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  • World Bank  (3,059)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: ill , 30 cm
    DDC: 304.6/32/0962
    Keywords: Fertility ; Egypt ; Egypt ; Population ; Birth control ; Egypt
    Note: World Fertility Survey, International Statistical Institute , This project was conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey and with the collaboration of the World Bank"--T.p. verso , Includes bibliographical references
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Palestinian people face an increasingly uncertain political environment, and an economy that is failing to generate the jobs and incomes that are needed to improve living standards. Restrictions on trade and the access to resources, along with a decade long blockade of Gaza have led to a continuing decline in the productive base of the economy - with the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in manufacturing halved in the last twenty-five years. Unemployment is now approaching 30 percent on average, with youth unemployment in Gaza twice as high. Although 2016 witnessed an improvement from the economic recession of 2014 -driven by a surge in reconstruction activity in Gaza - this is not sustainable nor sufficient to raise per capita incomes of the Palestinians. Looking forward GDP growth is expected to hover around 3.3 percent leading to a near stagnation in per capita income. Further increases in unemployment are also expected
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    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This report develops innovative bond structures that respond to challenges currently limiting the financing of forest-based NDC activities, with the intention to catalyze significant increases in financing flows. The report sets out a detailed shortlist of three potential enhanced bond structures, which have the potential to catalyze funding across the gamut of forest-based nationally determined contribution (NDC) activities. The focus is on bond structures that blend donor-funded performance-based payments (PBP) alongside some upfront grant funding to improve the financial performance of the use of proceeds for issuers, and hence enable larger-scale financing from capital markets
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This reports on the cost of doing business in Egypt consistently identify delays in land acquisition as one of the impediments to setting up new businesses as well as attracting foreign direct investments. Despite the provisions of Law 10/1990 (hereafter referred to as Law 10), which lays out a legal framework for the expropriation of real estate for public-interest projects, these delays persist due to overlapping in national and sectoral policies and practices. This Policy note acknowledges the absence of a comprehensive land administration system in Egypt. It focuses instead on the challenges facing land acquisition for public interest projects and theshortcomings of Law 10. It summarizes key challenges based on the findings of key research productsfrom the technical assistance (TA) program offered by the World Bank to the Egyptian government concerning land acquisition and policy reform, including the diagnostic analysis report prepared in June 2016 and the report of the TA Committee Members' visit to India prepared in May 2016. The key challenges discussed in this policy note fall under two broad kinds: limitations in law, and policy coherence. To help develop a more coherent and transparent approach to land acquisition, this note also lays out recommendations and a road map. The Annex to this note highlights the broader issues of land administration, with a special focus on the weak institutionalization of deeds and title registration systems
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Republic of South Sudan emerged in 2011 from decades of conflict as the world's newest independent country, with huge state and peace building challenges, and extreme institutional and socio-economic deficits.By August 2016, South Sudan displayed all the signs of macroeconomic collapse,with output contracting, and inflation and parallel exchange market premium spiraling.The fiscal deficit remained high, although its exact magnitude is difficult to estimate given the lack of real time data.The financing situation is dire. Monetization of the fiscal deficit explains to a large extent the high inflation, although there are some indications that borrowing from theBank of South Sudan had been limited in recent months.The current account deficit is estimated to have narrowed to about 1.6 percent in FY2016/17 from about 6.1 percent of GDP in FY2015/16.The South Sudanese Pound (SSP) continued to depreciate.Restoring peace, including reform of the security sector, followed by efforts to rein in public sector borrowing to levels that avoid printing money are necessary preconditions for any stabilization program.The FY17/18 National Budget aims to restore macroeconomic stability, but lacks credibility.Even if the economy showed some recovery starting in 2018, projections suggest that poverty will continue to rise through 2019 as economic growth is likely to be surpassed by population growth
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This is a background paper to the Pacific Possible report. Climate change and natural disasters represent major threats to Pacific Island countries. The report estimates the cost of climate adaptation measures for Pacific Island countries. It also proposes a range of strategies for dealing with the high uncertainty surrounding the impact of climate change over the next 25 years
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Georgia has an impressive record of reforms and is on a steady track of poverty reduction, butensuring that of its all citizens can equally benefit from and contribute to its development remains a challenge. This study focuses on one particular aspect of Georgia's path to inclusive growth: social inclusion. It uses the concepts of social inclusion and exclusion to help understand why some members of society may be consistently left behind from the development process, and to provide insights into policies that can have a transformational impact on the situation of systematically disadvantaged groups and individuals. Social exclusion implies that certain members of society, due to their social or cultural identity, may face complex barriers and, due to them, have persistently lower outcomes e.g., access to quality education, health, employment, and income relative to the rest of society, thus not achieving their full potential
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The 10th economic update comes at an important juncture for Rwanda. The country has entered the third decade of uninterrupted economic growth and social progress. Rwanda's global income ranking improved from the seventh poorest in 2000 to the 20th in 2015, on the back of Rwanda's strong commitment to good governance, the principles of market economy and openness. The growth, however, has been slowing down recently and is expected to remain subdued in 2017. Going forward, achieving Rwanda's ambition of attaining middle-income status requires sustaining the average growth rate of the past two decades in the years to come. The vision 2050, and the new EDPRS, currently under preparation will provide the roadmap for adapting the economy to the evolving regional and global context and maintaining a growth rate that delivers poverty reduction and prosperity. In addition to presenting recent macroeconomic developments, this update also discusses the longer-term patterns of productivity and structural transformation and derives some broad lessons for growth strategy. The Rwanda Economic Update (REU) reports on and synthesizes recent economic developments, and places them in a medium term, regional, and global context. It analyses the implications of these developments and policies for the outlook of the economy. These reports attempt to make an analytical contribution to the implementation of Rwanda's national development strategy. Each edition includes a special feature on a selected topic. The report is intended for a wide audience, including policy makers, business leaders, other market participants, the community of analysts engaged in Rwanda's economy, and civil society
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The document summarizes an extensive body of research conducted to assess the extent and quality of water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services geographically and over the income distribution using a variety of techniques and data sources; the interaction between WASH outcomes and health, especially nutrition; and the institutional barriers as well as opportunities to reduce the gaps in improved access to WASH between rural and urban areas in Ecuador
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Development Policy Review
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Pacific Possible is a program of research and dialogue focusing on long term economic growth perspectives of Pacific Island Countries. It analyzes the major transformational economic opportunities and challenges which include tourism, labor mobility, ICT, oceanic tuna fisheries, deep sea minerals, climate change and natural disasters, and non-communicable diseases. This report summarizes and synthesizes research undertaken on these topics. Detailed background papers on these topics are also available as part of the Pacific Possible series
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The third edition of the Mozambique Economic Update comes at a time when the economy is beginning to show some signs of recovery in 2017. But as extractives and other large industries drive the recent developments, whilst small and medium enterprises lag behind, Mozambique is increasingly showing the signs of being "A two-speed economy". Reestablishing macroeconomic stability through a more balanced mix of fiscal and monetary policy is a priority for private sector growth. Slowly easing inflation and lower credit levels suggest that the monetary policy cycle could begin to loosen as the economy continues to adjust. However, making this transition smoothly will require a sharper fiscal policy response to restore the health of Mozambique's public finances
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The 'Linking up: Public-Private Partnerships in Power Transmission in Africa' report examines private sector-led investments in transmission globally and how this approach is applicable in sub-Saharan Africa. The private sector has invested over US
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: In the last five years, the number of voices calling for stronger international action on climate change and health has increased, as has the scale and depth of activities. But current global efforts in climate and health are inadequately integrated. As a result, actions to address climate change including World Bank Group investment and lending are missing opportunities to simultaneously promote better health outcomes and resilience.This paper begins by identifying the health impacts that are being felt today and that are projected to worsen in the future without efforts to ensure health considerations are central to any and all climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. Chapter 1 includes an outline of the scope of health impacts from climate change and its drivers, the means of transmission, and a description of the drivers of climate change, and their sources. Chapter 2 describes the methodology used to identify these nations and determine their preparedness for coping with these impacts. Chapter 3 identifies hotspot countries based on this analysis, and narrows the focus to those countries that are both most likely to bear the brunt of a greater burden of disease and death from climate change and climate drivers, and that are the least ready to cope. Coping mechanisms through mitigation and adaptation measures, are outlined in Chapter 4, as are the multiple benefits that can be expected from multi-sector, concerted efforts to address health impacts from climate change, and its drivers
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Knowledge Economy Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This report studies coding bootcamps. A new kind of rapid skills training program for the digital age. Coding bootcamps are typically short-term (three to six months), intensive and applied training courses provided by a third party that crowdsources the demand for low-skills tech talent. Coding bootcamps aim at low-entry level tech employability (for example, junior developer), providing a new tool for entry into the new world of digital jobs. This report studies the characteristics, methodologies, business models and impact of five coding bootcamps operating directly or through partners in developing countries. High employability and employment rates in low-entry tech positions (for example, junior developer, freelancer, and so on) reported by coding bootcamps suggest an untapped potential of this form of rapid tech skills training. From the case studies, there are two factors that seem to exert a major influence over employment outcomes: 1. selection criteria, and 2. extent of links with the local tech ecosystem. However, there is also criticism around bootcamp programs, which have been grounded in three key arguments: quality of programming skills, employability, and "short termism." Early evidence, which is based on a limited number of sources and mostly based on the data from bootcamp providers themselves, calls for additional, more representative, and holistic research
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This education report is a compliment to the 2017 World Bank led Armenia Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD), which focuses on how to improve shared prosperity and reduce poverty in Armenia. This report collates information from recent education studies addressing issues with skills development and gender and spatial differences in educational level and quality. Concurrently, this study will try to link key macroeconomic and demographic issues to issues related to the education sector. Thus, this study will provide an overview of the external and internal issues related to improving education and be central with regards to the direction set out in the SCD linking these to poverty and shared prosperity. This study is organized into four main sections intended to provide a comprehensive analysis of Armenia's education landscape. It will begin with an overview of Armenia's current social and economic context and the factors that have contributed to it. Next, it will dive deeper into the relationship between education and the economy and unique spatial aspects associated with income and education inequalities. It will then assess the key challenges within the education system that are contributing to Armenia's current state of affairs. Finally, the study will present policy recommendations based on the information analyzed. In doing so, the aim will be to equip the Republic of Armenia with a strong set of evidence-based education policies and strategies that will promote broad-based prosperity and poverty reduction and move Armenia forward in the next stage of development
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Water and Sanitation Program
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This report is part of a ...
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the five poorest countries in the world, whether measured by poverty rate or number of poor. Political instability and rapid demographic growth "the second highest in Africa" have driven an increase in the total number of poor that puts extreme pressure on the country's derelict infrastructure. Access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services is low, with particularly dramatic shortfalls among the poorest and rural dwellers, but a pervasive lack of truly safe services even among wealthier and urban households. Water contamination is common even among households with access to piped water in major urban areas, and nearly universal in the rural areas surveyed by this diagnostic. This contamination is making WASH a key contributing factor to a silent emergency that is placing DRC's poor and rapidly growing population at risk of permanent disconnect: widespread malnutrition. Malnutrition is especially common among DRC's children (43 percent in 2014) and has been shown to have irreversible negative effects on physical and cognitive development. This diagnostic analyses these trends and links them to institutional weaknesses in the WASH sector, in particular institutional fragmentation, weak capacity, and a bias toward specific institutions and services. Opportunities for improvement are analyzed and condensed into six clear messages that provide guidance on the way forward for the WASH sector in the DRC
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Europe and Central Asia Economic Update
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Trade played a pivotal role during the transition of many. countries in Europe and Central Asia to market economies. It forced a more efficient use of resourced and supported adoption of new technologies. Going forward, trade will again be crucial as countries adjust to new specialization patterns in the world. The adjustment requires not merely tweaking of trade policies, but rather a rethinking of how labor markets and capital markets are organized
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Arab Spring protests marked the beginning of a new era in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2011. Minor public protests began almost immediately after the initial protests in Cairo in January 2011. The first large demonstrations began two months later in March, and the following months saw a process of escalation as demonstrations spread and increased in size within the country. By the summer of 2011, the armed conflict was already unfolding. Now in its sixth year, the Syrian conflict remains active and is bringing much pain and tragedy on a daily basis. This study provides an assessment of the conflict's impact on economic and social outcomes in Syria as of early 2017. The analysis focuses on taking stock of the effects of the conflict in four areas: (i) physical damage, (ii) loss of lives and demographic dispersion, (iii) economic outcomes, and (iv) human development outcomes
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This World Bank Group (WBG) Guinea-Bissau country partnership framework (CPF) will be the first full country strategy since 1997. The development of the CPF has benefited from the findings of the 2016 systematic country diagnostic (SCD) and the 2015 fragility assessment, and addresses the main lessons learned from the completion and learning review (CLR) at annex 2. It also reflects feedback from consultations with the government, private sector, civil society, and development partners. This CPF supports the national development plan, Terra Ranka (fresh start), which was developed by the government elected in 2014. The CPF presents a selective and flexible WBG program. The focus areas of the CPF program will be on increased access to quality basic services and expanded economic opportunities and enhanced resilience to shocks
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The authorities have actively pursued restoring credibility in the financial system following the collapse of the system's fourth largest bank in 2014. To restore credibility, the authorities - in addition to requesting a Basel Core Principles (BCP) assessment in 2015 and this financial sector assessment program (FSAP) - conducted an asset quality review (AQR) for banks and balance sheet review for non-banks, initiated reforms to Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) supervision and introduced a new bank resolution function. It is important that the authorities continue in their efforts to strengthen the banking sector. The FSAP stress test showed more pronounced effects, though broadly in line with that of the authorities, reflecting differences in approaches. While the financial safety net and crisis management arrangements are based on sound foundations, further effort is needed to fully develop the financial safety net's components. This includes strengthening the early intervention framework, and defining joint BNB - Ministry of Finance (MoF) strategies for liquidity assistance. A more targeted strategy is needed to address high nonperforming loans (NPLs), which can help reinvigorate the economy. A number of reforms are necessary to support the prudent development of the pension and insurance sector
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Water Papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Globally, more than a billion people, approximately 15 percent of the world's population, or one in seven persons, have disabilities. Of those, 80 percent live in developing countries. This number is expected to increase as the prevalence of disability is impacted by disease, war and conflict, natural disasters, and road traffic injuries, among other factors. In addition, persons over the age of 60 comprise 12 percent of the world's population; that proportion is set to rise over 20 percent by 2050. There is a strong correlation between aging and the onset of disability. Persons with disabilities make up a sizable portion of the 2.4 billion people who still lack access to sanitation, and the 663 million who lack access to safe drinking water. Although there are inadequate data to assess the exact number of persons with disabilities who face water scarcity and lack of access, there is evidence that points to the relative marginalization and invisibility of this population in water sector development programs. A 2011-12 survey of 16 Area Development Programs run by World Vision in Ethiopia showed that 96.6 percent of people with disabilities and the elderly faced difficulties in accessing basic water facilities. The note collates recommended strategies and practices in disability-inclusive development programming. It identifies entry points for disability-inclusive water operations in World Bank Group-supported programs, projects and advisory services, and analytics. Case studies, including World Bank Group and external examples, are provided to highlight the use of recommended practices. In addition, the annexes list several technical assistance resources to support task teams and clients in ensuring that infrastructure and services are inclusive of persons with disabilities
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: A strong legal framework that forms the basis for the activities of debt managers is crucial for enabling an effective public debt management function. This paper aims to complement discussions on the legal foundations of debt management by detecting and discussing essential elements that allow the government to issue sukuk, the equivalent of bonds, in Islamic finance. Drawing on the cases of recent sovereign issuers, these discussions begin with outlining the clear provision of a mandate to issue and to employ certain public assets in the execution of underlying transactions, as well to establish, engage with, and administer Special Purpose Vehicles used in structuring these issuances. Additional aspects that need to be addressed are the treatment of proceeds and the assurance of investors with regards to debt service. The enabling environment should be complemented by changes in the taxation regime and financial market regulations that facilitate the issuances
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Ethiopia has achieved substantial progress in economic, social, and human development over the past decade. The country partnership framework (CPF) draws on the findings of the World Bank Group (WBG's) 2016 systematic country diagnostic (SCD) for Ethiopia, which identified eight binding constraints to ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity, along with two overarching challenges: the need for a sustainable financing model for growth, and inadequate feedback mechanisms to facilitate citizen engagement and government account- ability. This CPF succeeds the Ethiopia FY13-FY16 country partnership strategy (CPS), which was discussed at the Board on August 29, 2012. It also reflects lessons learned and resulting suggestions from the CPS completion and learning review (CLR), which is presented in this report. Following a decade of strong economic growth in Ethiopia, the CPF addresses the challenges of forging a growth path that is more broadly inclusive and sustainable. The CPF program will focus on: (i) promoting structural and economic transformation through increased productivity; (ii) building resilience and inclusiveness (including gender equality); and (iii) supporting institutional accountability and confronting corruption. This CPF adopts a spatial lens through which this five-year program will seek to deliver bold results and to tackle two of the greatest spatial challenges to Ethiopia's quest to achieve lower middle-income status by 2025
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Seychelles Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the most pressing constraints to inclusive, sustained growth in Seychelles, based on a comprehensive search for, and analysis of, evidence. The SCD is presented using a slide deck which lays out the analysis and results. This document provides a brief overview of the approach taken, and sets the stage for the SCD. It also provides additional information: six selected supplementary topical notes, and annexes (data diagnostic, summary of consultations, and sources). The framework adopted by the SCD takes as its starting point that Seychelles is a successful, high-income, small island state. The country now seeks to secure the sustainability of its development progress to date, to accelerate this progress, and to address a high level of public concern being reflected in political discourse over disparities in incomes and opportunities. The SCD examines Seychelles' economic growth characteristics, the characteristics of poverty and income distribution (inclusion), and the risks to environmental, social and macroeconomic sustainability. The approach is systematic in that it attempts to be as comprehensive as possible, within the constraints of the available data, by harnessing the existing evidence and conducting new analysis where feasible, informed by consultations. Finally, the SCD sorts the 13 constraints identified into five top priorities, five additional priorities, and a further three areas which should be considered for priority action, subject to confirmation from additional analysis ('likely priorities'). This prioritization was based on an assessment of how important each constraint was, directly, to meeting the relevant challenge, indirectly, through its potential impact in helping to loosen other constraints (complementarity), the strength of the evidence base on the importance of the constraint, and, finally, the attainability of addressing the constraint (reflecting factors such as cost, technical difficulty and timeframe)
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Solomon Islands is a small, remote archipelago in the South Pacific that faces a fairly unique set of development challenges. Solomon Islands is now at a critical juncture in its development trajectory. Neither the economic geography nor the present political economy of Solomon Islands is particularly conducive to the establishment of state institutions capable of managing upcoming socioeconomic change. Because of the weaknesses of state institutions, and consistent with Solom on Islands' historical experience, a variety of non-state and international actors will need to play important roles in managing upcoming and potentially risky socioeconomic change. This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) for Solomon Islands identifies key challenges and opportunities for achieving inclusive and sustainable growth, to accelerate progress toward the World Bank Group's twin goals of reducing extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: State and Trends of Carbon Pricing
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The report is a one stop shop for learning about key developments and prospects of existing and emerging carbon initiatives. There is a continued momentum for carbon pricing. As of 2017, over 40 national and 25 subnational jurisdictions representing almost a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions are putting a price on carbon. Over the past decade the number of jurisdictions with carbon pricing initiatives have doubled. On average, carbon pricing initiatives cover about half of the emissions in these jurisdictions, which translates to a total coverage of about 8 Gigatons of carbon dioxide or about 15% of global emissions (a fourfold increase over the past decade)
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This report examines the economic and development consequences of antimicrobial resistance(AMR)-the capacity that disease-causing microorganisms acquire to resist the drugs we've createdto fight them. The report uses World Bank Group economic simulation tools to put a price tag onAMR's destructive impacts on the global economy from 2017 through 2050, if adequate measuresaren't taken to contain the AMR threat. The report highlights actions low- and middle-income countries and their development partners can take to counter AMR, and estimates the investment required. It shows that putting resources into AMR containment now is one of the highest-yield investments countries can make. Antimicrobials are drugs that destroy disease-causing microbes, also called pathogens, such as certain bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. The most familiar and important antimicrobials are antibiotics, which treat bacterial infections. Other antimicrobials combat viral and parasitic diseases, such as AIDS and malaria. Since their use began some 70 years ago, antimicrobials have saved hundreds of millions of lives
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Law and Justice Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: It is acknowledged that conflict over land is a major source of violence in various parts of Mindanao, particularly the prosed Bangsamoro region. Historical accounts trace the root cause of land issues and identity-based conflict to the introduction of the Regalian doctrine of land ownership by Spanish colonizers. During the American colonial regime at the turn of the 20th century, dispossession of land held by the original inhabitants of Mindanao accelerated, with an emphasis of titling lands for private ownership that clashed with the tradition of ancestral domain. This was further exacerbated by migration instigated by the central government, starting with the development of "agricultural colonies: in the early 1900s to 1940s, to the passage of a series of land reform laws from the 1960s until the end of the 1980s to encourage individual land titling as a strategy for agricultural development. These evens radically altered land ownership patterns in Mindanao, as communal ownership of land by its original inhabitants gave way to individual titles in the possession of settlers from Luzon and the Visayas
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Philippine economy remained resilient to global headwinds in 2016. While a slower-than-expected global recovery weakened net exports, surging domestic demands pushed the annual GDP growth rate to 6.8 percent, year-on-year. Investment drove economy-wide growth for the first time since 2013, as the government's expansionary fiscal-policy stance helped capital formation to expand by 20.8 percent year-on-year led by the construction sector. Consumption growth remained strong at a rate of 6.9 percent year-on-year, as accommodative monetary policies kept interest rates low, supporting a double-digit expansion in consumer lending. Meanwhile, low inflation at 1.8 percent boosted households' purchasing power, while a steady increase in remittance inflows accelerated the growth of household consumption. Overall, 2016 saw a marked rise in consumer confidence, reflecting a healthy job market and effective social protection programs
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The fiscal space analysis for the health sector in Zimbabwe is timely and the need for such analysis has been strongly expressed by the government and its development partners. This imperative is Justified on multiple grounds. As the country is hit by an economic crisis resulting in lower revenues and cuts in expenditures, Understanding the consequences and assessing coping strategies for the health sector is critical. As the Country engages in The implementation of its new health sector strategy which sets ambitious targets in terms of Health outcomes towards Universal Health Coverage, it Is also critical to explore ways to increase resources for the sector, Even in A constrained macro-fiscal environment. The fiscal space analysis also highlights the major sources of inefficiencies to identify areas for improvement to increase the value for money in the sector. Overall, the fiscal space analysis aims to generate evidence to inform MOFED and MOHCC on short-term and medium-term options to generate resources for the health sector. It will provide evidence for government partner consultations on short-term options and choices in light of declining public financing for health and a difficult economic growth outlook
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Despite economic progress over the last decade, disparities between women and men remain salient in Armenia, especially in dimensions that are powerfully influenced by social norms. In domains like education and health, gender equality in outcomes in Armenia are broadly comparable with those in Europe and Central Asia and better than those of lower-middle-income countries globally. However, barriers to women's access to economic opportunities persist and gender inequalities are manifest in demographic imbalances, and under-representation in leadership roles. Concerted policy efforts are required to close gender gaps that hamper growth of the overall economy
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Sustaining in recent years expenditure on early childhood education (ECE) at over a fifth of its education budget, Mongolia is a relatively high spender on pre-primary education. This report examines structural and process aspects of quality in Mongolian kindergartens, along with early development outcomes among children enrolled in these kindergartens, to assess the effectiveness and equity of the country's public investments in ECE. The analysis shows that while the last decade saw tremendous progress in improving access to preschool overall, the most disadvantaged and vulnerable are still excluded from the system. Further, an assessment of child development outcomes shows that even after significant exposure to formal preschool services in the public sector, socioeconomic gaps in outcomes remain large. At the same time, potential areas where relatively low-cost investments could reap significant gains remain unexploited. Key among these is use of home- or community-based ECE interventions that could improve school preparedness among children in rural areas not enrolled in preschools. Another is the potential for an expanded role for the private sector in urban areas
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Water Papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This analysis looks specifically at the need to ensure continued development of water resources within Lesotho and aims to empower stakeholders to act with more confidence by demonstrating that the implementation strategies can provide benefits to water resources management over a broad range of possible future scenarios. The analysis quantifies a range of possible future conditions to demonstrate the benefits that can be realized over a broad range of possible future outcomes. This quantification is based on a water resource decision support model developed specifically for Lesotho, using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model which couples climate, hydrologic, and water management systems to facilitate an evaluation of the uncertainties and strategies of impacts on specified management metrics. The WEAP model was used to simulate the historic climate based on data from the national government archives and global datasets available in the public domain. These included 121 downscaled Global Climate Model (GCM) projections of future climate over two possible water demand future scenarios, for a total of 244 scenarios up to the year 2050. The analysis concludes the following: (a)Climate change has important determinants for the future, long-term sustainable macroeconomic development of Lesotho: (b)Domestic and industrial water security is highly vulnerable under historical and current climate conditions, as well as under the full range of climate future scenarios; (c) Agriculture production will remain vulnerable to inter-annual variability over the coming decades, particularly with continued reliance on rain fed agriculture; and (d) The Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) will continue to reliably meet transfers to South Africa over the coming decades unless climate conditions are about 5 percent drier or more than the historical record
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Water Papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The global commitment to bring universal access to safely managed water supply and sanitation by 2030 set by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) poses an unprecedented challenge. Strong political leadership will be required to bring about sector-wide changes in governance and building technical and administrative capacity at scale. This will pave the way for building, operating, and maintaining cost-effective infrastructure to supply improved and sustained services. The current model of sector finance is insufficient for reaching thee goals. Four interlinked priority actions should be taken to tackle this challenge: (1) make more efficient use of existing resources; (2) use public funds in a more targeted manner; (3) attract domestic commercial finance; and (4) focus on de-risking the sector. Through these steps, countries will be able to leverage each dollar of public funds to crowd in commercial finance, which will have significant and long-term benefits for the sector. Countries should aim to slowly and incrementally introduce commercial finance to the sector, and can ease the transition through a range of available tools
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This Indonesia Economic Quarterly (IEQ) reports on the key developments over the past three months in Indonesia's economy as on January 2017. The return of global policy uncertainty and financial market volatility represent risks to Indonesia's growth outlook. However, Indonesia's recent economic performance and policy reforms can help weather these risks. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth eased in third quarter as government consumption fell. The current account deficit narrowed and direct investment was strong in third quarter. Domestic financial conditions remain robust despite recent global headwinds. Fiscal policy credibility was enhanced through expenditure cuts in 2016 and more realistic revenue targets in the approved 2017 Budget. Baseline projections for real GDP growth remain at 5.1 percent for 2016 and 5.3 percent in 2017. Improving the quality of public spending is critical for Indonesia to achieve its development goals in the short to medium term. Student-centered teaching practices result in better student learning outcomes
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The first chapter of the ...
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The objective of the Comoros public expenditure and fiscal management review is to assist the Government of Comoros in strengthening the basis for the management of its public expenditure program. The review takes stock of expenditure trends and the systems governing public spending, with an emphasis on strengthening fiscal sustainability, budget credibility and strengthening fiscal management in the electricity and service delivery sectors
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: South Asia Economic Focus
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: For eight consecutive quarters South Asia was the fastest-growing region in the world but not anymore. Despite benign global conditions, regional growth has slowed down. This trend is the result of a deceleration in India, the region's powerhouse. Short-term disruptions related to the introduction of the landmark Goods and Services Tax can explain the steep decline observed in the last quarter, but the deceleration has been going on for more than one year. Over this period imports increased sharply while private investment declined. Behind these trends lies a combination of large public sector borrowing (especially by the states), relatively sticky interest rates despite decreasing inflation, and an increasingly stressed financial sector. While growth has slightly accelerated elsewhere in the region, concerns remain. Bangladesh has seen an increase in financial sector risks and in Pakistan macroeconomic discipline has weakened. At 6.7 percent, growth is projected to remain strong in South Asia in 2017, albeit slightly lower than forecast in June. The growth rate is expected to stabilize around 7 percent over the medium term. Consumption should remain strong and private investment should regain momentum thanks to ongoing support from infrastructure development and economic reforms. Measuring GDP is especially challenging in developing countries, where the informal sector is large and institutional constraints can be severe. As a result, GDP growth estimates are often met with skepticism. But new technologies offer an opportunity to improve matters. Luminosity observed from satellites has been shown to be a good proxy for economic activity, and methodologies have been developed in recent years to predict GDP over time and across space based on nightlight intensity. In South Asia's case, GDP predicted using these methodologies closely tracks National Accounts GDP at the aggregate level, and provides a granular picture of GDP at subnational levels. Nightlight intensity also yields new insights on recent economic developments
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Water and Sanitation Program
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Cities in the developing world are witnessing unprecedented growth rates. It is expected that 70 percent of the global population will live in cities by 2050. In urban areas, as in rural areas, women and girls are often the primary users, providers, and managers of water in their household, and are the guardians of household hygiene and health. In spaces of urban poverty, such as slums, women and girls experience multiple deprivations that arise from insecurity of land tenure, informal access mechanisms, over- crowding, and the various stresses of urban life. The water supply and sanitation sector, is the juncture at which broader goals of poverty alleviation, social development, gender equality, and sustainable urban development converge. How issues of gender and urban poverty can be addressed comprehensively in the design and implementation of urban water supply and sanitation (UWSS) programs is not yet well understood. In order to address these gaps in knowledge, the World Bank commissioned a study to analyze UWSS issues among the urban poor through a gender and social exclusion lens. Using India, with its burgeoning population and growing number of urban poor, as the context, this study assesses how women, girls, and socially excluded groups are impacted by poor access to water supply and sanitation and how they can be engaged in the design and management of water supply and sanitation programs. It is expected that the findings from this study will inform Government of India's policies in this sector and assist in the design of future World Bank-supported UWSS projects
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Mining, Oil and Gas
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This is a background paper to the Pacific Possible report. Technological progress has given rise to increased interest in deep sea minerals. This report takes stock of existing policy, legal and fiscal arrangements supporting DSM decision making and the regulatory and institutional capacities necessary to assure positive outcomes. As such, the report summarizes the knowns and unknowns characterizing the current state of DSM, frames the need to apply the precautionary approach given information uncertainty, and identifies professional and institutional capacity building needs. Given the significant uncertainties and weak institutional capacity in the countries of the Region, the report recommends the precautionary approach to DSM, which among others includes the option of no development if the risks are found to be larger than the benefits. It also recommends that regional regulatory collaboration takes place in a way that is respectful of sovereignty considerations
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Education Sector Review
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The World Bank is re-engaging in the education sector in Burundi at a time when the country has launched a major reform of its school education system, including the lengthening of the compulsory basic education cycle to 9 years in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. Due to the withdrawal of many donors from the education sector, after the events of 2015, as well as the general fiscal and economic contraction, the gains achieved in the last decade, especially in primary education, might be rapidly eroded. Consequently, a stock-taking exercise was undertaken by the Bank, focusing on four areas identified at the time of the concept note review. This summary report is based on the four pieces of analytical work and is intended to help the World Bank engage with all stakeholders in order to consolidate the recent gains and move the reform forward. In the next fiscal year, the findings from these studies will be used to engage in a broader dialogue and consensus building with the key stakeholders
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: City Development Strategy
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Technology is one of the main drivers of productivity and economic growth. Developing countries have traditionally had difficulties in both developing technology and absorbing foreign technology. Seventy to eighty percent of the productivity gap between developed and developing countries is estimated to result from the lag in the adoption of technologies in these countries. Tech start-ups are an effective a mechanism to both create local technology and absorb foreign technology. In recent years, there has been a surge in tech start-ups across the world. Fueled by global technology-led cost reductions and increased access to resources, tech entrepreneurs have emerged in both develop and developing countries. However, there is little understanding of how these tech entrepreneurs form ecosystems, their internal dynamics, how they work, what makes them grow and achieve sustainability, how they connect with the local economy to drive productivity and employment, and why some ecosystems are more effective than others The objective of this report is to provide a better understanding of the status of Dar Es Salaam's start-up ecosystem and provide policy recommendations for policy makers and other stakeholders who are interested in supporting the growth and sustainability of the ecosystem
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: A broad-based recovery in global economic activity has been taking hold since late 2016. Industrial production has picked up and global trade accelerated after two years of pronounced weakness. A gradual recovery in commodity prices diminished growth constraints among commodity exporters, including major emerging economies. Despite heightened policy uncertainty, growth in major advanced economies, including the United States, the European Union, and Japan, has strengthened, reflecting buoyant domestic demand and rising exports. Growth in developing East Asia and Pacific (EAP) continues to be resilient as already robust domestic demand was supported by a pickup in external demand and a gradual recovery in commodity prices. After a large surplus in 2016, Vietnam's external current account balance started to decline in early 2017. Robust growth in exports, tourism receipts, and private remittances led to a current account surplus of about 4 percent of GDP in 2016, marking the sixth consecutive year of a widening current account surplus. The financial account also saw large net inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) and long-term loans, allowing the State Bank of Vietnam to gradually rebuild foreign reserves. The current account surplus started to decline in early 2017 due to a recovery in import growth. Bolstered by a strong external position, the nominal exchange rate has been relatively stable but the real exchange rate continues to appreciate. The reference rate was devalued modestly by 1.23 percent in 2016 and around 1.3 percent year-to-date in 2017. Meanwhile, the real effective exchange rate continued to appreciate by about 5 percent in 2016 and 24 percent since 2010. Real exchange rate appreciation is driven by a large external surplus of the FDI sector, but is a concern for Vietnam's domestic private enterprises, which continue to face significant external imbalance and competitiveness challenges. This special focus issue is part of two-part series on fiscal reforms. While this installment of the taking stock special topic is focused on specific revenue and debt management options to underpin more sustainable and efficient fiscal management, the December issue will focus on expenditure restructuring
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Despite bold efforts to consolidate public finances, Ukraine's growth potential remains undermined by a large public sector, high public debt levels and inefficient provision of critical public services. The Ukraine government faces new public spending pressures which, if realized, would reverse recent fiscal consolidation gains. In this context, the objective of this Public Finance Review (PFR) is to inform the government of Ukraine about fiscal reform options to restore sustainability of public finances while improving critical public services and improving medium-term growth prospects. The PFR offers reform options for a gradual and sustainable fiscal deficit reduction and mitigation of risks to debt sustainability through broadening the tax base, improved tax administration, and more efficient public spending. Chapter 1 provides an overview of Ukraine's fiscal situation and key pressures to fiscal sustainability. Chapter 2 focuses on options to broaden the tax base and improve tax administration following the recent tax reform measures. Although Ukraine already collects a high share of Gross domestic product as taxes, it can improve tax compliance, broaden the tax base, and reduce the tax burden. Improving tax administration and broadening the tax base are critical to improve fiscal sustainability in the short term and to create a foundation for sustainable economic growth in the medium term. Chapter 3 focuses on options to improve the fiscal sustainability of the pensions system, which is the largest public finance expenditure item and a source of fiscal vulnerability on the expenditure side. Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 look at opportunities for delivering public services, specifically, education, health, social assistance and decentralization, that are more efficient, equitable and higher quality. Reforms in these areas are anchors of Ukraine's long-term fiscal sustainability and core elements of the strategy to reduce the fiscal deficit. Analyses of expenditures in this review are structured according to functions rather than economic categories
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Good jobs are in short supply in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Sustainable, better employment opportunities must come from higher labor demand from a dynamic and internationally competitive private sector, the result of an advanced economic transition from a state controlled to a market led economy. This note focuses on job creation from the perspective of enterprise sector dynamics in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The purpose is to understand, better, the dynamics of job creation, where and how firms and jobs are created, and the most important constraints to job creation from the firm perspective. Drawing on several sources of data, including firm registry, data on entrepreneurship, labor force surveys, and policy indicators, the note contributes to the job diagnostics necessary to devise relevant policy to increase job opportunities in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and is intended to provide guidance to researchers and policymakers in other countries wishing to understand better the role of the private sector in employment. Despite some significant business climate reforms, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has not seen private sector dynamics or 'entrepreneurship' improve sufficiently. In sum, the transition of workers and jobs from low productivity sectors to higher productivity sectors has stalled in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Prior to the economic crisis, countries which had advanced more in the transition process saw higher productivity growth than the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, more inflows of workers into the services sector, and substantive net job creation. In the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, in contrast, labor reallocation is still incomplete. One fifth of the population remains in low productivity agriculture and one third is informally employed. Between 2007 and 2011 the formal private sector created only 12 percent of all new jobs
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Commodities Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The groundnut value chain is of major economic, social and political importance in Senegal. Most rural households grow the crop, and its transport, storage or processing is a key source of nonfarm employment in both formal and informal enterprises. Senegal's groundnut sector was originally developed by colonial authorities, using a monopoly over exports to control the domestic market. For groundnuts in Senegal, the French-owned oil processor was nationalized to form SONACOS in 1975, which proved increasingly costly to operate and was eventually privatized in 2005 to form SUNEOR in 2007. That too has suffered increasing losses and in January 2010 the government finally ended the monopoly system, allowing farmers to sell to competing firms for either direct export or processing. Despite turmoil in the groundnut processing sector, groundnut production itself remains a mainstay of the rural economy. This report builds on a number of previous studies to inform ongoing changes in the sector. Most notably, we build on the diagnostic analysis of the groundnut value chain that was conducted in 2014 (World Bank 2015) and addressed a set of key reform proposals. The focus of this report is detailed in its Terms of Reference (Annex 4)
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Each year countries suffer great tragedy when natural disasters destroy schools and disrupt children's education. In addition to causing immediate harm to children, there is mounting evidence that the direct impact of natural disasters can translate into a series of indirect long-term effects. For some time, multilateral and bilateral development finance institutions, United Nations (UN) agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been engaged in efforts to make schools resilient to natural hazards. Despite these efforts, however, the safety of school facilities in many disaster-prone countries is unknown, and governments and donors continue to finance new school construction without taking sufficient account of safety. In 2014, the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) launched the Global Program for Safer Schools (GPSS). Through the GPSS, GFDRR support programs designed to establish safer school facilities in countries where the government has firmly committed to a reform or investment program in the education sector. GFDRR provides technical assistance to ensure that such education sector programs finance safer school facilities. The aim of the GPSS is to make school facilities, and the communities they serve, more resilient to natural hazards. This Roadmap is focused specifically on school infrastructure (which includes the school site and buildings). For investment opportunities to be effective and to have maximum impact at community and national scales, it is important that this support is coordinated with investments in school disaster management, risk reduction and resilience in education, and disaster preparedness in other sectors
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Climate change is damaging human health now and is projected to have a greater impact in the future. Low- and middle-income countries are seeing the worst effects as they are most vulnerable to climate shifts and least able to adapt given weak health systems and poor infrastructure. Low-carbon approach can provide effective, cheaper care while at the same time being climate smart. Low-carbon healthcare can advance institutional strategies toward low-carbon development and health-strengthening imperatives and inspire other development institutions and investors working in this space. Low-carbon healthcare provides an approach for designing, building, operating, and investing in health systems and facilities that generate minimal amounts of greenhouse gases. It puts health systems on a climate-smart development path, aligning health development and delivery with global climate goals. This approach saves money by reducing energy and resource costs. It can improve the quality of care in a diversity of settings. By prompting ministries of health to tackle climate change mitigation and foster low-carbon healthcare, the development community can help governments strengthen local capacity and support better community health
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The strong economic growth enjoyed by the Dominican Republic following its 2003 domestic crisis was not matched by similarly substantial progress in poverty reduction. While labor productivity grew by an estimated 39 percent between 2000 and 2013, real wages fell with the crisis in 2003/04, and, in 2013, remained below their pre-crisis level. This report presents an assessment of factors related to the functioning of the labor markets that constrained more inclusive growth in the Dominican Republic. It explores several hypotheses related to labor supply factors, job creation, and global trends in returns to labor, as well as issues with statistical measurements that contribute to explain the weak relationship observed between growth and poverty reduction. The analysis finds that growth appears to have been driven by productivity increases rather than by increases in labor inputs. At the same time, low-skilled workers became increasingly concentrated in low-quality jobs and in sectors that saw low productivity growth, a trend enhanced by the loss of manufacturing jobs since 2000. Low rates of labor force participation, particularly among the poor, further limited the ability of households to benefit from growth
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Reducing poverty and inequality continues to be an important national priority in Namibia. Vision 2030 - the country's guiding development strategy - has a subordinate vision that points to several goals: "Poverty is reduced to the minimum, the existing pattern of income-distribution is equitable and disparity is at the minimum." Vision 2030 is being implemented via a series of five-year National Development Plans, with the current National Development Plan IV (NDP4) covering 2012 through to 2017. NDP4 sets specific numerical targets. One is reducing the incidence of extreme poverty to less than 10 percent of individuals by the end of FY2016/17, measured at the national lower bound poverty line of N
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  • 52
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The quest for an alternative development model that underlies Moldova's National Development Strategy (NDS), Moldova 2020, is a recognition that the two main drivers of economic growth and poverty reduction since the early 2000s are no longer sustainable. Growth was powered largely by consumption, and poverty reduction mainly by remittances and pensions. Since neither are expected to continue, future growth and poverty reduction will need to be driven increasingly by private sector-led job creation. Moreover, given the country's vulnerability to changes in external demand and weather shocks, due to its small size, open economy, and reliance on agriculture, Moldova's future development path will also need to include measures to renew and protect its human, physical, and social capital stock. Against this background, the main purpose of the FY18-21 Country Partnership Framework (CPF) is to support Moldova's transition towards a new, more sustainable and inclusive development and growth model. It is grounded in the NDS, takes into account outcomes of the FY14-17 Country Partnership Strategy (CPS), and incorporates the three topmost priorities of the recent Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD), namely: (a) strengthening the rule of law and accountability in economic institutions; (b) improving inclusive access to and the efficiency and quality of public services; and (c) enhancing the quality and relevance of education and training for job-relevant skills. These three priorities define and inform the CPF's three focus areas: economic governance, service governance, and skills development, which are supplemented by climate change, a World Bank Group corporate priority, as a cross-cutting theme. The CPF incorporates key lessons learned during the last CPS, that political instability and governance challenges slow the pace of reform and that frequent personnel changes affect portfolio performance. Further, it assumes that the economic, political, and social stability experienced since January 2016 will continue at least until parliamentary elections in November 2018. Given that Moldova's post-election political orientation, policy environment, and stability are uncertain, only the first half of the CPF (FY18-19) is programmed. Activities for the second half (FY20-21) will be defined during the FY19 Performance and Learning Review (PLR)
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  • 53
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Institutional and Governance Review
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This report was developed ...
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  • 54
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Nicaragua remains one of the poorest countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). About 30 percent of the population lived below the official poverty line in 2014, and eight percent were considered extremely poor. GDP per capita stood at about USD 2,087 in 2015, the second lowest in LAC after Haiti. Access to basic services, such as electricity and water and sanitation, is low and largely unequal. Other key social indicators, including access to education, completion rates, and teenage pregnancy, also lag behind the regional average. Since the country's democratic transition in the early 1990s, Nicaragua has undergone a solid economic recovery from a very low base, due to three main factors. These include i) improved macroeconomic management and debt relief; ii) reforms aiming at transforming Nicaragua back into a market economy; and iii) demographic change. As a result, real GDP growth averaged about 4 percent between 1994 and 2015
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  • 55
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA) is one of the fastest-growing city regions in West Africa. GAMA is exposed to recurrent shocks and stresses on top of numerous developmental challenges and climate change issues that threaten development gains. The deadly floods of June 2015 are a reminder that creating a resilient and inclusive city must be a priority at all government levels. This report summarizes the outcomes of the process and outlines the recommendations that were identified jointly by national and local stakeholders in Ghana and World Bank specialists. Furthermore, the report provides evidence that can be leveraged by the government to request further support from the World Bank and other development partners to implement follow-up actions. The overarching message of this report is that actions are needed now to better manage and mitigate the risks and exposure of Accra to climate change and the associated shocks and stresses, gravely affecting the economy, key sectors, and the lives of households and families. Without any action, Accra remains exposed to significant and recurrent hazards, with a risk of diminishing the development gains made over the last decades. Therefore, as government moves forward to take action on this challenge, this report provides a concrete and detailed forward-looking strategy that may guide and inform policy and budget decisions, and thus eventually leading to a thriving, inclusive and more resilient Greater Accra Metropolitan Area
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  • 56
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This document presents the World Bank Group (WBG) Country Partnership Framework (CPF) withthe Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) for 2017-2021. The WBG CPF aims at supportingLasting Accessible Opportunities for all including sustained green growth, improved access to humanand infrastructure services, and opportunities for all. The previous Country Partnership Strategy (CPS)2012-2016 built a solid foundation and a strong relationship with the Government of Lao PDR (GOL). The CPF supports the GOL's 8th National Socio-Economic Development Plan (NSEDP) for2016-2020. The 8th NSEDP introduces policies intended to put Lao PDR on a path to reduce povertyand promote shared prosperity in a sustainable manner, based on green growth principles. Lao PDR'sdevelopment has advanced greatly in the last two decades, although significant challenges remain.Incomes have risen, poverty has declined, access to several key public services has improved and asa result Lao PDR met a number of its Millennium Development Goals. With GDP growth averaging8 percent per year since 2000, Lao PDR today is a lower-middle income country with a GNI percapita of around US
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  • 57
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This report was drafted by a working group of United Nations entities, the World Bank, and other stakeholders to suggest a common understanding of the blue economy; to highlight the importance of such an approach, particularly for small island developing states and coastal least developed countries; to identify some of the key challenges its adoption poses; and to suggest some broad next steps that are called for in order to ensure its implementation. Although the term "blue economy" has been used in different ways, it is understood here as comprising the range of economic sectors and related policies that together determine whether the use of oceanic resources is sustainable. An important challenge of the blue economy is thus to understand and better manage the many aspects of oceanic sustainability, ranging from sustainable fisheries to ecosystem health to pollution. A second significant issue is the realization that the sustainable management of ocean resources requires collaboration across nation-states and across the public-private sectors, and on a scale that has not been previously achieved. This realization underscores the challenge facing the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) as they turn to better managing their blue economies
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  • 58
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: There is a wealth of scientific reports that records the actual climatic changes that have been taking place during recent years. While there is debate over the causes of climate change, the rate at which this phenomenon is increasing is overwhelming - with the evidence indicating that the changes in our environment will impact large parts of the globe. The Transport and ICT Global Practice (T and I) provides clients with physical and virtual connectivity solutions, to facilitate the movement of people, goods and information, thus enabling access to food, jobs, health and education services, and stimulating economic and social development. This report highlights some challenges to the research and academic fraternity in understanding climatic impacts on road networks better, developing more resilient technologies and, most importantly, developing a better understanding to quantify the impact or benefits of climate adaptation strategies. The main conclusion of this report is that asset management, when undertaken according to best practice, is already one of the most significant climate adaptation strategies. With minor adaption to existing asset management processes and techniques, a far greater return may be gained from investment to allow for changing demands on road infrastructure, both from a changing climate and from an ever-changing population. For more information, visit http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/transport
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  • 59
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The World Bank supported West Bengal Accelerated Development of Minor Irrigation Project assumes a centre stage position in the current context of bringing water to every farm (Har Khet ko Pani) under the recently launched Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMSKY). With an objective to "enhance agricultural production of small and marginal farmers of the project area in West Bengal through development of minor irrigation infrastructure and agriculture support system", the Project was launched in 2012, partnering the Department of Water Resources Investigation and Development, Government of West Bengal. To achieve its outcomes, the Project focuses on strengthening community-based organizations, especially water users' association with a strong focus on gender aspects, irrigation systems development and improvement, agriculture, horticulture and fisheries development
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  • 60
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Bangladesh economy is weathering persistent global uncertainties relatively well. Poverty reduction is expected to have continued. Growth remained resilient, aided recently by recovery in exports and private investments. Inflation has decelerated benefitting from soft international commodity prices and prudent macroeconomic management. The outlook for Bangladesh's main export destinations is projected to improve, although downside risks remain elevated. More recently, falling export growth and decline in remittances are emerging near term concerns. According to our model, increased capital accumulation can contribute significantly to boosting growth, but alone cannot deliver a sustainable and accelerated growth path. More is needed, including closing the inter-sectoral productivity gap through increased resource mobility, easing the constraints on firm level productivity and increasing female labor force participation in the formal sectors. In addition, poor infrastructure, inadequate energy supply, and inefficient financial intermediation combined with high cost of doing business remain the key obstacles hindering the realization of Bangladesh's vast economic potential
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  • 61
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Aral Sea Basin consists of the drainage area of two major rivers, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. The rivers originate in the Tien Shan Mountains and the Pamirs, and run through Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. An estimated 116 k
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  • 62
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The negative GDP growth r ...
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  • 63
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: In late 2013, the Ministry of Finance (MoF) of the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) requested that the World Bank and UNSOM jointly conduct a public expenditure review of the security and justice sectors (SJPER). An SJPER is a tool to assist policy and operational decision-making, analyze tradeoffs, and provide options on critical financially-related issues in defense, as well as criminal justice and policing. Three years later, Somalia is undergoing yet another political transition with the election of a new parliament and ultimately a new president. These steps will augur in a new government in 2017 that will be charged with finalizing some of the key issues around the constitution, including the relationship between the federal state and its federal members, as well as leading the country to democratic elections in 2020. Security and justice issues are hinged to many of these overarching political questions; these are two fundamental 'public goods' that are central to the (re)building of the Somali state and the transition from war to peace. In this context, the SJPER is a technical tool to assist the FGS, the federal members, and their international partners in placing these critical security and justice policy questions within a public finance perspective. As a tool, rather than a one-off report, it should be used by the authorities and partners going forward in terms of testing the critical policy questions against the key dimensions studied here, including affordability, efficiency and effectiveness and accountability
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  • 64
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Europe and Central Asia Economic Update
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Public concerns in Europe and Central Asia over the recent sharp increase in asylum seekers and undocumented migrants seem to reflect a broader anxiety about reduced job security, caused by technological developments and internationalization of production and work. Policy reforms should help both migrants and non-migrants cope with increased and unavoidable flexibility in labor markets
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  • 65
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Rural Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: In recent years, the prospects of Kenya's tourism industry have been clouded by a perfect storm of misfortunes - insecurity, growing global competition, and unsustainable tourism development. It is in this context that the potential and actual contribution of the tourism sector to the country's development has been questioned, with claims that tourism contributes less to the Kenyan economy than commonly thought. This report is arranged as follows: Chapter 1 identifies linkages with sectors that provide inputs into tourism as well as sectors that benefit from the boost in demand generated by the industry (termed the backward and forward linkages respectively). The results in Chapter 2 indicate that the effects on the economy depend on the cross-sectoral linkages. Hence, impacts on the economy differ depending on whether they emanate from changes in foreign tourist arrivals, changes in domestic tourist demand, oil price shocks, or foreign exchange shocks. Chapter 3 attempts to explore how long-term growth and poverty rates are affected with investments in the different segments of the tourism industry. Finally, recognizing that growth in the sector is dependent upon sustainable resource use, Chapter 4 contributes to the analysis of alternative policy strategies by investigating policies for the allocation of water. This is a highly relevant, though much neglected issue as Kenya is amongst the most water scarce countries in Africa and also has a highly water intensive economy (when measured in per capita availability, Kenya is more water scarce than land, and projections suggest the former will get worse faster). The Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model is also used to examine the growth consequences of reallocating water from the highly water-dependent tourism industry to other sectors of the economy
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  • 66
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: City Development Strategy
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Technology is one of the main drivers of productivity and economic growth. Developing countries have traditionally had difficulties in both developing technology and absorbing foreign technology. However, the recent emergence of tech startups present an opportunity. Tech start-ups are an effective a mechanism to both create local technology and absorb foreign technology. The objective of this report is to provide a better understanding of the status of Beirut's start-up ecosystem and provide policy recommendations for policy makers and other stakeholders who are interested in supporting the growth and sustainability of the ecosystem. The report is based on an in-depth survey of startups and supportive stakeholders of the ecosystem. The findings point out to an early-to middle stage start-up ecosystem that has passed its nascent growth phase but is still far from maturity. Skills, supportive infrastructure, finance pipeline, and community and networks are examined and gaps are identified. Policy recommendations to tackle these gaps are presented based on international practices
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  • 67
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This 10th South Africa Economic Update offers a review of the country's recent economic and social developments and outlook in the context of global economic prospects. It focuses on the role of innovation in fostering economic growth, job creation and poverty reduction in an environment in which more South Africans are getting poorer. Main conclusions emerging from this analysis suggest that policies to spur innovation can go a long way in addressing unemployment, poverty and inequality in South Africa. It is our hope that South Africa will continue, and possibly expand, using the World Bank vast body of knowledge, global experience and its convening power as a platform for exchange and peer-to-peer learning in the identification of pragmatic solutions to reach the country's National Development Plan's goals
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  • 68
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Philippines Economic ...
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  • 69
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy Sector Management Assistance Program Papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Madagascar has enormous energy resources, particularly renewable ones (hydraulic, solar, wind, biomass), but national energy consumption is still very low, and is dominated by wood energy and its by-products. Madagascar imports all of its petrol products, and energy costs are too high to effectively contribute to social and economic development of the country. ESMAP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program) is a technical assistance program managed by the World Bank and supported by eleven bilateral donors. ESMAP launched in January 2013 as an initiative to support the efforts of countries to improve knowledge of their renewable energy resources (REN), to establish appropriate institutional frameworks for the development of REN, and to provide free access to geospatial resources and data. This initiative will also support the IRENA-GlobalAtlas program by improving data availability and quality, through an interactive atlas. This study is part of a technical assistance project funded by ESMAP and implemented by the World Bank in Madagascar , which aims to support mapping resources and geospatial planning for small hydropower. It is conducted in close coordination with the Ministry of Energy, the Electricity Regulation Office (ERO), Development Agency of Rural Electrification (DARE) and Jiro sy Rano Malagasy (JIRAMA)
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