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  • 2005-2009  (3,979)
  • Paris : OECD Publishing  (3,979)
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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal on development Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 7-60
    ISSN: 1996-580X
    Language: English
    Pages: 55 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Prestation de services dans les situations de fragilité : Principaux concepts, constats et enseignements
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal on development
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2006
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 7-60
    Keywords: Development
    Abstract: The establishment of effective and durable public services is a first priority in situations of fragility and conflict. This paper provides an understanding of the mutual influence of state fragility and service delivery and offers guidance to strengthen service provision and governance in these states. Based on an analysis of the major policy issues and approaches available, the paper identifies the challenges and dilemmas the international community and its partners face in fragile settings. It concludes with a set of policy lessons and recommendations intended to help donors better target their interventions.
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Higher education management and policy Vol. 21, no. 3, p. 1-14
    ISSN: 1726-9822
    Language: English
    Pages: 14 p
    Titel der Quelle: Higher education management and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2002
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 21, no. 3, p. 1-14
    Keywords: Education ; United Kingdom
    Abstract: Historically, the definition and measurement of academic standards in British higher education have been the exclusive prerogative of the academic community. The calibration of standards across institutions was the responsibility and purpose of the external-examiner system. But the mechanisms in place to achieve these ends have broken down under the weight of the massification of UK higher education, the need to recruit international students to sustain revenue streams, and the league-table or rankings culture that has resulted in academic standards being sacrificed in order to maintain or improve institutional image. In 2008 the House of Commons inaugurated a wide-ranging inquiry into these matters. Its August 2009 report proposes radical solutions, the adoption of which will represent a definitive break with the traditions of the past. Définition des critères de qualité et évaluation des performances universitaires : Une perspective britannique Traditionnellement, la définition des critères de qualité et l’évaluation des performances universitaires dans l’enseignement supérieur britannique étaient la prérogative exclusive de la communauté universitaire. L’étalonnage des critères de qualité dans l’ensemble des établissements relevait de la responsabilité du système d’examinateurs externes dont c’était l’objectif. Cependant, les mécanismes mis en place à cette fin se sont effondrés sous le poids de la massification de l’enseignement supérieur britannique, la nécessité de recruter des étudiants internationaux pour maintenir les flux de revenus, et la culture des classements qui a conduit au sacrifice de la qualité afin de préserver ou d’améliorer une image institutionnelle. En 2008, la Chambre des Communes a inauguré une vaste enquête sur ces questions. Son rapport d’août 2009 propose des solutions radicales, dont l’adoption constituera une rupture définitive avec les traditions du passé.
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 109-127
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 19 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. National Legislative and Regulatory Activities
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 109-127
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Belgium ; Brazil ; France ; Ireland ; Japan ; Korea, Republic of ; Moldova, Republic of ; Romania ; Serbia ; Slovenia ; Switzerland ; Turkey ; United States
    Abstract: Le premier amendement modifie le financement des activités de l’Agence fédérale de contrôle nucléaire (AFCN) dans la mesure où une partie des frais de fonctionnement est transformée en ressource d’origine fiscale. En plus de ces ressources fiscales, des frais de fonctionnement et des amendes administratives, le financement peut s’opérer par le biais de donations, de legs et d’autres modes de financement.
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: journal of business cycle measurement and analysis Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 139-160
    ISSN: 1995-2899
    Language: English
    Pages: 22 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: journal of business cycle measurement and analysis
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 139-160
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: Several factor-based models are estimated to investigate the role of country-specific trade and survey data in forecasting euro area manufacturing production. Following Boivin and Ng (2006), the emphasis is put on the choice of the dataset chosen to estimate the factors. Four datasets are built and common factors are estimated separately on each of them following two methodologies, Stock and Watson (2002a, 2002b) and Forni et al. (2005). Then, a rolling out of sample forecast comparison exercise is carried out on nine models to compare the forecast performance of the models and the datasets. Compared to univariate benchmarks, our results are supportive of factor-based models up to two quarters. They show that incorporating survey and external trade information improves the forecast of manufacturing production. They also confirm the findings of Marcellino, Stock and Watson (2003) that, using country information, it is possible to improve forecasts for the euro area. Interestingly, the medium-sized highly opened economies provide valuable information to monitor area wide developments, beyond their weight in the aggregate. Conversely, the large countries do not add much to the monitoring of the aggregate, when considered separately.
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Higher education management and policy Vol. 21, no. 1, p. 1-15
    ISSN: 1726-9822
    Language: English
    Pages: 15 p
    Titel der Quelle: Higher education management and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2002
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 21, no. 1, p. 1-15
    Keywords: Education
    Abstract: This paper describes the global knowledge economy (the k-economy), comprised by (1) open source knowledge flows and (2) commercial markets in intellectual property and knowledge-intensive goods. Like all economy the global knowledge economy is a site of production. It is also social and cultural, taking the form of a one-world community mediated by the Internet. The k-economy has developed with extraordinary rapidity, particularly the open source component; which, consistent with the economic character of knowledge as a public good, appears larger than the commercial intellectual property component. But how do the chaotic open source flows of knowledge, with no evident tendency towards predictability let alone towards equilibrium, become reconciled with a world of governments, economic markets, national and university hierarchies, and institutions that routinely require stability and control in order to function? The article argues that in the k-economy, knowledge flows are vectored by a system of status production that assigns unequal values to knowledge and arranges it in ordered patterns. The new system for regulating the value of public good knowledge includes institutional league tables, research rankings, publication and citation metrics, journal hierarchies, and other comparative output measures such as outcomes of student learning. Cet article décrit l’économie globale de la connaissance (la « k-economy »), qui comprend (1) les flux de connaissances de source ouverte et (2) les marchés de la propriété intellectuelle et des biens à forte intensité de connaissances. Comme toute économie, l’économie globale de la connaissance représente un site de production. Elle est aussi sociale et culturelle, prenant la forme d’une communauté mondiale unique fondée sur l’Internet. L’économie de la connaissance s’est développée à une vitesse extraordinaire, en particulier la composante source ouverte, qui, en raison du caractère économique de la connaissance en tant que bien public, semble occuper une place plus importante que la composante propriété intellectuelle commerciale. Mais comment les flux chaotiques de connaissances de source ouverte, qui de toute évidence ne tendent pas vers plus de prévisibilité et encore moins vers un quelconque équilibre, peuvent-ils être conciliés avec un monde fait de gouvernements, de marchés économiques, de hiérarchies nationales et universitaires, et d’institutions qui exige stabilité et contrôle pour fonctionner ? Cet article soutient que dans l’économie de la connaissance, les flux de connaissances sont orchestrés par un système de production de statuts qui assigne des valeurs inégales au savoir et l’organise en schémas ordonnés. Le nouveau système de régulation de la valeur de la connaissance en tant que bien public inclut les tableaux de classement institutionnel, les classements de recherche, les métriques de publication et de citation, les hiérarchies au sein de la presse, et d’autres mesures comparatives de rendement, tels que les résultats d’apprentissage.
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Nuclear law bulletin Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 29-57
    ISSN: 1609-7378
    Language: English
    Pages: 29 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Mise en oeuvre et application sur le plan national des traités établissant des zones exemptes d'armes nucléaires
    Titel der Quelle: Nuclear law bulletin
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 1968
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 29-57
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy
    Abstract: The act of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) by a state is a sovereign right protected by Article 1 of the Charter of the United Nations and Article VII of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). It is a step towards nuclear disarmament by restricting the areas on earth and in space where such weapons may be freely produced, moved, tested, stationed and used. It is a measure of national security for states that wish to distance their territory and their populations completely from the nuclear arms race, its implications and its effects on development, health and international relations. When the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba) enters into force, probably this year, over half of the earth’s land mass and 119 countries will be protected in such zones.
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: competition law and policy Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 107-137
    ISSN: 1609-7521
    Language: English
    Pages: 32 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Corée : Mise à jour du Rapport sur la loi et les institutions en matière de concurrence
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: competition law and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD Publ., 1999
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 107-137
    Keywords: Governance ; Korea, Republic of
    Abstract: This report reviews the achievements of the Korean 3-Year Market Reform Road Map. This assessment is carried out in light of the OECD’s previous recommendations to shift KFTC priorities and resources toward core competition problems related to efficiency goals and away from its historic focus on conglomerate financial structure and governance; the need for further improvements in investigative powers and a clearer rule against hard-core cartels; implementation of recommendations to repeal exemptions for “small” business and exclusions of professional services and co-ordination with sectoral regulators about competition problems; and recent institutional changes to join the KFTC with the system for applying consumer protection law. This report was the basis for a monitoring review in the October 2006 session of the Competition Committee.
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: journal of business cycle measurement and analysis Vol. 2008, no. 1, p. 37-61
    ISSN: 1995-2899
    Language: English
    Pages: 25 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: journal of business cycle measurement and analysis
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 1, p. 37-61
    Keywords: Economics ; Switzerland
    Abstract: Macroeconomic data are indispensable for modern governance, yet it is often unclear how reliable these data are. The production process of macroeconomic data inside the statistical offices is often not very transparent for the general public. Bystanders usually have no choice but to take for granted the published data because criteria by which to judge data quality are wanting. Hoping to contribute to a better understanding of the quality of macroeconomic data, this paper proposes several plausibility checks and applies them to recently published Swiss labour productivity growth figures. Although the proposed checks cannot "prove" or "disprove" the official data, they are capable of either strengthening our confidence in the official data or, alternatively, of casting them into doubt. Policy debates drawing on official data will hardly be able to ignore differences in the degree of confidence with which these data are held to be accurate.
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 203-233
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 31 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Bilateral & Multilateral Agreements
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 203-233
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal on budgeting Vol. 9, no. 1, p. 1-11
    ISSN: 1681-2336
    Language: English
    Pages: 11 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal on budgeting
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 1, p. 1-11
    Keywords: Governance
    Abstract: Legislatures require reliable, unbiased information to be able to participate constructively in formulating the budget. This article explores the value of an independent budget capacity located in the legislature for expanding parliament’s role in budgeting and for holding the executive accountable.
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: journal of business cycle measurement and analysis Vol. 2008, no. 1, p. 97-123
    ISSN: 1995-2899
    Language: English
    Pages: 27 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: journal of business cycle measurement and analysis
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 1, p. 97-123
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: According to the Commission recommendations, ISAE has recently restructured the methodological framework of its survey on firms operating in the Italian construction sector and in retail trade. The innovations specifically regard the sampling design and the weight system for both sectors; this last revision, in particular, allowed the reconstruction of the ISAE historical series. In the light of the changes introduced, first of all the aim of this paper is to analyze the cyclical features and to evaluate the "leading" performances of the new ISAE series with respect to the quantitative ISTAT data. Finally, we are going to build a "leading indicator" for both construction and retail trade in Italy. We first apply the NBER methodology in order to establish the main cyclical features of the series. Then we use cross-correlation analysis to estimate the extent to which the ISAE variables and the ISTAT series are correlated. Later on the Granger causality and out of sample tests were used to evaluate the forecasting performance of the ISAE series. On the basis of the results obtained, we finally build a leading indicator for both sectors, and test its performance comparing the results to those of the confidence index elaborated by ISAE.
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue de l'OCDE sur la gestion budgétaire Vol. 4, no. 4, p. 31-63
    ISSN: 1684-3525
    Language: French
    Pages: 35 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Budgeting in Romania
    Titel der Quelle: Revue de l'OCDE sur la gestion budgétaire
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 2001
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 4, no. 4, p. 31-63
    Keywords: Governance ; Romania
    Abstract: La présente étude sur le système budgétaire roumaine fait partie intégrante du Projet sur le budget du Groupe de travail des Hauts responsables du budget. Le projet sur le budget vise à mettre en place et renforcer des réseaux régionaux de hauts responsables du budget en dehors de la zone de l’OCDE. Cette étude a servi de base à l’examen du système budgétaire roumaine lors de la première réunion du réseau des hauts responsables du budget d’Europe centrale et orientale, les 10 et 11 novembre 2004 à La Haye.
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue de l'OCDE sur le droit et la politique de la concurrence Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 57-121
    ISSN: 1684-3452
    Language: French
    Pages: 66 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Prosecuting Cartels without Direct Evidence of Agreement
    Titel der Quelle: Revue de l'OCDE sur le droit et la politique de la concurrence
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1999
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 57-121
    Keywords: Governance
    Abstract: Tous les pays utilisent des preuves indirectes dans les affaires d'entente. La meilleure pratique consiste à utiliser des preuves indirectes dans une perspective d'ensemble, afin de générer un effet cumulatif, plutôt que sur une base individuelle. Les législations nationales sur la concurrence contiennent des dispositions qui compliquent l'utilisation de preuves indirectes car elles ne donnent pas toutes la même définition de la nature des " accords " soumis à la loi. Il existe deux catégories générales de preuves indirectes : celles fondées sur une communication et celles de nature économique. Des deux, les preuves fondées sur une communication sont considérées comme les plus importantes. Les preuves de nature économique sont presque toujours ambiguës. Elles peuvent corroborer l'existence d'une entente comme celle d'une action indépendante. C'est pourquoi une analyse détaillée est de mise. Le traitement national des ententes, considérées comme un délit pénal ou une infraction administrative, peut influer sur la charge de la preuve qui s'applique à l'affaire, et donc sur l'utilisation des preuves indirectes. Il peut être difficile de convaincre les tribunaux d'accepter des preuves indirectes dans des affaires d'entente, surtout lorsque la responsabilité potentielle liée à la violation de dispositions prohibant les ententes contenues dans la législation sur la concurrence est élevée. Dans les pays dans lesquels l'application de la législation contre les ententes est relativement récente, certaines circonstances peuvent influer sur la confiance accordée aux preuves indirectes.
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: financial market trends Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 1-14
    ISSN: 1995-2872
    Language: English
    Pages: 19 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: financial market trends
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 1-14
    Keywords: Finance and Investment
    Abstract: The present article focuses on the so-called “asset meltdown hypothesis”, which postulates a direct link between demographic developments and the level of assetprices. In particular, proponents of this hypothesis argue, when baby boomers startentering retirement they will become net sellers of financial assets to finance retirement consumption. As subsequent generations are smaller in numbers, other things equal, this would put downward pressure on financial asset prices. Revisiting this hypothesis, there is some support for a link between demographics and financial asset prices, although the link may not be strong. A number of mitigating factors exist, so that “other things” will not be equal. A major question in this context is to what extent demographic developments and their implications for other variables affecting financial asset prices are already reflected in financial asset prices and how fast any additional pressures on financial asset prices will play themselves out.
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 199-202
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 4 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. International Regulatory Activities
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 199-202
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy
    Abstract: Agence Internationale De L’Énergie Atomique Orientations pour l’importation et l’exportation de sources radioactives, complémentaires au Code de conduite sur la sûreté et la sécurité des sources radioactives (2008)52e Conférence générale de l’AIEA (2008)
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: financial market trends Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 1-22
    ISSN: 1995-2872
    Language: English
    Pages: 27 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: financial market trends
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 1-22
    Keywords: Finance and Investment
    Abstract: Data to measure and analyse the increasing role of institutional investors in capital markets has been collected and published by the OECD for a number of years. This dataset is now integrated in the framework of the OECD Financial Accounts. This article presents an overview of institutional investors’ assets, their components and their development in the aggregate and by country.
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: general papers Vol. 2009, no. 2, p. 33-51
    ISSN: 1995-283X
    Language: English
    Pages: 19 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: general papers
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 2, p. 33-51
    Keywords: Economics ; Mali
    Abstract: The Malian economy faces the challenge of reducing its over-dependence on cotton and gold. In order to do so, a search for “green gold” — commercial agriculture beyond cotton — is underway. Mali has started to exploit export market opportunities for horticulture products in Europe as well as in neighbouring countries. Moreover, the country is currently testing the introduction of domestic wheat production for local processing. Although donors are increasingly supporting the development of these new agricultural products, the reform of the cotton sector continues to receive their special attention. Moreover, certain agricultural sub-sectors such as livestock and fishing receive only limited support. The development of a vibrant private sector in agriculture requires further improvements in government policies and donor support, but also more active private sector participation. The government should re-engage in agricultural diversification, and donors should strive to increase the sustainability of their interventions. To this end, greater co-ordination between donors and government is needed in tandem with strengthening the capacity of the local private actors. The study highlights progress towards better donor co-ordination in agriculture and encouraging results, especially with respect to facilitating access to credit for farmers and fostering producers’ organisations. At the same time, it argues that there remains ample room for improvement. Donors tend to crowd in certain segments of the agricultural value chain and to specialise in specific export crops (e.g. the mango sector where 12 donors are currently operating) at the expense of some other important areas, which require additional support (e.g. livestock, transport infrastructure and logistics). A more balanced and coherent approach is warranted.
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: economic studies Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 1-29
    ISSN: 1995-2856
    Language: English
    Pages: 29 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: economic studies
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 1-29
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: This study focuses on the single most important component of the private return on tertiary education, the gross wage premium. There are at least two additional reasons for paying particular attention to wage premia. First, the wage premium earned by existing graduates is easy to observe, so high-school leavers can be assumed to take it into account when deciding for or against enrolment in tertiary education. Second, to the extent that wages reflect marginal labour productivity, estimates of wage premia are sometimes used to assess the quality of human capital in an economy with a view to correcting simpler measures based on years of schooling or attainment levels.
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Higher education management and policy Vol. 21, no. 2, p. 1-16
    ISSN: 1726-9822
    Language: English
    Pages: 16 p
    Titel der Quelle: Higher education management and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2002
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 21, no. 2, p. 1-16
    Keywords: Education ; United Kingdom
    Abstract: The paper starts with a description of higher education in the United Kingdom and of reforms over the last 50 years. By reference to specified output measures, the performance of UK universities is judged to be good. The factors affecting this performance are postulated by comparing policies and approaches in the United Kingdom with those elsewhere (in particular in continental Europe). Three factors – the level of autonomy, the amount of competition, and the level of funding, combined with the universities’ direct control over funding – are identified as important factors. The level of autonomy for UK universities is long-standing. So too is the level of competition for recruiting the best students – although the reform in 1991 to bring universities and polytechnics into a single sector has increased that competition. Competition for research has increased through the reform initiated by the University Grants Committee in the mid 1980s to introduce the Research Assessment Exercise for non-specific funds. Recent reforms have provided both additional funding and, through tuition fees for UK students, greater influence for universities over the level of funding. Le système de l'enseignement supérieur au Royaume-Uni a fait l’objet de nombreuses réformes depuis cinquante ans. Evaluées à la lumière d’indicateurs spécifiques, les universités britanniques présentent de bons résultats. Les facteurs de cette performance sont postulés par comparaison des politiques et des approches adoptées au Royaume-Uni et à l’étranger (en particulier dans le reste de l'Europe). Associés au contrôle direct des universités sur le financement, le degré d'autonomie, le niveau de concurrence et le niveau de financement apparaissent ainsi comme trois facteurs de performances importants. Bien qu’elle ait été renforcée par la réforme de 1991 regroupant les universités et les instituts de technologie en un secteur unique, la concurrence pour le recrutement des meilleurs étudiants existe depuis longtemps, tout comme le degré d'autonomie important dont jouissent les universités britanniques. La concurrence a également gagné le milieu de la recherche où, suite à une réforme initiée par le University Grants Committee au milieu des années 1980, l’attribution de fonds non spécifiques est déterminée par le Research Assessment Exercise (exercice d’évaluation de la recherche). De récentes réformes ont permis d’accorder des financements supplémentaires et, par le biais des frais d’inscription imposés aux étudiants britanniques, de développer l’influence des universités par rapport au niveau de financement.
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 141-197
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 57 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Texts
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 141-197
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy
    Abstract: République du Bélarus Loi relative à l’utilisation de l’énergie nucléaire (2008)Décret relatif à certaines mesures à prendre en vue de la construction d’une centrale nucléaire (2007)Règlement relatif au Département de la sûreté nucléaire et de la sûreté radiologique du Ministère des situations d’urgence de la République du Bélarus (2007)Résolution du Conseil de sécurité sur le développement de l’énergie nucléaire (2008) Espagne Loi portant création du Conseil de la sécurité nucléaire (2007)
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  • 21
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    In:  Higher education management and policy Vol. 21, no. 1, p. 1-18
    ISSN: 1726-9822
    Language: English
    Pages: 18 p
    Titel der Quelle: Higher education management and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2002
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 21, no. 1, p. 1-18
    Keywords: Education
    Abstract: There are increasing pressures for universities to commercialise their research and increase their contributions to their local and regional environments. For those institutions located in areas of low demand, this can lead to a low-impact equilibrium of universities working with external partners, and having relatively low impact. In such circumstances, universities have to “build up” local demand for their knowledge. But this is long-term, costly and volatile, and so partnership and collaborative models of capacity building may be one way for universities to maximise the benefits whilst minimising the risks. In this paper, we explore how capacity in such situation builds up, and whether university regional associations (URAs) can help universities to develop regional capacity in such situations. The case study demonstrates that URAs can become a focal point for a community of regionally engaged university actors. It is this community which can help universities to rationalise and make sense of local uncertainties, and thereby increase total university regional contributions. By Paul Benneworth and Alan Sanderson, University of Twente, The Netherlands, and Universities for the North East, United Kingdom L’engagement régional des universités : Comment le renforcer en l’absence de pôle d’innovation à l’échelon local ? De plus en plus, on attend des universités qu’elles commercialisent les fruits de leurs efforts de recherche et intensifient leur contribution locale et régionale. Mais pour les établissements implantés dans des zones où leurs travaux suscitent une demande limitée, la collaboration des universités avec des partenaires externes risque fort d’avoir un impact, là aussi, limité. Dans ce cas, c’est aux universités de « créer » une demande de connaissances à l’échelon local. Mais il s’agit d’une démarche longue, coûteuse et à l’issue incertaine ; dans cette optique, les modèles de renforcement des capacités basés sur le partenariat et la collaboration interuniversités pourraient permettre aux établissements concernés de maximiser les bénéfices tout en minimisant les risques. Dans ce rapport, nous analysons la façon dont se créent les capacités d’engagement régional dans ce type de contexte, et nous nous efforçons de déterminer si les associations régionales d’universités (ARU) peuvent alors aider ou non les universités à développer leurs capacités régionales. L’étude de cas proposée montre que les ARU deviennent parfois le cœur névralgique d’un consortium d’acteurs universitaires engagés au plan régional. C’est précisément grâce à cette communauté d’acteurs que les universités peuvent faire face aux contingences locales et s’y adapter, ce qui permettra d’accroître la contribution régionale totale des universités. Par Paul Benneworth and Alan Sanderson, Université de Twente (Pays-Bas) et Université pour le Nord-Est (Royaume-Uni)
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  • 22
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal on budgeting Vol. 9, no. 1, p. 1-29
    ISSN: 1681-2336
    Language: English
    Pages: 29 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal on budgeting
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 1, p. 1-29
    Keywords: Governance
    Abstract: This article provides a view of the Brazilian congressional budgetary process and how it contributes to preventing the budget from effectively determining public spending. Particular elements include revenue estimation, presentation and approval of amendments, sectoral committee involvement, and institutional technical advice.
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  • 23
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: journal of business cycle measurement and analysis Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 161-181
    ISSN: 1995-2899
    Language: English
    Pages: 21 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: journal of business cycle measurement and analysis
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 161-181
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: This paper analyses revisions of Swiss current account data, taking into account the actual data revision process and the implied types of revisions. In addition we investigate whether the first release of current account data can be improved upon by the use of survey results as gathered by the KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich. An answer in the affirmative indicates that it is possible to improve first releases and thereby enhance the current assessment of the Swiss economy.
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  • 24
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Nuclear law bulletin Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 87-98
    ISSN: 1609-7378
    Language: English
    Pages: 12 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Jurisprudence
    Titel der Quelle: Nuclear law bulletin
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 1968
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 87-98
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Canada ; France ; United Kingdom
    Abstract: By decision dated 7 April 2009, Mr. Justice Hughes of the Federal Court of Canada denied an application for judicial review submitted by Linda Keen, the former President of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), by which she challenged the legality of the Order in Council which removed her as President. The court dismissed the application,2 finding that the decision had been lawful.
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  • 25
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 95-108
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 14 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Case Law
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 95-108
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Canada ; France ; United Kingdom
    Abstract: Dans une décision rendue le 7 avril 2009, le juge Hughes, de la Cour fédérale du Canada a refusé la demande de révision judiciaire soumise par Linda Keen, l’ancienne présidente de la Commission canadienne de sûreté nucléaire (CCSN). Mme Keen remettait en cause la légalité du décret la congédiant de son poste de présidente. La Cour a rejeté la demande2 et conclu que la décision était légitime.
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  • 26
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue de l'OCDE sur la gestion budgétaire Vol. 4, no. 4, p. 115-119
    ISSN: 1684-3525
    Language: French
    Pages: 7 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Introductory Speech for the Meeting of Senior Budget Officials of Central and Eastern European Countries
    Titel der Quelle: Revue de l'OCDE sur la gestion budgétaire
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 2001
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 4, no. 4, p. 115-119
    Keywords: Governance
    Abstract: Mesdames et Messieurs, c’est pour moi un grand plaisir de pouvoir formuler quelques observations liminaires sur cette conférence. La politique budgétaire est un thème récurrent dans ma carrière. En 1975, j’ai commencé celle-ci au ministère des Finances, à la Direction du budget. Plus tard, en qualité de directeur du Centraal Planbureau (CPB, Bureau d’analyse de la politique économique des Pays-Bas), j’ai participé à la préparation d’importantes réformes de notre régime budgétaire. Et aujourd’hui, comme Ministre des Finances, je suis plus que jamais convaincu de l’importance d’une politique budgétaire nationale adaptée. Cela ne tient pas (seulement, devrais-je dire) à ce que j’aime les chiffres, mais aussi à ce que les chiffres ont des conséquences directes et graves pour les conditions de vie des citoyens. Sans politique budgétaire rationnelle, pas de système viable de protection sociale, pas de financement pour une politique adaptée d’éducation et pas d’assise pour une croissance économique durable. Je pense donc que l’effort de réforme et de modernisation de l’appareil budgétaire national est l’une des meilleures orientations que puisse suivre un gouvernement soucieux des impératifs sociaux.
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  • 27
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue de l'OCDE sur la gestion budgétaire Vol. 4, no. 4, p. 65-114
    ISSN: 1684-3525
    Language: French
    Pages: 52 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Budgeting in Slovenia
    Titel der Quelle: Revue de l'OCDE sur la gestion budgétaire
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 2001
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 4, no. 4, p. 65-114
    Keywords: Governance ; Slovenia
    Abstract: La présente étude sur le système budgétaire slovène fait partie intégrante du Projet sur le budget du Groupe de travail des Hauts responsables du budget. Le projet sur le budget vise à mettre en place et renforcer des réseaux régionaux de hauts responsables du budget en dehors de la zone de l’OCDE. Cette étude a servi de base à l’examen du système budgétaire slovène lors de la première réunion du réseau des hauts responsables du budget d’Europe centrale et orientale, les 10 et 11 novembre 2004 à La Haye.
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  • 28
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Nuclear law bulletin Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 5-27
    ISSN: 1609-7378
    Language: English
    Pages: 23 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Le mécanisme de la conférence d'examen en droit nucléaire : problèmes et perspectives
    Titel der Quelle: Nuclear law bulletin
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 1968
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 5-27
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy
    Abstract: Over the past several decades the international community has increasingly come to rely on periodic multilateral conferences or meetings: 1) as a means for reviewing implementation of a wide variety of legal instruments, including those addressing nuclear non-proliferation, safety, waste management, physical protection and security. Also, the parties to some instruments that do not explicitly mandate review meetings have decided to conduct de facto review meetings to enhance implementation. Although the structure and procedures of these meetings differ in some particulars, they reflect a number of common objectives, organisational arrangements and procedures. This paper seeks to assess the major issues arising from reliance on the review conference; 2) mechanism as a measure for enhancing the effectiveness of multilateral legal instruments, particularly those in the nuclear field. In view of the perceived failure of the 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the need to avoid a similar result at the upcoming 2010 Review Conference, it is hoped that this analysis will provide a timely – and possibly even useful – “review” of the review conference mechanism.
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  • 29
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    In:  OECD journal: economic studies Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 1-37
    ISSN: 1995-2856
    Language: English
    Pages: 37 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: economic studies
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 1-37
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to discuss how policies can affect investment in tertiary education in ways that would eliminate some of the perceived shortcomings of existing systems, while preserving or (preferably) enhancing equality of access to higher education. To this end, the analysis focuses on the institutional set-up of tertiary education that provides incentives for supplying quality educational services; the private returns from higher education which act to attract prospective students; and, individual funding mechanisms to help overcome the liquidity constraints that may restrict participation in higher education. These mechanisms should also be designed so as to prevent uncertainty about future incomes from unduly deterring investment in tertiary studies by risk-averse individuals. Joaquim Oliveira Martins, Romina Boarini, Hubert Strauss and Christine de la Maisonneuve
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  • 30
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 83-93
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 11 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Changes in the Legal Status of the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA)
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 83-93
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy
    Abstract: L’article précité issu de l’ordonnance du 18 octobre 19451 se présente comme l’acte de naissance du Commissariat à l’énergie atomique (CEA), établissement public dont la nature juridique a longtemps été singulière et objet de débat, et qui fêtera pourtant, le 18 octobre 2009, ses soixante-quatre années d’existence.
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  • 31
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    In:  Higher education management and policy Vol. 21, no. 1, p. 1-22
    ISSN: 1726-9822
    Language: English
    Pages: 22 p
    Titel der Quelle: Higher education management and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2002
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 21, no. 1, p. 1-22
    Keywords: Education
    Abstract: Global rankings are creating a furore wherever or whenever they are published or mentioned. They have become a barometer of global competition measuring the knowledge-producing and talent-catching capacity of higher education institutions. These developments are injecting a new competitive dynamic into higher education, nationally and globally, and encouraging a debate about its role and purpose. As such, politicians regularly refer to them as a measure of their nation’s economic strength and aspirations, universities use them to help set or define targets mapping their performance against the various metrics, while academics use rankings to bolster their own professional reputation and status. Based on an international survey (2006) and extensive interviews in Germany, Australia and Japan, (2008), this paper provides a comparative analysis of the impact and influence of rankings on higher education and stakeholders, and describes institutional experiences and responses. It then explores how rankings are influencing national policy and shaping institutional decision making and behaviour.Some changes form part of the broader modernisation agenda, improving performance and public accountability, while others are viewed as perverse. Their experiences illustrate that policy does matter. Les classements mondiaux suscitent l’enthousiasme chaque fois qu’ils sont publiés ou mentionnés. Ils sont devenus le baromètre de la concurrence mondiale, mesurant la capacité des institutions d’enseignement supérieur en termes de production de savoir et de captation des talents. Ces développements injectent une nouvelle dynamique de compétition dans l’enseignement supérieur, au niveau national et mondial, et suscitent un débat sur son rôle et ses objectifs. À ce titre, les hommes/femmes politiques y font régulièrement référence en tant qu’instrument de mesure de la puissance économique et des aspirations de leur nation, les universités s’en servent pour établir ou définir leurs objectifs en termes de performance par rapport à diverses métriques, tandis que les universitaires utilisent les classements pour appuyer leurs propres réputation et statut professionnels. Cet article se fonde sur une enquête internationale (2006) et des entretiens approfondis menés en Allemagne, en Australie et au Japon (2008) pour réaliser une analyse comparative de l’impact et de l’influence des classements sur l’enseignement supérieur et ses parties prenantes et pour décrire les expériences et réponses institutionnelles. Cet article étudie également la manière dont les classements influencent la politique nationale et façonnent la prise de décision et les comportements institutionnels. Certains changements s’inscrivent dans le cadre plus large du programme de modernisation qui tend vers une amélioration des performances et une plus grande responsabilité publique, tandis que d’autres sont considérés comme pervers. Leurs expériences démontrent l’importance des choix politiques.
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  • 32
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal on budgeting Vol. 9, no. 2, p. 1-9
    ISSN: 1681-2336
    Language: English
    Pages: 9 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal on budgeting
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 2, p. 1-9
    Keywords: Governance
    Abstract: At the start of the decremental decade of the 1980s, governments encountered many difficulties in making ends meet. This article discusses some of the problems of post-expansive stagnation and the merits of certain techniques such as indexing, global norms, decentralising hard choices and the well-balanced package.
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  • 33
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    In:  OECD journal: general papers Vol. 2008, no. 3, p. 9-51
    ISSN: 1995-283X
    Language: English
    Pages: 44 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: general papers
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 3, p. 9-51
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: Policy makers in many countries are giving more attention to ‘financial literacy’ or ‘financial capability’, and there are many financial education programmes. The need to evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes is likely to increase. But little evaluation is currently taking place, and the evaluations made so far show mixed and inconclusive results. It is not clear whether this is a consequence of poor evaluation methods or poor programme design, or, that financial education works patchily. But it does mean that a positive impact from financial education has not been unambiguously proven; nor has a clear picture emerged of what works best and why. Evaluation of financial education is inherently difficult, and the impact of any one programme can probably never be fully isolated. Nevertheless, this paper suggests that evaluating the effectiveness of financial education can and should be improved. It begins to develop an approach to do so, including a Financial Education Evaluation (FEE) Framework which can be tailored for any programme in any country. This paper also suggests guidelines for governments and other public authorities to lead the way towards better evaluation of the benefits, costs and value for money of financial education.
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  • 34
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    In:  OECD journal: general papers Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 63-85
    ISSN: 1995-283X
    Language: English
    Pages: 24 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: general papers
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 63-85
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: More action is needed, by both Africa and the wider international community. Building peace and security is essential, both for economic development and for poverty reduction. Leadership is being taken by Africa itself. The number of conflicts has fallen. But even so, one-fifth of the population of Africa still live in conflict zones. More action is needed both to strengthen and support Africa’s own efforts to bring peace to the continent, and to tackle the wider global drivers of conflict, including the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons, and the trade in conflict resources.
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  • 35
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    In:  Nuclear law bulletin Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 117-133
    ISSN: 1609-7378
    Language: English
    Pages: 17 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Loi relative à la gestion des déchets radioactifs (République de Corée, 2009)
    Titel der Quelle: Nuclear law bulletin
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 1968
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 117-133
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Korea, Republic of
    Abstract: The purpose of this act is to safeguard against the dangers and harmful effects of radioactive waste and to contribute to public safety and environmental protection by laying down requirements for the safe and efficient management of radioactive waste.
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  • 36
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    In:  Higher education management and policy Vol. 21, no. 2, p. 1-15
    ISSN: 1726-9822
    Language: English
    Pages: 15 p
    Titel der Quelle: Higher education management and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2002
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 21, no. 2, p. 1-15
    Keywords: Education ; Australia
    Abstract: Within weeks of taking office, Australia’s new Labor government commissioned two major reviews – one of Australia’s innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main recommendations of these reviews, puts them into context and examines the government’s response. Although the innovation review was conducted first, this paper begins with the higher education review because its recommendations, at least in regard to universities, are broader. Those parts of the innovation review that are relevant to universities follow. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of what will happen next. De grandes idées pour les universités australiennes Quelques semaines après son entrée en fonction, le nouveau gouvernement travailliste australien a commandé deux études, l’une portant sur le système d’innovation australien et l’autre sur l’enseignement supérieur en Australie. Prises dans leur ensemble, ces études auront des répercussions considérables sur l’avenir de la recherche et de l’enseignement australiens dans les décennies à venir. Cet article traite des principales recommandations proposées par ces études, rappelle le contexte dans lequel elles s’inscrivent et analyse la réponse du gouvernement. Bien que l’étude sur l’innovation soit menée en premier, l’article s’intéresse d’abord à l’étude sur l’enseignement supérieur car elle propose des recommandations plus générales, tout au moins concernant les universités. Les éléments de l’étude sur l’innovation ayant un intérêt pour les universités sont repris ensuite. L’article s'achève par une brève réflexion sur les perspectives.
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  • 37
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    In:  OECD journal: financial market trends Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 1-19
    ISSN: 1995-2872
    Language: English
    Pages: 24 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: financial market trends
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 1-19
    Keywords: Finance and Investment
    Abstract: This paper reviews the impact of ageing on private pensions, in particular on the payout phase, assesses the part that annuities can play in financing retirement, and examines the role of financial markets in facilitating the allocation of assets accumulated in defined contribution pension plans.A comprehensive set of recommendations for consideration is provided at the end of the paper.
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  • 38
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    In:  Revue de l'OCDE sur le développement Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 7-65
    ISSN: 1996-5753
    Language: French
    Pages: 60 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Service delivery in fragile situations: Key concepts, findings and lessons
    Titel der Quelle: Revue de l'OCDE sur le développement
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 2006
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 7-65
    Keywords: Development
    Abstract: La mise en place de services publics efficaces et pérennes est une priorité dans les États fragiles ou affectés par un conflit. Ce rapport permet de mieux comprendre la relation entre la fragilité de l’État et la fourniture de services, et donne des orientations aux donneurs qui souhaitent renforcer la fourniture de services et les structures de gouvernance dans ces États. A partir d’une analyse des principales questions qui se posent aux pouvoirs publics et des approches à leur disposition, le rapport recense les défis et difficultés auxquels doivent faire face la communauté internationale et ses partenaires dans les situations précaires. En conclusion, le rapport dégage des enseignements de l’expérience et formule des recommandations destinées à aider les donneurs à mieux cibler leurs interventions.
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  • 39
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    In:  Higher education management and policy Vol. 21, no. 2, p. 1-20
    ISSN: 1726-9822
    Language: English
    Pages: 20 p
    Titel der Quelle: Higher education management and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2002
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 21, no. 2, p. 1-20
    Keywords: Education ; Germany
    Abstract: Germany has recently gone through a fundamental process of reform of its higher education system. The last 15 years have been characterised by significant changes in virtually all aspects of the system. The impacts of the Bologna Process have been far reaching. The reform of the governance and funding systems in higher education has also been highly influential. This article reflects upon the increasing relevance of the concept of competition in higher education and how the realisation of more competitive elements was accomplished in a highly decentralised system of governance. The article also demonstrates the complex interplay between the public discourse regarding the need for more competitive approaches in higher education, legal reforms, changes in funding provisions for higher education and the transformation of rules for attracting human resources. Concurrence, autonomie et nouveau courant de pensée : transformation de l’enseignement supérieur en Allemagne fédérale Le système de l’enseignement supérieur allemand a récemment connu un processus de réformes fondamental. Ces 15 dernières années ont été marquées par des changements importants affectant quasiment tous les aspects du système. Les impacts du processus de Bologne ont été considérables. De la même manière, la réforme des systèmes de gouvernance et de financement dans l’enseignement supérieur a exercé une grande influence. Cet article analyse l’intérêt croissant accordé à la notion de concurrence dans l’enseignement supérieur et la façon dont des éléments plus compétitifs ont été mis en place dans un système de gouvernance fortement décentralisé. L’article démontre l’existence d’interactions complexes entre le discours public sur les besoins d’une approche plus concurrentielle dans l’enseignement supérieur, les réformes légales, les changements apportés à l’attribution de financement et la transformation des règles visant à attirer les ressources humaines.
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  • 40
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    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 65-82
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 18 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. The Decommissioning of Asse II: Burden of the Past in the Federal Republic of Germany
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 65-82
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Germany
    Abstract: Asse II, une mine de sel dans la formation de sel du permien supérieur située près de Wolfenbüttel, a fait l’objet de débats passionnés en matière de droit et de politique environnementale en République fédérale d’Allemagne. Jusqu’en 1995, Asse II était utilisée comme installation de recherche pour le développement de techniques liées au stockage définitif des déchets de faible et moyenne activité. De la potasse et du sel gemme ont été produits dans cette installation entre 1909 et 1964, et après l’arrêt de la production de sel, elle a servi, entre 1967 et 1978, au stockage des déchets radioactifs.
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  • 41
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    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 153-154
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 2 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Bilateral Agreements
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 153-154
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy
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  • 42
    Online Resource
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: financial market trends Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 61-87
    ISSN: 1995-2872
    Language: English
    Pages: 27 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: financial market trends
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 61-87
    Keywords: Finance and Investment
    Abstract: This report analyses the impact of failures and weaknesses in corporate governance on the financial crisis, including risk management systems and executive salaries. It concludes that the financial crisis can be to an important extent attributed to failures and weaknesses in corporate governance arrangements which did not serve their purpose to safeguard against excessive risk taking in a number of financial services companies. Accounting standards and regulatory requirements have also proved insufficient in some areas. Last but not least, remuneration systems have in a number of cases not been closely related to the strategy and risk appetite of the company and its longer term interests. The article also suggests that the importance of qualified board oversight and robust risk management is not limited to financial institutions. The remuneration of boards and senior management also remains a highly controversial issue in many OECD countries. The current turmoil suggests a need for the OECD to re-examine the adequacy of its corporate governance principles in these key areas.
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  • 43
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Higher education management and policy Vol. 21, no. 2, p. 1-18
    ISSN: 1726-9822
    Language: English
    Pages: 18 p
    Titel der Quelle: Higher education management and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2002
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 21, no. 2, p. 1-18
    Keywords: Education ; United States
    Abstract: Higher education in the United States has received much scrutiny in the recent past from the federal and state governments, the press and the general public. In response to this scrutiny, a number of blue ribbon panels have been formed to examine how effectively higher education is serving American society. In this article, I analyse the proceedings and impact of the most recent prominent panel, the Secretary of Education’s Commission on the Future of Higher Education, commonly known as the Spellings Commission. I also briefly examine how the new administration of President Barack Obama is likely to affect colleges and universities in light of the global economic crisis. Le contexte de la réforme de l’enseignement supérieur aux États-Unis Ces dernières années, le gouvernement fédéral, les États, la presse et l’opinion publique ont placé l’enseignement supérieur aux États-Unis au centre d’une attention toute particulière. En conséquence de cela, de nombreux groupes d’experts se sont formés pour étudier dans quelle mesure le système d’enseignement supérieur sert efficacement la société américaine. Cet article examinera les procédures et l’impact de la commission du ministre de l’Éducation sur le futur de l’enseignement supérieur, plus généralement dénommée la commission Spellings, qui constitue le plus important groupe d’experts récemment constitué. Nous étudierons ensuite brièvement dans quelle mesure la nouvelle administration du Président Barack Obama est susceptible d’affecter les universités dans un contexte marqué par la crise économique mondiale.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1996-580X
    Language: English
    Pages: 86 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Compendium des exemples pays et enseignements tirés de l'application de la Méthodologie d'évaluation des régimes nationaux de passation des marchés : Mise en commun des expériences
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal on development
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2006
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 4, p. 55-140
    Keywords: Development
    Abstract: Abstract: This paper presents the experiences and the lessons learned by 22 partner countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia related to the application of the Methodology for the Assessment of National Procurement Systems of the OECD/DAC Joint Venture on Procurement. The Methodology was developed and approved for field testing in 2006 as an input for implementing the Paris Declaration agenda and to assist in strengthening country procurement systems. It is the result of the joint efforts of multilateral and bilateral development partners and of partner countries from around the world. These experiences and lessons represent some early results achieved by a group of volunteer partner governments working in collaboration with national stakeholders from civil society, the private sector, the media, elected members of parliament and with their international development partners. The present document is limited to sharing experiences in using the Methodology. Country examples from the pilot exercises and from other applications are used as case studies. A mapping of various country experiences in using the Methodology is provided in Annex A. The present document seeks to provide useful background information drawn from various available sources.
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  • 45
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: financial market trends Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 187-195
    ISSN: 1995-2872
    Language: English
    Pages: 9 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: financial market trends
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 187-195
    Keywords: Finance and Investment
    Abstract: Many OECD governments are facing unprecedented challenges in the markets for bonds and bills, as a result of the explosive growth in their borrowing needs. Amidst an unusually uncertain economic outlook, the gross borrowing needs of OECD governments are expected to reach almost USD 12 trillion in 2009. The key policy issue is how to raise smoothly new funds at low cost, while also managing a rapidly growing debt stock. For the time being, several factors are offsetting the trend towards higher yields. But the risk is that when the recovery gains traction and risk aversion falls, yields will start to rise. There are already signs that issuance conditions are becoming tougher with reports of weaker demand at some recent government bond auncts. Thus far, these less successful auctions can best be interpreted as "single market events" and not as unambiguous evidence of systemic market absorption problems. Also from this perspective lowering OECD sovereign ratings is not obvious. The future could become more challenging, given that rising issuance is occurring in tandem with increasing overall debt levels. Also contingent debt is on the rise. In response, sovereign debt managers have begun to plan or implement credible medium-terms exit strategies to avoid future "crowding out" and issuance problems. Although fund raising strategies have become more flexible and somewhat more opportunistic, OECD debt management framework so as to minimise medium-term borrowing costs. The other key challenge, roll-over risk as a result of the increasing use of short-term instruments, is being addressed by OECD debt managers by rebalancing the profile of their issuance programmes by incorporating more long-term instruments.
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  • 46
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: financial market trends Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 1-40
    ISSN: 1995-2872
    Language: English
    Pages: 45 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: financial market trends
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 1-40
    Keywords: Finance and Investment
    Abstract: This financial crisis, ending a period of search for yield and increased risktaking,has triggered various policy responses, ranging from more ad-hoc measures initially to more structured and co-ordinated financial sector rescue actions as the crisis evolved. Lessons drawn so far should help to devise longer-term, more encompassing and more consistent policies. Various reforms are being proposed by the financial industry as well as by official authorities and international standard-setting bodies, many of which arrive at similar conclusions regarding the causes of and remedies for the crisis. Shortcomings in risk management, including compensation schemes, governance structures, liquidity and counterparty risk, need to be addressed.
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  • 47
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 117-124
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 8 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Case Law
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 2, p. 117-124
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Canada ; Germany ; United States
    Abstract: Allemagne Jugement de la Cour Administrative Fédérale relatif aux supposées « Biblis-obligations » (2008) Canada La Cour du Banc de la Reine du Nouveau-Brunswick refuse la divulgation en vertu de la loi sur le droit à l’information de la province d’une étude de faisabilité sur l’énergie nucléaire (2008) États-Unis Jugement de la Cour fédérale relatif à l’interprétation du « Standard Contract » du Département de l’Énergie américain (2008) Décision sommaire de la Cour d’Appel des États-Unis sur les demandes de révision des règlements de la Commission de la réglementation nucléaire (2008)
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  • 48
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: economic studies Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 1-18
    ISSN: 1995-2856
    Language: English
    Pages: 18 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: economic studies
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 1-18
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: This article uses patent data to assess policy factors (domestic and international) for patenting activity in automotive emission control technologies. Particular attention is paid to the role of different policy types and fuel prices on both post-combustion and integrated abatement technologies. The results confirm that fuel prices have played a role in the development of integrated strategies, while regulatory standards have been more important with respect to post-combustion technologies. In addition, ‘integrated’ abatement strategies are more closely linked to general determinants of innovation than is the case for post-combustion technologies. This has implications for the design of policies which encourage innovations with both private and public benefits.
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  • 49
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: economic studies Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 1-22
    ISSN: 1995-2856
    Language: English
    Pages: 22 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: economic studies
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 1-22
    Keywords: Economics ; India
    Abstract: This article examines recent micro-evidence on the productivity of Indian firms, helping to explain why India’s manufacturing sector has not performed as well as many observers expected. A series of structural distortions are documented, all of which may depress the performance of manufacturing, and thus the economy as a whole. These distortions exist at multiple levels, and reflect long-standing problems with the reallocation of labour across sectors, the excessively small scale of firms, low firm turnover, poor product market integration, high industry concentration and persistent state ownership. Combined, these phenomena represent severe restraints on the level and growth of productivity in manufacturing, and suggest that much remains to be done to improve the strength and sustainability of India’s development path.
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  • 50
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Nuclear law bulletin Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 77-86
    ISSN: 1609-7378
    Language: English
    Pages: 10 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Évolutions du statut du Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA)
    Titel der Quelle: Nuclear law bulletin
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 1968
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 77-86
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy
    Abstract: This provision in the Ordinance of 18 October 19451 is the birth certificate for the Atomic Energy Commission (hereinafter CEA, Commissariat à l’énergie atomique), a public entity whose legal nature has, for a long time now, been unique and the subject of debate. On 18 October 2009, the CEA will nevertheless celebrate its 64th anniversary.
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  • 51
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Higher education management and policy Vol. 21, no. 3, p. 1-16
    ISSN: 1726-9822
    Language: English
    Pages: 16 p
    Titel der Quelle: Higher education management and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2002
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 21, no. 3, p. 1-16
    Keywords: Education
    Abstract: The world financial meltdown is causing a reassessment of the strong market ideology that dominated policy making since the days of Reagan and Thatcher. For universities, the issue is not whether to pay attention to market forces – most schools have no choice given that their economic viability depends on some combination of enrollments, sponsored research and the sale of other services. The question is how to give the market its due while remaining true to our academic values. Balancing academic values and market forces is not easy, as we shall see. My purpose in this essay is to provide a conceptual overview that can explain the issues and point the way toward their resolution in today’s financially challenging environment. Les valeurs académiques sur le marché La fusion financière internationale provoque une réévaluation de la puissante idéologie de marché qui a dominé la politique depuis les époques Reagan et Thatcher. Pour les universités, la question n’est pas de savoir s’il faut prêter attention ou non aux forces du marché : la plupart des écoles n’ont pas ce choix puisque leur viabilité économique dépend à la fois des inscriptions, de la recherche subventionnée et de la vente d’autres types de services. La question est de savoir comment donner son dû au marché tout en restant fidèles à nos valeurs académiques. Comme nous le verrons, trouver un équilibre entre les valeurs académiques et les forces du marché n’est pas chose facile. L’auteur de ce rapport cherche ici à fournir une vue d’ensemble conceptuelle permettant d’expliquer les problèmes et de suggérer des pistes de solutions dans l’environnement de défis financiers qui est aujourd’hui le nôtre.
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  • 52
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Revue économique de l'OCDE Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 31-63
    ISSN: 1684-3444
    Language: French
    Pages: 33 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. National Implementation and Enforcement of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaties
    Titel der Quelle: Revue économique de l'OCDE
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OCDE, 1998
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 31-63
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy
    Abstract: Le fait pour un État d’établir une zone exempte d’armes nucléaires (ZEAN) est un droit souverain protégé par l’Article 1 de la Charte des Nations Unies et l’Article VII du Traité sur la non prolifération des armes nucléaires (TNP). Cela représente un pas vers le désarmement nucléaire en réduisant les zones sur terre et dans l’espace où de telles armes peuvent être librement fabriquées, déplacées, testées, stationnées et utilisées. Il s’agit d’une mesure de sécurité nationale pour les États souhaitant écarter leur territoire et leur population de toute course à l’armement nucléaire, de ses implications et de ses conséquences sur le développement, la santé et les relations internationales. Lorsque le Traité sur la zone exempte d’armes nucléaires en Afrique (Traité de Pelindaba) entrera en vigueur (probablement cette année), plus de la moitié de la surface de la terre et 119 pays seront protégés par de telles zones.
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  • 53
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: general papers Vol. 2008, no. 4, p. 109-155
    ISSN: 1995-283X
    Language: English
    Pages: 48 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: general papers
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 4, p. 109-155
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: This case study analyses the effect of trade and investment liberalisation on Korea’s information and communication technology (ICT) sector and finds that trade and investment have played a crucial role in innovation in this sector. In the initial stages of development, imported capital goods and components, joint ventures, licensing and Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) contracts were important sources of technology and exports were key to obtain the necessary economies of scale for innovation. Free trade and investment policies in the 1990s and stronger protection of intellectual property rights have led to an increase in R&D and innovation, which in turn has led to the transformation of Korea into a knowledge-based economy. Keywords: innovation, Korea, information and communication technology, ICT, trade reform, Samsung, production network, intellectual property rights, IPR protection, patents, ITA, Information Technology Agreement
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  • 54
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    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: general papers Vol. 2008, no. 3, p. 53-127
    ISSN: 1995-283X
    Language: English
    Pages: 76 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: general papers
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2008, no. 3, p. 53-127