Nicaragua. The paper shows that households that randomly received a conditional cash transfer compensated for some of the intra-household differences, as they reduced child labor more for older boys who used to work more and for boys who were further behind in school. The results also show that households that randomly received a productive investment grant, in addition to the basic conditional cash transfer benefits, both targeted at women, show an increased specialization of older girls in nonagricultural and domestic work, but no overall increase in girls' child labor. The findings suggest that time allocation and specialization patterns in child labor within the household are important factors to understand the impact of a social program. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4825
    Parallel Title: Obermaier, Andreas J Cross-border purchases of health services
    Keywords: Medical care ; Medical care ; Medical care ; Medical care
    Abstract: "This paper explores the structure of cross-border health purchasing between Austria and Hungary and determines the size of this phenomenon as well as the barriers to a further increase. Austrian patients may receive health care treatment in Hungary in three different ways. First, patients may receive benefits in the context of the European Community Regulations 1408/71 and 574/72 (Category I patients). Second, outside those regulatory structures, Austrian patients travel to Hungary to receive medical treatment, especially dental treatment, and then seek reimbursement from their Austrian insurance (Category II patients). Third, some patients receive medical treatment in Hungary outside both schemes (Category III patients). There are about 42,500 Category I patients per year; and 58,000 Category II patients world-wide per year. An unknown but supposedly greater number of patients travel to Hungary to receive mainly dental treatment and cosmetic surgery (Category III). Most health actors in both Austria and Hungary do not regard cross-border purchasing of health services as having cost-saving effects. They put forward major legal, institutional, political, and psychological barriers, which inhibit public and private Austrian providers, to facilitate trade in health care and which inhibit individual patients to realize cost savings through capitalizing on lower health care prices in Hungary. Therefore, for the time being, trade in health care and patient mobility between Austria and Hungary is a circumscribed phenomenon in terms of quantities, and it will most probably remain so in the near future. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4826
    Parallel Title: Schiff, Maurice W The regional dimension of North-South trade-related r&d spillover
    Keywords: Diffusion of innovations ; Industrial productivity. i ; International trade ; Diffusion of innovations ; Industrial productivity. i ; International trade
    Abstract: "This paper examines the impact of trade with Japan, North America, and the European Union on technology diffusion and total factor productivity growth in Korea, Mexico, and Jordan. Measures of foreign research and development are constructed based on industry-specific research and development in the North, North-South trade patterns, and input-output relations in the South. The findings show that technology diffusion and productivity gains tend to be regional. Jordan benefits mainly from trade with the European Union, Korea from trade with Japan, and Mexico from trade with North America. In other words, the dynamic version of the "natural trading partners" hypothesis holds for these countries. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4841
    Parallel Title: Anós Casero, Paloma What drives firm productivity growth ?
    Keywords: Industrial productivity ; Industrial productivity
    Abstract: "This paper presents new evidence on the causal links between changes in the business environment and firm productivity growth. It contributes to the literature in three important aspects. First, it constructs a unique database merging information from two large firm-level databases. The samples of both databases are merged on four criteria-country, sub-national location, firm size, and year-producing a panel of 22,004 firms in eight economies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia,, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine. Second, the paper addresses shortcomings of earlier studies, namely reverse causation, multicollinearity, and unreliable productivity estimates. Firm productivity growth is estimated drawing on corporate financial data from manufacturing firms included in the AMADEUS database. Changes in the business environment are estimated from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005. Multicollinearity problems in the full model regression are mitigated by constructing a set of six aggregate indicators of the business environment (using principal component analysis). The paper finds that, over the period 2001 to 2004, an increase of one standard deviation in infrastructure quality, financial development, governance, labor market flexibility, labor quality, and market competition raises the total factor productivity of the average firm by 9.8, 7.8, 3.2, 3.4, 5.8, and 3 percent, respectively. Lastly, the paper decomposes firm productivity growth and ranks the relative impact of changes in these six aspects of the business environment by country, by firm size, and by industry. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4844
    Parallel Title: Ravallion, Martin Weakly relative poverty
    Keywords: Poverty ; Poverty
    Abstract: "Prevailing measures of relative poverty put an implausibly high weight on relative deprivation, such that measured poverty does not fall when all incomes grow at the same rate. This stems from the (implicit) assumption in past measures that very poor people incur a negligible cost of social inclusion. That assumption is inconsistent with evidence on the social roles of certain private expenditures in poor settings and with data on national poverty lines. The authors propose a new schedule of "weakly relative" lines that relax this assumption and estimate the implied poverty measures for 116 developing countries. The authors find that there is more relative poverty than past estimates have suggested. In 2005, one half of the population of the developing world lived in relative poverty, half of whom were absolutely poor. The total number of relatively poor rose over 1981-2005, despite falling numbers of absolutely poor. With sustained economic growth, the incidence of relative poverty becomes less responsive to further growth. Slower progress against relative poverty can thus be seen as the "other side of the coin" to success against absolute poverty. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 21
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4843
    Parallel Title: Lall, Somik V Connecting lagging and leading regions
    Keywords: Labor mobility ; Manpower policy ; Migration, Internal ; Labor mobility ; Manpower policy ; Migration, Internal
    Abstract: "How can policies improve the welfare of people in economically lagging regions of countries? Should policies help jobs follow people? Or should they enable people to follow jobs? In most countries, market forces have encouraged the geographic concentration of people and economic activEities - policies that try to offset these forces to encourage balanced economic growth have largely been unsuccessful. However, policies that help people get closer to economic density have improved individual welfare. In this paper, the authors examine the migration decisions of working-age Brazilians and find that the pull of higher wages in leading regions has a strong influence on the decision to migrate. However, many people are also "pushed" to migrate, starved of access to basic public services such as clean water and sanitation in their hometowns. Although migration is welfare-improving for these individuals, the economy may end up worse off as these migrants are more likely to add to congestion costs in cities than to contribute to agglomeration benefits. Encouraging human capital formation can stimulate labor mobility for economic gain; and improving access to and quality of basic services in lagging regions will directly improve welfare as well as reduce the type of migration motivated by the search for life-supporting basic services. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4848
    Parallel Title: Portugal-Pérez, Alberto Assessing the impact of political economy factors on rules of origin under NAFTA
    Keywords: Certificates of origin ; Certificates of origin
    Abstract: "Rules of origin are legitimate policy instruments to prevent trade deflection in a preferential trade agreement short of a customs union. Trade deflection takes place when a product imported into the preferential trade agreement through the member with the lowest external tariff is transhipped to a higher-tariff member, while yielding a benefit for the re-exporter. Yet, when captured by special interest groups, rules of origin can restrict trade beyond what is needed to prevent trade deflection. By how much do political economy factors account for the stringency of rules of origin? This study quantifies the impact of both determinants - those considered "justifiable" because they prevent trade deflection and those deemed to arise from "political economy" forces - on the restrictiveness of rules of origin under the North American Free Trade Agreement, approximated by a restrictiveness index. The main finding is that political economy forces, especially from the United States, raised significantly the restrictiveness of the rules of origin. Indeed, in industries where political-economy forces were strong prior to the North American Free Trade Agreement, as when the U.S. Most Favored Nation tariff was high or the revealed comparative advantage of Mexico (the United States) was strong (weak), more stringent rules of origin were introduced. Thus, stricter rules of origin are associated with higher production costs reducing the potential benefits of enhanced market access that is initially pursued by this type of agreement. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4850
    Parallel Title: Walque, Damien de The demographic and socio-economic distribution of excess mortality during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda
    Keywords: Genocide ; Mortality ; Genocide ; Mortality
    Abstract: "There is an extensive literature on violent conflicts such as the 1994 Rwandan genocide, but few papers examine the profiles of victims and perpetrators, or more broadly the micro-level dynamics of widespread violence. This paper studies the demographic consequences of the Rwandan genocide and how the excess mortality due to the conflict was distributed in the population. Data collected by the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey indicate that although there were more deaths across the entire population, adult males were the most likely to die. Using the characteristics of the survey respondent as a proxy for the socio-economic status of the family dead, the results also show that individuals with an urban or more educated background were more likely to die. Over and above the human tragedies, a long-term cost of the genocide is the country's loss of productive skills. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4853
    Parallel Title: Estache, Antonio Auctions with endogenous participation and quality thresholds
    Abstract: "Infrastructure projects are often technically complicated and highly customized. Therefore, procurement competition tends to be limited. Competition is the single most important factor toward auction efficiency and anti-corruption. However, the degree of competition realized is closely related to bidders' entry decision and the auctioneer's decision on how to assess technical attributes in the bid evaluation process. This paper estimates the interactive effects among quality, entry, and competition. With data on procurement auctions for electricity projects in developing countries, it is found that large electricity works are by nature costly and can attract only a few participants. The limited competition would raise government procurement costs. In addition, high technical requirements are likely to be imposed for these large-scale projects, which will in turn add extra costs for the better quality of works and further limit bidder participation. The evidence suggests that quality is of particular importance in large infrastructure projects and auctioneers cannot easily substitute price for quality. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4857
    Parallel Title: Robinson, Jonathan Transactional sex as a response to risk in Western Kenya
    Keywords: AIDS (Disease) ; Prostitutes Health and hygiene ; Prostitution Health aspects ; AIDS (Disease) ; Prostitutes Health and hygiene ; Prostitution Health aspects
    Abstract: "Formal and informal commercial sex work is a way of life for many poor women in developing countries. Though sex workers have long been identified as crucial in affecting the spread of HIV/AIDS, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, the nature of sex-for-money transactions remains poorly understood. Using a unique panel dataset constructed from 192 self-reported sex worker diaries which include detailed information on sexual behavior, labor supply, and health shocks, the authors find that sex workers adjust their supply of risky, better compensated sex to cope with unexpected health shocks, exposing themselves to increased risk of HIV infection. In particular, women are 3.1 percent more likely to see a client, 21.2 percent more likely to have anal sex, and 19.1 percent more likely to have unprotected sex on days in which a household member falls ill. Women also increase their supply of risky sex on days after missing work due to symptoms from a sexually transmitted infection. Given that HIV prevalence has been estimated at 9.8 percent in this part of Kenya, these behavioral responses entail significant health risks for sex workers and their partners, and suggest that sex workers are unable to cope with risk through other formal or informal consumption smoothing mechanisms. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4861
    Parallel Title: Didier, Tatiana The current account as a dynamic portfolio choice problem
    Keywords: Balance of payments ; Portfolio management ; Balance of payments ; Portfolio management
    Abstract: "The current account can be understood as the outcome of investment decisions made by domestic and foreign investors. These decisions can be decomposed into a portfolio rebalancing and a portfolio growth component. This paper provides empirical evidence of the importance of portfolio rebalancing for the dynamics of the current account. The authors evaluate the predictions of a partial-equilibrium model of the current account with dynamic portfolio choices, in which portfolio rebalancing is driven by changes in investment opportunities. Using data for the United States and Japan, the authors find evidence supporting innovations in investment opportunities as an important mechanism to explain international capital flows. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/8/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4872
    Parallel Title: Raddatz, Claudio E Multilateral debt relief through the eyes of financial markets
    Keywords: Debt relief ; Debt relief
    Abstract: "The economic benefits of debt relief for recipient countries have been the subject of arduous debate, at least partly motivated by the difficulty of identifying the causal effect of debt relief on economic performance-given that performance itself may drive the decision to grant relief. This paper conducts an event study to assess the economic consequences of multilateral debt relief for recipient countries that is robust to these reverse causality issues. It estimates the response of the stock prices of South African multinationals with subsidiaries in those countries to the announcement of debt relief initiatives, and shows that stock prices exhibit a significant increase above those of other firms, especially around the launching of the recent Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative. The improvement in financial markets' assessment of the value of these multinationals is consistent with lower expected levels of future taxation in the recipient countries. Overall, the results are consistent with the "debt overhang" argument for debt relief. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4876
    Parallel Title: Larson, Donald F The performance of Bulgarian food markets during reform
    Keywords: Food supply ; Food supply
    Abstract: "Food policy often depends on markets and markets depend on institutions. But how good do institutions have to be before reforms can be launched? Relying on well timed surveys of agricultural prices and a joint study by the Government of Bulgaria and the World Bank on agricultural market institutions, this paper presents evidence that performance in food markets improved following significant policy reforms in Bulgaria, although public institutions remained weak. This suggests that even though strong institutions are preferred to weak ones, it can be costly and impractical to delay policy reforms until work on strengthening institutions is finished. Still, measured performance varied by place and by commodity, suggesting that markets developed at different tempos and that the distribution of benefits from improved markets was uneven. This points to the need to address the costs of adjustment as policies change. The paper introduces a new approach to measure market performance based on composite-error techniques. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4877
    Parallel Title: Jack, William Health investments and economic growth
    Keywords: Economic development Health aspects ; Health Social aspects ; Medical economics ; Economic development Health aspects ; Health Social aspects ; Medical economics
    Abstract: "This paper reviews the correlations and potential links between health and economic growth and summarizes the evidence on the role of government in improving health status. At the macroeconomic level, the evidence of an impact of health on growth remains ambiguous due both to difficulties in measuring health, and to the methodological challenges of identifying causal links. The evidence on the micro linkages from health investments to productivity and income are robust. Progress in life expectancy over the past two centuries has been spectacular, fueled by: improved agriculture that has increased food quantity; knowledge of disease transmission, and effective public health interventions that have controlled communicable diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and hookworm; and, most recently and importantly, investments in very young children that pay off in healthier and more productive adults. Whether public investments in medical care affect health hinges on the quality of health institutions. In much of the developing world, factors such as chronic absenteeism among public providers, poor budget execution, ineffective management, and virtually no accountability weaken public efforts. Institutional issues are central in efforts to enhance public health investments, which in turn have a direct impact on the population's welfare and, perhaps over the long term, improvements in national income. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4880
    Parallel Title: Available in another form Trends in household coverage of modern infrastructure services in Africa
    Keywords: Household surveys ; Infrastructure (Economics) ; Household surveys ; Infrastructure (Economics)
    Abstract: "Household surveys have long been used to estimate poverty and inequality trends, as well as trends in education and health indicators, but they have not been used to the same extent to assess trends in the access to or coverage of modern infrastructure services. In this paper, we use Demographic and Health Surveys from a larger sample of sub-Saharan African countries in order to collect comparable information across countries on coverage of piped water, flush toilets, electricity, and landline telephones over time. The results suggest that coverage rates for electricity, flush toilets have improved slightly over the last decade. Coverage of piped water has declined, at the same time as coverage of landline (as well as cellular) telephone has increased rapidly. The decline has been primarily in the urban areas while the infrastructure coverage has either increased or remained stable in rural Africa. For all four services, among the poorest households coverage remains virtually inexistent. If business as usual continues, it would take a very long time to reach universal or widely shared coverage even in countries where coverage has improved. These results point to the need to increase efforts by governments and international community to progressively increase access to modern infrastructure services in Africa. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4883
    Parallel Title: Finlay, Jocelyn E Fertility response to natural disasters
    Keywords: Earthquakes ; Fertility. Human ; Natural disasters ; Earthquakes ; Fertility. Human ; Natural disasters
    Abstract: "The event of a natural disaster, and being directly affected by it, brings a large shock to life-cycle outcomes. In addition to the replacement effects of higher fertility following a disaster that caused high mortality, a positive fertility response may be induced as children can be used to supplement household income. This paper analyzes three high mortality earthquakes: Gujarat, India, in 2001; North-West Frontier, Pakistan, in 2005; and Izmit, Turkey, in 1999. There is evidence of a positive fertility response to exposure to these large-scale natural disasters in addition to the response to child mortality. The results in this study are consistent with those of other studies that also find a positive fertility response following exposure to a disaster. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4888
    Parallel Title: Loayza, Norman Informality in Latin America and the Caribbean
    Keywords: Informal sector (Economics ; Informal sector (Economics ; Informal sector (Economics ; Informal sector (Economics
    Abstract: "This paper studies the causes and consequences of informality and applies the analysis to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It starts with a discussion on the definition and measures of informality, as well as on the reasons why widespread informality should be of great concern. The paper analyzes informality's main determinants, arguing that informality is not single-caused but results from the combination of poor public services, a burdensome regulatory regime, and weak monitoring and enforcement capacity by the state. This combination is especially explosive when the country suffers from low educational achievement and features demographic pressures and primary production structures. Using cross-country regression analysis, the paper evaluates the empirical relevance of each determinant of informality. It then applies the estimated relationships to most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean in order to assess the country-specific relevance of each proposed mechanism. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4889
    Parallel Title: Available in another form Orphanhood and the living arrangements of children in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Keywords: 1991-2004 ; Kinder ; Eltern ; Sterblichkeit ; Humankapital ; Gesundheit ; Bildungsverhalten ; Tansania ; AIDS (Disease) ; Child care ; Orphans ; AIDS (Disease) ; Child care ; Orphans
    Abstract: "Increasing adult mortality due to HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa raises considerable concerns about the welfare of surviving children. Studies have found substantial variability across countries in the negative impacts of orphanhood on child health and education. One hypothesis for this variability is the resilience of the extended family network in some countries to care for orphans-networks under increasing pressure by the sheer number of orphans in many settings. Using household survey data from 21 countries in Africa, this study examines trends in orphanhood and living arrangements, and the links between the two. The findings confirm that orphanhood is increasing, although not all countries are experiencing rapid rises. In many countries, there has been a shift toward grandparents taking on increased childcare responsibility-especially where orphan rates are growing rapidly. This suggests some merit to the claim that the extended network is narrowing, focusing on grandparents who are older and may be less able to financially support orphans than working-age adults. However there are also changes in childcare patterns in countries with stable orphan rates or low HIV prevalence. This suggests future work on living arrangements should not exclude low HIV/AIDS prevalence countries, and explanations for changes should include a broader set of factors. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4895
    Parallel Title: Calderón, César Zooming in
    Abstract: "In contrast with a growing literature on the drivers of aggregate volatility in developing countries, its consequences in terms of individual incomes have received less attention. This paper looks at the impact of cyclical output fluctuations and extreme output events (crises) on unemployment, poverty, and inequality. The authors find robust evidence that aggregate volatility has a regressive, asymmetric, and non linear impact, as reflected in the strong influence of extreme output drops. The findings show that, in addition to the mitigating role of personal wealth, public expenditure and labor protection exert a similar benign effect. These findings are in line with the income substitutions view of social safety nets, and cast a new light on the value of social programs and labor market regulation in crisis prone developing countries. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4896
    Parallel Title: Calderón, César Does higher openness cause more real exchange rate volatility ?
    Keywords: Foreign exchange rates ; Foreign exchange rates
    Abstract: "The "New Open Economy Macroeconomics" argues that: (a) non-monetary factors have gained importance in explaining exchange rate volatility, and (b) trade and financial openness may have a potential role of mitigating and/or amplifying real and nominal shocks to real exchange rates. The goal of the present paper is to examine the ability of trade and financial openness to exacerbate or mitigate real exchange rate volatility. The authors collected information on the real effective exchange rate, its fundamentals, and (outcome and policy measures of) trade and financial openness for a sample of industrial and developing countries for the period 1975-2005. Using instrumental variables techniques, the analysis finds that: (a) High real exchange rate volatility is the result of highly volatile productivity shocks, and sharp oscillations in monetary and fiscal policy shocks. (b) Countries more integrated with international markets of goods and services tend to display more stable real exchange rate fluctuations. (c) Financial openness seems to amplify the fluctuations in real exchange rates. (d) The composition of trade and capital flows plays a role in explaining the smoothing properties of trade and financial openness. Although the former is mainly driven by manufacturing trade, the latter depends on the share of debt (and equity) in total foreign liabilities. (e) Financial openness would attenuate (magnify) real exchange rate volatility, the greater the share of equity (debt) in foreign liabilities. (f) The composition of flows also matters for explaining the smoothing properties of trade and financial openness in periods of currency crisis. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4899
    Parallel Title: Barbone, Luca The foreign-born population in the European Union and its contribution to national tax and benefit systems
    Keywords: Foreign workers ; Immigrants ; Foreign workers ; Immigrants
    Abstract: "Despite the purported surge in internal migration following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, data from the 2006 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions show that internal migrants are a relatively small share of the European Union's population. Depending on the exact definition used, only about 1 to 2 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries (members prior to the 2004 enlargement, not including Germany and Luxembourg) were born in other European Union countries, while the corresponding share for European Union-4 countries (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia) is even lower. By contrast, about 6 percent of the population of European Union-13 countries was born outside the European Union. On examining the demographic and socio-economic background of the migrant population (both from within as well as outside the European Union), this paper finds that migrants tend to include a concentration of both low as well as highly educated workers. Both sets of migrants uniformly contribute to raising the working-age population of receiving countries. Using data on average incomes and taxes paid and benefits received by migrant and non-migrant households, the authors find no evidence to support the contention that migrant workers contribute much less in taxes than the native-born population, or consume significantly higher benefits. On the contrary, our calculations suggest that migrant workers make a net contribution of approximately 42 billion euros to the national tax and benefit systems of European Union-13 countries. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4903
    Parallel Title: Gootiiz, Batshur Services in Doha
    Keywords: Service industries ; Service industries
    Abstract: "Services trade reform matters, but what is Doha doing about it? It has been hard to judge, because of the opaqueness of services policies and the opaqueness of the request-offer negotiating process. This paper attempts to assess what is on the table. It presents the results of the first survey of applied trade policies in the major services sectors of 56 industrial and developing countries. These policies are then compared with these countries' Uruguay Round commitments in services and the best offers that they have made in the current Doha negotiations. The paper finds that at this stage, Doha promises greater security of access to markets but not any additional liberalization. Uruguay Round commitments are on average 2.3 times more restrictive than current policies. The best offers submitted so far as part of the Doha negotiations improve on Uruguay Round commitments by about 13 percent but remain on average 1.9 times more restrictive than actual policies. The World Trade Organization's Hong Kong Ministerial had set out ambitious goals for services but the analysis here shows that much remains to be done to achieve them. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 38
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4904
    Parallel Title: Beegle, Kathleen Frame-of-reference bias in subjective welfare regressions
    Keywords: Household surveys ; Household surveys
    Abstract: "Past research has found that subjective questions about an individuals' economic status do not correspond closely to measures of economic welfare based on household income or consumption. Survey respondents undoubtedly hold diverse ideas about what it means to be "poor" or "rich." Further, this heterogeneity may be correlated with other characteristics, including welfare, leading to frame-of-reference bias. To test for this bias, vignettes were added to a nationally representative survey of Tajikistan, in which survey respondents rank the economic status of the theoretical vignette households, as well as their own. The vignette rankings are used to reveal the respondent's own scale. The findings indicate that respondents hold diverse scales in assessing their welfare, but that there is little bias in either the economic gradient of subjective welfare or most other coefficients on covariates of interest. These results provide a firmer foundation for standard survey methods and regression specifications for subjective welfare data. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4907
    Parallel Title: Das Gupta, Monica How can donors help build global public goods in health ?
    Keywords: Medical assistance ; Medical assistance
    Abstract: "Aid to developing countries has largely neglected the population-wide health services that are core to communicable disease control in the developed world. These mostly non-clinical services generate "pure public goods" by reducing everyone's exposure to disease through measures such as implementing health and sanitary regulations. They complement the clinical preventive and treatment services which are the donors' main focus. Their neglect is manifested, for example, in a lack of coherent public health regulations in countries where donors have long been active, facilitating the spread of diseases such as avian flu. These services can be inexpensive, and dramatically reduce health inequalities. Sri Lanka spends less than 0.2% of GDP on its well-designed population-wide services, which contribute to the country's high levels of health equity and life expectancy despite low GDP per head and civil war. Evidence abounds on the negative externalities of weak population-wide health services. Global public health security cannot be assured without building strong national population-wide health systems to reduce the potential for communicable diseases to spread within and beyond their borders. Donors need greater clarity about what constitutes a strong public health system, and how to build them. The paper discusses gaps in donors' approaches and first steps toward closing them. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4909
    Parallel Title: Yamauchi, Futoshi Risks, ex-ante actions and public assistance
    Keywords: Education ; Human capital ; Natural disasters ; Education ; Human capital ; Natural disasters
    Abstract: "This paper examines the impacts of natural disasters on schooling investments with special focus on the roles of ex-ante actions and ex-post responses using panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi. The importance of ex-ante actions depends on disaster risks and the likelihood of public assistance, which potentially creates substitution between the two actions. The findings show that higher future probabilities of disasters increase the likelihood of holding more human capital and/or livestock relative to land, and this asset-portfolio effect is significant in disaster prone areas. The empirical results support the roles of both ex-ante and ex-post responses (public assistance) in coping with disasters, but also show interesting variations across countries. In Ethiopia, public assistance plays a more important role than ex-ante actions to mitigate the impact of shocks on child schooling. In contrast, households in Malawi rely more on private ex-ante actions than public assistance. The Bangladesh example shows active roles of both ex-ante and ex-post actions. These observations are consistent with the finding on the relationship between ex-ante actions and disaster risks. The results also show that among ex-ante actions, human capital accumulated in the household prior to disasters helps mitigate the negative effects of disasters in both the short and long runs. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4912
    Parallel Title: Yepes, Tito Making sense of Africa's infrastructure endowment
    Keywords: Infrastructure (Economics) ; Infrastructure (Economics)
    Abstract: "The paper's objective is to explain factors underlying Africa's weak infrastructure endowment and to identify suitable infrastructure goals for the region based on benchmarking against international peers. The authors use a dataset covering the stocks of key infrastructure-including information and communication technology (ICT), power, roads, and water-across 155 developing countries over the period 1960 to 2005. The paper also examines subregional differences within Africa. They make use of regression techniques to control for a comprehensive set of economic, demographic, geographic, and historic conditioning factors, as well as adjusting for potential endogeneities. Results show that Africa lags behind all other regions of the developing world in its infrastructure endowment, except in ICT. By far the largest gaps arise in the power sector, with generating capacity and household access to electricity at half the levels observed in South Asia. While it is often assumed that Africa's infrastructure deficit is largely a reflection of its relatively low income levels, the authors find that African countries have much more limited infrastructure than income peers in other parts of the developing world. Countries that face the most challenging environment, with low population density, weak governance, and history of conflict, have the poorest infrastructure endowments. At the outset of the data series, Africa was doing significantly better than other developing regions for road density, generation capacity, and fixed-line telephones, but Africa's relative position has deteriorated over time. The most dramatic loss of ground has come in electrical generating capacity, which has stagnated since 1980. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4919
    Parallel Title: Bell, Clive AIDS and dualism
    Keywords: AIDS (Disease) Economic aspects ; AIDS (Disease) Economic aspects
    Abstract: "An AIDS epidemic threatens Ethiopia with a long wave of premature adult mortality, and thus with an enduring setback to capital formation and economic growth. The authors develop a two-sector model with three overlapping generations and intersectorally mobile labor, in which young adults allocate resources under rational expectations. They calibrate the model to the demographic and economic data, and perform simulations for the period ending in 2100 under alternative assumptions about mortality with and without the epidemic. Although the epidemic does not bring about a catastrophic economic collapse, which is hardly possible in view of Ethiopia's poverty and high background adult mortality, it does cause a permanent, downward displacement of the path of output per head, amounting to 10 percent in 2100. An externally funded program to combat the disease is socially very profitable. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4921
    Parallel Title: Wodon, Quentin May growth lead to higher deprivation despite higher satisfaction?
    Keywords: Economic development ; Income distribution ; Economic development ; Income distribution
    Abstract: "In a relative deprivation framework, unless inequality is reduced, growth is associated with both higher satisfaction and higher deprivation. This may help explain the discontent with growth despite its benefits. As is well known in the literature, knowledge of the population's mean income and Lorenz curve is all that is needed to analyze a distribution, so that this can also be used to assess the satisfaction and deprivation of each individual. Given the normalization used to derive the satisfaction and deprivation measures, satisfaction and deprivation add up to the mean income for the population as a whole as well as for each individual. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/7/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4931
    Parallel Title: Rosendahl, Knut Einar Simple model frameworks for explaining inefficiency of the clean development mechanism
    Keywords: Greenhouse gas mitigation ; Greenhouse gas mitigation
    Abstract: "The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an offset mechanism designed to reduce the overall cost of implementing a given global target for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in industrialized "Annex B" countries of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper discusses various ways in which CDM projects do not imply full offset of emissions, thus leading to an overall increase in global GHG emissions when considering the Annex-B emissions increase allowed by the offsets. The authors focus on two ways in which this may occur: baseline manipulation; and leakage. Baseline manipulation may result when agents that carry out CDM projects have incentives to increase their initial (or baseline) emissions in order to optimize the value of CDM credits. Leakage occurs because reductions in emissions under a CDM project may affect market equilibrium in local and/or global energy and product markets, and thereby increase emissions elsewhere. Remedies against these problems are discussed. Such remedies are more obvious for the baseline problem (where one is simply to choose an exogenous baseline independent of the project) than for the leakage problem (which is difficult to prevent, and where a prediction of the effect must rely on information about overall market equilibrium effects). "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 45
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4930
    Parallel Title: Iacovone, Leonardo The better you are the stronger it makes you
    Keywords: Free trade ; Industrial productivity ; Free trade ; Industrial productivity
    Abstract: "This paper studies how liberalization affects productivity growth using micro-level plant data. While previous studies have already shown the existence of a positive relationship between competition and economic performance, the novelty of this paper is that it analyzes not only the average impact of liberalization, but also goes "beyond the average" and shows how the liberalization can affect dissimilar plants in a different way. The author first develops a model which predicts that, while the impact of liberalization on productivity growth is positive "on average", more advanced firms tend to benefit more. In fact, liberalization generates two competing effects: on one side it spurs more innovative efforts because of the increased entry threat by foreign competitors, on the other side, enhanced competition curtails expected profits and reduces the funds available to finance innovative activities. The pro-competitive effect is weaker for less advanced firms as for them it is harder to catch-up with the "technology frontier". These predictions are then tested focusing on Mexican plants during the NAFTA liberalization. The results show that a 1 percent reduction in tariffs spurred productivity growth between 4 and 8 percent on average. However, for backward firms this effect is much weaker if not close to zero, otherwise for more advanced ones this effect is stronger with productivity growing between 11 and 13 percent. Consistent with the theoretical model the results are stronger in those sectors where the scope for innovative activities is more pronounced. These results are particularly important for policy makers because they suggest that while increasing competition may be good in spurring average productivity, it is also true that this effect does not hold for all type of firms, in particular more backward firms may need some complementary support policy to upgrade their capacities and keep up with the more competitive environment. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 46
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4934
    Parallel Title: De Mel, Suresh Innovative firms or innovative owners?
    Keywords: Small business ; Technological innovations ; Small business ; Technological innovations
    Abstract: "Innovation is key to technology adoption and creation, and to explaining the vast differences in productivity across and within countries. Despite the central role of the entrepreneur in the innovation process, data limitations have restricted standard analysis of the determinants of innovation to consideration of the role of firm characteristics. The authors develop a model of innovation that incorporates the role of both owner and firm characteristics, and use this to determine how product, process, marketing, and organizational innovations should vary with firm size and competition. They then use a new, large, representative survey from Sri Lanka to test this model and to examine whether and how owner characteristics matter for innovation. The survey also allows analysis of the incidence of innovation in micro and small firms, which have traditionally been overlooked in the study of innovation, despite these firms comprising the majority of firms in developing countries. The analysis finds that more than one-quarter of the microenterprises are engaging in innovation, with marketing innovations the most common. As predicted by the model, firm size has a stronger positive effect, and competition a stronger negative effect, on process and organizational innovations than on product innovations. Owner ability, personality traits, and ethnicity have a significant and substantial impact on the likelihood of a firm innovating, confirming the importance of the entrepreneur in the innovation process. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4936
    Parallel Title: Rodríguez González, Aldo Javier Optimal pre-merger notification mechanisms
    Keywords: Consolidation and merger of corporations ; Consolidation and merger of corporations
    Abstract: "The authors compare the two merger control systems currently employed worldwide: a mandatory system based on merger size threshold and a voluntary system with ex-post monitoring and fines. The voluntary system possesses two informational advantages: (i) the enforcement agency employs more information -verifiable and non verifiable parameters- to decide the set of mergers to investigate, and (ii) the first move of merging firms reveals useful information to the agency about the competitive risk of a merger. If fines for undue omission to notify are upward limited, then a mixed mechanism is optimal, where small transactions are under a voluntary regime while the big mergers are obliged to report. Remedies for fixing anticompetitive mergers act as an instrument that induces firms to notify the operation, improving further the advantage of the voluntary mechanism. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4938
    Parallel Title: MacCracken, Michael C Beyond mitigation
    Keywords: Climatic changes Risk management ; Environmental geotechnology ; Greenhouse gases ; Climatic changes Risk management ; Environmental geotechnology ; Greenhouse gases
    Abstract: "Global climate change is occurring at an accelerating pace, and the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are forcing climate change continue to increase. Given the present pace of international actions, it seems unlikely that atmospheric composition can be stabilized at a level that will avoid "dangerous anthropogenic interference" with the climate system, as called for in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Complicating the situation, as GHG emissions are reduced, reductions in the offsetting cooling influence of sulfate aerosols will create an additional warming influence, making an early transition to climate stabilization difficult. With significant reductions in emissions (mitigation) likely to take decades, and with the impacts of projected climate change-even with proactive adaptation-likely to be quite severe over the coming decades, additional actions to offset global warming and other impacts have been proposed as important complementary measures. Although a number of possible geoengineering approaches have been proposed, each has costs and side effects that must be balanced against the expected benefits of reduced climate impacts. However, substantial new research is needed before comparison of the relative benefits and risks of intervening is possible. A first step in determining whether geoengineering is likely to be a useful option is the initiation of research on four interventions to limit the increasing serious impacts: limiting ocean acidification by increasing the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and upper ocean; limiting the increasing intensity of tropical cyclones; limiting the warming of the Arctic and associated sea level rise; and sustaining or enhancing the existing sulfate cooling influence. In addition, in depth consideration is needed regarding the governance structure for an international geoengineering decision-making framework in the event that geoengineering becomes essential. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    [Washington, D.C] : World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary Also available in print
    Series Statement: Policy research working paper 4942
    Parallel Title: Monga, Célestin Uncivil societies
    Keywords: Civil society ; Economic development ; Civil society ; Economic development
    Abstract: "In times of crises, it is always useful to revisit some of the paradigms that underlie collective thinking and action. For nearly 200 years, most social science has relied on the assumption that the emergence of strong and nurturing social capital through a vibrant civil society yields all kind of positive externalities to society. Following intuition and anecdotal observations from Alexis de Tocqueville, a large body of theoretical and empirical research has attempted to confirm that societies strive politically and economically when they are able to build strong non-state actors and community organizations. Many disciplines-mainly political science, economics, law, and international relations-have constructed influential analytical frameworks in support of that general proposition. This paper examines the philosophical foundations of conventional wisdom and observes that it often fails to take into account the dark side of some civil society groups, from the mafia to Al Qaeda. While acknowledging the potential contribution of civil society to the development process, the paper also cautions again the rush to circumvent the state, which sometimes sustains community-based initiatives in poor countries. It suggests the possibility of the production of negative social capital by non-state actors. "--World Bank web site
    Note: Includes bibliographical references , Title from PDF file as viewed on 5/26/2009 , Also available in print.
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : World Bank
    ISBN: 082138077X , 9780821380772
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (xxx, 100 p) , ill., map , 23 cm
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary
    Series Statement: Directions in development. Human development
    DDC: 363.8/56
    Keywords: Malnutrition ; Nutrition policy ; Malnutrition ; Nutrition policy ; Cost-Benefit Analysis ; Health Resources economics ; Malnutrition economics ; Malnutrition prevention & control ; Nutrition Policy economics ; Malnutrition ; Nutrition policy ; Cost-Benefit Analysis ; Health Resources ; Malnutrition ; Malnutrition ; Nutrition Policy
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction : why scale up?Methodology : estimating the costs -- What will it cost and what are the potential benefits? -- Phasing the scale-up.
    Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 87-92) and index
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : World Bank
    ISBN: 9780821381571 , 9780821381588
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (xv, 200 p) , ill , 23 cm
    Edition: 2009 World Bank eLibrary
    DDC: 307.1/2160981
    Keywords: Regional economics ; Regional planning ; Urban economics ; Regional economics ; Regional planning ; Urban economics ; Regional economics ; Regional planning ; Urban economics ; Brazil ; Brazil ; Brazil Economic policy 2003- ; Brazil Economic policy 2003-
    Note: Includes bibliographical references (p. 183-190) and index
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