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  • World Bank  (3,203)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: ill , 30 cm
    DDC: 304.6/32/0962
    Keywords: Fertility ; Egypt ; Egypt ; Population ; Birth control ; Egypt
    Note: World Fertility Survey, International Statistical Institute , This project was conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey and with the collaboration of the World Bank"--T.p. verso , Includes bibliographical references
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Abstract: The COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic and its economic and social effects on households have created an urgent need for timely data to help monitor and mitigate the social and economic impacts of the crisis and protect the welfare of Nigerian society. To monitor how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the economy and people of Nigeria and to inform policy interventions and responses, the National Bureau of Statistics with technical support from the World Bank implemented the Nigeria COVID-19 National Longitudinal Phone Survey (COVID-19 NLPS). This brief presents findings from the seventh and ninth rounds of this survey which was conducted between January 9 and 25, 2021 respectively
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: The COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic is causing the most severe global health and economic crisis in at least seven decades. In Egypt, the disruptions caused by the pandemic started in March 2020, and has since interrupted a period of macroeconomic stability, characterized by relatively high growth, improved fiscal accounts, and a comfortable level of foreign reserves. Yet, the pandemic also hit as longstanding challenges continued to persist, notably the government's elevated debt-to-GDP ratio (despite its significant reduction in recent years), sluggish revenue-mobilization and the below-potential performance of non-oil merchandise exports and non-oil FDI. The fiscal, monetary and energy sector reforms implemented in recent years, along with the emergency measures undertaken by authorities in response to the COVID-19 crisis are so far helping Egypt weather the shock. Indeed, average real growth has remained positive during FY2019/20 and foreign reserves continue to be rather ample. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic has inevitably caused job and income losses, posing additional strains on Egyptian households' livelihoods, and is thus exacerbating the long-standing challenge of job-creation in Egypt, notably in the formal private sector. The in-focus chapter of this report is therefore dedicated to the topic of jobs and economic transformation. The analysis of this chapter shows that the economic transformation process has been slow-moving in Egypt, with employment shares increasing either in low value-added sectors, or in sectors that have experienced a decline in productivity (value-added per worker). Hence, the Egyptian economy has not been able to generate high-earning jobs, at scale. Going forward, for businesses to expand and create sufficient and high-quality employment opportunities, a three-pronged approach will be necessary: (i) Sustaining macroeconomic stability and overall policy predictability whilst incentivizing domestic savings to finance investments. (ii) Getting the enabling environment right to create attractive opportunities for domestic and foreign investments. (iii) Upgrading human capital and firm capabilities to fast-track the economic transformation process in Egypt and to strengthen the country's resilience against such severe shocks
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Abstract: This case study showcases examples where the "G20 Principles for Quality Infrastructure Investment (QII)" have been operationalized in Japan`s urban infrastructure projects. It highlights Fukuoka City, one of the most prominent cities in Japan today. It reviews the city's efficient water management through Economic Efficiency and Infrastructure Governance, two of the six G20 Principles for QII. A key factor for the city's success was adopting life-cycle costing as an underlying principle; the city upgraded its water distribution pipe network with polyethylene sleeves for life extension and went to great length for leakage reduction. As a recent effort, the city underwent procurement reforms to improve the technical quality of public works. The implications are expected to benefit policymakers and practitioners in developing countries
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Abstract: Access to identification is a vital priority. In developing countries, persons with disabilities are among those most likely to face barriers in accessing government services such as health and rehabilitation, public transportation, education, voting, financial services, and economic opportunities. For women and girls with disabilities and other persons with disabilities with intersecting identities, these barriers are multidimensional. Addressing poverty among persons with disabilities and their families requires solutions that address their differentiated and sometimes complex needs, a precondition of which is possessing official proof of identity. This report provides a model of the continuous nature of the ID lifecycle, suggesting some illustrative approaches to designing a disability-inclusive ID process at any stage in the lifecycle. The ID lifecycle comprises five phases, each allowing for disability-inclusive interventions. The five phases are: (1) planning and design; (2) outreach and engagement; (3) enrollment; (4) use of ID; (5) and monitoring and evaluation. The cycle presents examples of continuous activities which should be regularly revisited to ensure that ID systems are accessible to people with disabilities regardless of the stage of implementation of the ID system. While not exhaustive, and recognizing that country contexts differ, this cyclical model can be a useful planning tool, much like that used across the world by electoral commissions for inclusive voter registration
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Abstract: To monitor the social and economic effects on households during the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Bank is conducting High-Frequency Phone Surveys of Households in Vietnam. These monitoring data help generate insights on household well-being amidst this dynamic period and highlight the effects on the most vulnerable members of Vietnamese society. This note provides a snapshot of results from the 2nd of five rounds of this survey series. Fieldwork for the second round was conducted from July 27 to August 12, 2020. During the first half of 2020, COVID-19 cases in Vietnam were well contained and appeared almost eradicated. However, after 99 days without any new COVID-19 cases, the Da Nang region re-entered lockdown after the emergence of a positive case on July 25th, 2020. While round one of the survey series (in June-July 2020) was conducted after the first lockdown, round two was collected right at the beginning of this second outbreak. The timing of fieldwork should be considered when considering trends
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: Georgia has made remarkable progress in terms of economic growth and poverty alleviation. In 2019, the country became an upper middle-income country Georgia's endowment of natural resources is a significant source of national wealth and has the potential for accelerating inclusive socio-economic development. Yet, challenges persist as poverty and inequality remain high, especially in rural areas. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) induced global recession has affected important sectors of the economy, including tourism and the travel industry. This report fills knowledge gaps in the upstream importance of environment and natural assets, and highlights areas for aligning national strategies with sustainable recovery from the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In so doing, the report aims to inform national policies by which Georgia has commitments to "greening" sector developments aligned with the provisions of the EU-Georgia Association Agreement. The analysis underlying the report includes updates to the cost of environmental degradation (CoED) published in 2015. It also reflects the new government priorities and options for addressing specific challenges in forest management, land and coastal degradation, and air pollution. The recommendations of this report are designed for a wider audience, including the government of Georgia, as well as development partners and broader society
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Abstract: This study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of the business environment in six South Asian countries, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, to examine whether business regulatory requirements in these countries hinder them from fully benefiting from BRI project spillovers. The analysis is based on available secondary data sources and responses to a structured questionnaire sent to selected private sector participants in each of these countries, eliciting information on the law, regulation, and practice in a wide range of thematic areas influencing the overall business and regulatory environment. Survey respondents identified nine key themes as the most challenging for the private sector, including from the perspective of potential benefits from BRI-induced opportunities. The thematic areas are: (a) licensing and inspection requirements; (b) regulations and practices governing foreign investment; (c) access to resources such as land, credit, and electricity; (d) regulatory restrictions on the operation of foreign firms, such as local content requirements and currency repatriation; (e) regulatory governance and corruption and state capture; (f) predictability and quality of the regulatory framework, especially corporate taxation; (g) government procurement laws and practice; (h) effective dispute settlement and grievance mechanisms; and (i) trade and customs regulations. The identified thematic areas promote connectivity and regional integration and thus are particularly relevant from the BRI perspective. Improvements along different dimensions of these thematic areas will likely enable countries in the region to gain from BRI-induced opportunities
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Abstract: The adverse impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is being disproportionately borne by women, further exacerbating the wide gender inequities in Myanmar. From food security, shortages in finances and the burden of caretaking responsibilities, women have been disproportionately affected by the secondary impacts of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Women have had to adopt more drastic measures to mitigate the impacts of the pandemic, both reactively and proactively, ranging from reducing food- and non-food consumption and borrowing money from Micro-Finance Institutions and informal money lenders. Not unexpectedly, women's greater disadvantage, limited access to support, subjection to domestic violence and structural inequalities lend themselves to their being less optimistic about the near future. The evidence surveyed is clear that women are enduring Coronavirus (COVID-19) disproportionately worse than men, both in household and firm settings and they take on the bulk of the emotional burden with regard to responsive and proactive coping mechanisms
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Abstract: The higher-level purpose of this study is to provide information to be used to raise the ambition of Georgia's nationally determined contribution (NDCs) and to consider adaptation targets for the Black Sea coast of Georgia. The study also aims to highlight how supporting a blue economy can accelerate the implementation of adaptation measures required to reduce climate risks and contribute towards the region's socioeconomic development and environmental conservation. The methodology used in the present study consists of five main steps: define the geographic scope; review available climate change projections; identify key climate risks and vulnerabilities for coastal Georgia; assess the impact of climate change on economic sectors and infrastructure, and possible adaptation options; and prioritize initial recommendations and key climate adaptation actions. The approach used to evaluate the various impacts on coastal Georgia consisted of a qualitative analysis and expert input from international and local teams. This included an assessment of feasible adaptation options. Discussions with local experts and government agencies were also carried out in order to gain further details of vulnerable areas and evaluate both the potential for specific adaptation measures to yield economic benefits as well as the feasibility and acceptability of these options. The report is organized in six chapters. Chapter one introduces the purpose, objectives, methodology, and limitations for the study. Chapter two provides an overview of Georgia's coastal zone economic sectors, while chapter three provides an overview of Georgia's coastal climate and climate change impacts. Chapter four presents the priority risks for coastal Georgia, based on the existing cost of environmental degradation estimates and climate change projections. Chapter five discusses the impacts of climate change on Georgian coastal economic sectors, health and infrastructure, through the prism of the priority risks described in the previous chapter and presents a menu of adaptation options. Chapter six discusses the conclusions of the study and makes initial information, institutional, and investment recommendations, and key actions, including key actions required to implement climate adaptation on the ground
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Foreign Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and Capital Flows Study
    Abstract: This report synthesizes the work carried out as part of a World Bank ASA (Advisory Services and Analytics) activity to identify better systems and practical strategies that countries can use for improved monitoring of small-scale cross border trade (SSCBT). Large amounts of goods are known to be traded through cross border channels in Africa, yet SSCBT is poorly counted leading to a misrepresentation of the true state of regional integration and possible misalignment of trade and development policies. The study assesses the strengths and limitations of existing SSCBT data systems in East Africa to understand the feasibility and cost effectiveness of different data collection methods. It also looks at conditions along trade corridors in other regions of Africa where SSCBT data are only starting to be monitored to identify common bottlenecks and potential solutions for improved trade data collection in different environments. The analysis draws on fieldwork carried out during July and August 2019, as well as subsequent consultations with local counterparts, including with respect to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Through this work, the study aims to inform policy in countries where SSCBT is important and where the establishment of monitoring systems will be relevant and desirable. The project also contributes to discussions and negotiations on regional integration by raising the profile of SSCBT and drawing attention to the importance of addressing barriers that limit this trade. In addition to this report, findings of the ASA are also being shared with a diverse audience of policymakers, economic analysts, and civil society representatives through short policy notes, working papers, and dissemination events
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Abstract: In the context of Vietnam's impressive economic growth over the last two decades, several studies have documented gender disparities, but few have studied the underlying constraints that drive the disparities. The Vietnamese government is working to increase its support to job seekers. To help fill the knowledge gaps, this study uses three qualitative methods to understand stakeholders' views on the mechanisms underlying gender disparities in the Vietnamese labor market and related policy: (1) individual biographical interviews; (2) focus group discussions; and (3) expert interviews. This study gives particular emphasis to the context in which the gender dynamic is played out in the sphere of the labor market. It approaches gender not as naturally determined but as socially constructed, with cultural, political, religious, and ethnical concepts all influencing its meaning. The study's qualitative findings confirm that a range of gender disparities exist in Vietnam's labor market. Section one gives introduction. Section two provides information on the institutional and legal environment in Vietnam and summarizes existing findings on gender disparities in the country's labor market. Section three describes the qualitative methodologies that were used in the study, namely individual biographical interviews, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews. Section four discusses the empirical findings, section five details summary of research results for the provinces of Dien Bien and Quang Nam, and section six presents conclusions and policy recommendations
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Abstract: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the largest country in the Pacific region, and one of the most diverse countries in the world. The key development challenge in this lower-middle income country is how to translate macroeconomic gains from the resource sector into better opportunities and services for PNG's largely poor and rural populations. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has compounded issues for an already weakening economic situation. A strong evidence base is needed to understand the socioeconomic implications of the coronavirus pandemic for Papua New Guinea. Data is needed to inform the policy response to the coronavirus crisis. To monitor and assess the socio-economic impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Papua New Guinea, five rounds of High Frequency Phone Surveys (HFPS) have been planned and will be conducted quarterly. Data collection began in late June 2020. This report presents the findings from round one and concludes with a policy section to help inform an evidence-based response to Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Papua New Guinea
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (192 pages)
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: International Debt Statistics
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Abstract: International Debt Statistics (IDS), a long-standing annual publication of the World Bank, features external debt statistics and analysis for the 120 low- and middle-income countries that report to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System. IDS 2021 includes (1) an overview analyzing global trends in debt stocks of and debt flows to low- and middle-income countries within the framework of aggregate capital flows (debt and equity); (2) a feature story on the World Bank and International Monetary Fund Debt Service Suspension Initiative in response to the COVID-19 pandemic; (3) tables and charts detailing debtor and creditor composition of debt stock and flows, terms of new commitments, and maturity structure of future debt service payments and debt burdens, measured in relation to gross national income and export earnings for each country; (4) one-page summaries per country, plus global, regional, and income group aggregates showing debt stocks and flows, relevant debt indicators, and metadata for six years (2009 and 2015+"19); and (5) a user guide describing the tables and content, definitions and rationale for the country and income groupings used in the report, data notes, and information about additional resources and comprehensive data sets available to users online. Unique in its coverage of the important trends and issues fundamental to the financing of low- and middle-income countries, IDS 2021 is an indispensable resource for governments, economists, investors, financial consultants, academics, bankers, and the entire development community. For more information on IDS 2021 and related products, please visit the World Bank's Data Catalog at https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/international-debt-statistics
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Financial Accountability Study
    Abstract: The economic shock of the coronavirus outbreak has an unprecedented impact on public finances. Governments are implementing massive fiscal packages including both budgetary and nonbudgetary measures to fight the pandemic while receipts are sharply down. Communicating the financial consequences of Coronavirus (COVID-19) to all stakeholders in a timely manner is important to create enduring broad support. Audited financial statements play a key role in building citizen trust in government. This policy note provides reflections on how governments could make use of existing systems of financial reporting during the pandemic as well as opportunities for improved financial reporting systems for the post-crisis environment. It also seeks to share insights into the impact of the pandemic on government financial performance, position, and cash flows
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Abstract: The Government of Uganda has been working to establish a new system of NCA. NCA is a standardized approach to measuring and valuing natural resources. It overcomes the limitations of traditional economic measurements, such as gross domestic product (GDP), that look primarily at income and not at wealth. It provides physical and monetary information about natural capital wealth as well as income and other benefit flows. As such,NCA is already helping to inform key policies and plans in Uganda. The development of NCA in Uganda has been supported by various development partners, notably the World Bank's global program, WAVES. This paper offers an independent synthesis of Uganda's work with WAVES from 2018 to 2020. It is based on program documentation and a review of the accounts themselves, supplemented by interviews of key Ugandan officials involved in the process
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Kenya's economy has been hit hard by COVID-19, severely affecting incomes and jobs. The economy has been exposed through the dampening effects on domestic activity of the containment measures and behavioral responses, and through trade and travel disruption (affecting key foreign currency earners such as tourism and cut flowers). Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contracted by 0.4 percent in H1 2020 year-on-year(y/y), compared to growth of 5.4 percent in H1 of 2019. This reflects a worse-than-anticipated Q2 GDP outturn, mainly due to a sharp reduction of services sector output, especially education. As a result, the economy is projected to contract by 1.0 percent in 2020 in the baseline scenario, and by 1.5 percent in a more adverse scenario. This revision essentially adopts the adverse scenario outlined in the April 2020 update, reflecting the more severe impact of the pandemic to date than had been initially anticipated, including on the measured output of the education sector following the closure of institutions in March. The special focus topic finds that the pandemic increased poverty by 4 percentage points (or an additional 2 million poor) through serious impacts on livelihoods, by sharp decreases in incomes and employment. The unemployment rate increased sharply,approximately doubling to 10.4 percent in the second quarter as measured by the KNBS Quarterly Labor Force Survey. Many wage workers who are still employed face reduced working hours, with average hours decreasing from 50 to 38 hours per week. Almost 1 in 3 household runbusinesses are not currently operating, and between February and June average revenue from household run businesses decreased by almost 50 percent. This has exacerbated food insecurity, and elevated pain and human suffering. In response to the crisis, the government has deployed both fiscal and monetary policies to support the healthcare system, protect the most vulnerable households, and support firms to help preserve jobs,incomes and the economy's productive potential. Tax revenue dropped below target, due to the marked slowdown in economic activity, as well as tax relief as part of the government's fiscal response package. At the same time, expenditures were raised to strengthen the capacity of the healthcare system to manage infections, protect the most vulnerable households, and support businesses
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: The Lebanon Economic Monitor provides an update on key economic developments and policies over the past six months. It also presents findings from recent World Bank work on Lebanon. It places them in a longer-term and global context and assesses the implications of these developments and other changes in policy on the outlook for Lebanon. Its coverage ranges from the macro-economy to financial markets to indicators of human welfare and development
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Abstract: Ghana's tax collection is low compared with other lower middle-income countries. Non-compliance of tax payments is an urgent issue in Ghana, as the government has been suffering from a widening fiscal deficit and a rising debt burden. Learning from experiences in other countries, this report proposes potential interventions that could improve tax compliance
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Private Sector Development, Privatization, and Industrial Policy
    Abstract: Thailand is an enduring development success story. Between the late 1960s and mid-1990s, strong and sustained economic growth propelled the country from low-income to upper-middle-income status. To achieve high-income status by 2037, the authorities will need to draw on the experiences of other upper-middle-income countries that have successfully completed the transition, as well as those that continue to struggle. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has severely impacted growth in Thailand, with the economy expected to contract in 2020 amid heightened uncertainty surrounding the path of the pandemic. This report focuses on the manufacturing sector builds on a framework that emphasizes the microeconomic and macroeconomic linkages of the sources of productivity growth. In line with this framework, Chapter 1 begins with an overview of Thailand's productivity dynamics at the macroeconomic level and identifies the causes of its slowing GDP growth rate.7 Chapter 2 analyzes the characteristics of Thai manufacturing firms and sub-sector productivity dynamics, revealing the drivers of firm productivity and distinguishing the relative contributions of within-firm effects, between-firm effects, and market dynamism. Chapter 3 evaluates the impact of competition on firm productivity by comparing market entry and exit indicators with price markups. Chapter 4 concludes with a set of policy recommendations designed to boost firm productivity in Thailand's manufacturing sector
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  • 21
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Abstract: The education system under the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) in Indonesia is highly decentralized. Most school costs under MoEC are covered by fiscal transfers from the centre to provincial and district levels, some of which are earmarked for education use. One such type of transfer is school operational grants, known as Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS) or school operational assistance. BOS funds are managed directly by schools, which have been delegated the autonomy to receive, plan and budget, spend, administer, and report their use. Experience has shown that many schools lack the capacity to use BOS funds effectively and efficiently to deliver better learning outcomes for students, while there have been no planning systems to manage use of BOS funds towards achieving the National Education Standards (NES) for individual schools. Under the BOS program, each school is required to conduct a School Self-Evaluation (SSE) against the NES and use the results to develop its spending plans accordingly. Every school has also been advised to develop a planning and budgeting system (Rencana Kegiatan dan Anggaran Sekolah or RKAS) to allocate and manage BOS funds. To support implementation of the RKAS, an application called the Rencana Kegiatan dan Anggaran Sekolah Berbasis Elektronik (e-RKAS or electronic school plan) has been developed. To assess the preliminary effects of introducing different e-RKAS applications on the role and behaviour of stakeholders, as well as challenges experienced during implementation, the World Bank conducted an evaluation of the e-RKAS program. This report focuses on the evaluation and impact of e-RKAS
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: The Philippine economy contracted by 10.0 percent, year-on-year, in the first three quarters of 2020, given the triple shock brought by the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 delivered a triple shock of a health crisis, strict containment measures, and a global recession of unprecedented scale. The sharp contraction in the second quarter was driven by the steep dive in private domestic demand, deep contraction in public investment activities, and the collapse of trade due to the impact of strict containment measures domestically and globally. Most of the country entered a more relaxed community quarantine in mid-August with a gradual opening of businesses and government operations. Yet, the economy further contracted in the third quarter, albeit a modest improvement from the peak of the outbreak. Moreover, the country was hit by a series of strong typhoons which may cause delay on the pace of the recovery as economic activities were affected in some areas. This report will feature disaster risk management (DRM) challenges the country faces and policy recommendations to strengthen its fiscal, physical, and social resilience. The severity of the recession can be explained, first and foremost, by the collapse in private consumption, as containment measures led to a fall in employment and incomes. Private consumption contracted by 8.2 percent, its worst performance on record. This was in large part due to a combination of factors that crippled domestic demand, including record-high unemployment, declining incomes (including remittances), movement restrictions that suppressed consumption, and a historic decline in consumer confidence. The deepest contraction was registered in the consumption of non-essential goods and services and those that were affected by the implementation of strict containment measures, while essential goods such as food registered small positive growth. In particular, the combination of travel restrictions and weak consumer confidence which weighed on demand, resulted in a collapse in domestic tourism expenditures, which make up a fifth of private consumption
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Abstract: The Solomon Islands is a lower middle income small island state in the Melanesian region of the Southwest Pacific. Agriculture, including logging, is central to the economy of the Solomon Islands. To protect the country from importation of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and to limit the possible spread of undiagnosed cases, beginning March 27, the government enacted a series of emergency measures under the State of Public Emergency (SoPE). Coronavirus (COVID-19) response measures, both domestically and abroad, are expected to have negative impacts on the economy and on livelihoods. A strong evidence base is needed to understand the socioeconomic implications of the coronavirus pandemic for the Solomon Islands. The objective of this survey was to measure the socioeconomic impacts of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic in the Solomon Islands, including livelihoods, food security, and public safety and security, through a high frequency mobile phone survey
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (234 pages)
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Global Economic Prospects
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has, with alarming speed, dealt a heavy blow to an already-weak global economy, which is expected to slide into its deepest recession since the second world war, despite unprecedented policy support. The global recession would be deeper if countries take longer to bring the pandemic under control, if financial stress triggers defaults, or if there are protracted effects on households and firms. Economic disruptions are likely to be more severe and protracted in emerging market and developing economies with larger domestic outbreaks and weaker medical care systems; greater exposure to international spillovers through trade, tourism, and commodity and financial markets; weaker macroeconomic frameworks; and more pervasive informality and poverty. Beyond the current steep economic contraction, the pandemic is likely to leave lasting scars on the global economy by undermining consumer and investor confidence, human capital, and global value chains. Being mostly a reflection of the recent plunge in global energy demand, low oil prices are unlikely to provide much of a boost to global growth in the near term. While policymakers' immediate priorities are to address the health crisis and moderate the short-term economic losses, the likely long-term consequences of the pandemic highlight the need to forcefully undertake comprehensive reform programs to improve the fundamental drivers of economic growth, once the crisis abates. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing economies, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). The January edition includes in-depth analyses of topical policy challenges faced by these economies, while the June edition contains shorter analytical pieces
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Abstract: Regulatory sandboxes have become synonymous with fintech innovation and offer the unique benefit of providing the empirical evidence needed to substantiate decisions. This paper on Global Experiences from Regulatory Sandboxes brings together detailed lessons learned and case studies from sandboxes across the globe. Our research has identified 73 sandboxes in 57 jurisdictions. This is currently the most up-to-date resource for sandboxes available and is supplemented with an interactive database on Key data from Regulatory Sandboxes across the globe
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Abstract: Bulgaria has achieved impressive economic performance over the last two decades. Nevertheless, recent growth of gross domestic product (GDP) and productivity has slowed since the global financial crisis, and the country faces medium- to long-term labor shortages and skills mismatches driven by an aging population and high emigration rates. Maintaining income growth in the face of these challenges will require boosting productivity, and a key step to increase productivity is to strengthen Bulgaria's science, technology and innovation (STI) performance, which ranks among the worst in the European Union (EU) across multiple indicators. A review of STI policies is critical in preparation for the next EU programing period to ensure that the expected increase in resources to support research and innovation is used effectively. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the country's research and innovation needs and an original analysis of the policies devoted to supporting STI in Bulgaria, including nearly all national-level STI-related policy instruments
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: City Development Strategy
    Abstract: This case study is showcases examples where the "G20 Principles for Quality Infrastructure Investment (QII)" have been operationalized in Japan`s urban infrastructure projects. It highlights Toyama City, which is now a global role model for compact city development and reviews the city's difficult journey towards a compact city through the lens of Economic Efficiency and Infrastructure Governance, which are two of the six G20 Principles for QII. This case study sheds light on the importance of governance aspects such as alignment with the national policy, organizational commitment, and collaboration with the private sector. Furthermore, it illustrates how effective governance can lead to economic efficiency and some evidence of a compact city`s wider benefits. The implications are expected to benefit policymakers and practitioners in developing countries
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  • 28
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: The economy of the Central African Republic (CAR) grew at a slower pace in 2019 compared to 2018. Still, it grew at 3.1 percent, year-onyear, in 2019, above the average of regional peers (1.6 percent) and countries affected by fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) (2.7 percent). Despite improvements in security following the signing of the peace agreement in February 2019, the economy performed worse than expected due to the collapse by about 30 percent in the production of coffee and cotton, which in turn was the result of persistent structural challenges in the agriculture sector. On the demand side, private consumption remained the main driver of economic growth, while the agriculture and services sectors drove growth on the supply side. Moreover, extreme poverty remains high and projected to affect 71 percent of the population-3.4 million people-in 2019. Inflation increased in 2019, and CEMAC's monetary policy remained on track. The tightening of monetary policy, as well as progress on implementing the new Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa's (Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l'Afrique Centrale, CEMAC) foreign exchange regulation in March 2019, contributed to a strong recovery of gross foreign assets, from 2.7 months' worth of imports in 2018 to 3.3 months in 2019. Inflation was contained at an average of 2.8 percent in 2019 as inflationary pressures from the blockade of the main trade route between Bangui and Cameroon in March abated. Fiscal stance improved, but CAR remains at high risk of debt distress. Public expenditure grew at a slower pace in 2019 than in 2018, mainly due to delays in public investments. Government revenues picked up at 18.4 percent of GDP in 2019 thanks to a significant increase in official grants. As a result, the overall fiscal situation improved in 2019, and the debt-to-GDP ratio continued to decline. However, CAR remains at high risk of debt distress, primarily due to low exports and mobilization of domestic resources
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Abstract: After the return to democracy, Ghana achieved significant economic growth and poverty reduction. However, in recent years, the rate of poverty reduction has slowed, becoming insignificant after 2012. The largest reduction in poverty, 2 percent per year, was reached from 1991-1998. Subsequently, the rate of decline fell to 1.4 percent in 1998-2005, 1.1 percent in 2005-2012, and dropped to 0.2 percent per year between 2012 and 2016. The slowdown in poverty reduction was not due to a reduction in GDP per capita growth, which peaked between 2005 and 2012 and remained high between 2012 and 2016. Rather, it was due to a drop in the rate to which economic growth translated into poverty reduction. The growth elasticity of poverty (percentage reduction in poverty associated for every one percentage change in GDP per capita) was 1.2 between 1991 and 1998 but declined to less than 0.1 between 2012 and 2016, indicating a 1 percent increase in GDP per capita led to less than 0.1 percent reduction in poverty
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Education Sector Review
    Abstract: This Indonesia Education Flagship Report examines ways to strengthen education reforms and boost the learning outcomes of all Indonesian students. It focuses on how the education system can deliver on the promise of human capital for Indonesia. The recommendations focus on protecting and building human capital by increasing the capacity, equity, and accountability for learning. The report also explores what the central government can do to make changes for the better in areas under its control and how to provide better guidance and support to provinces, districts, and schools
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Abstract: The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the tax gap in Ghana, and help the Government of Ghana identify the areas where they can increase tax revenue by improving compliance. Tax gap for corporate income tax, import tax, estimated value added tax, and potential tax revenue from formalization of informal firms were investigated
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Abstract: Ethiopia's economy has grown rapidly over the last two decades, leading to significant national poverty reduction, but there were significant differences in the pace and nature of poverty reduction across Ethiopia's eleven regions. Based on the national poverty line, poverty decreased from 46 percent in 1996 to 24 percent in 2016 nationwide. Poverty decreased in all the regions, particularly after 2005 when growth became more robust. Although regional disparities remained fairly low, regional poverty rates converged until 2011 only to begin diverging again in 2016
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Abstract: After more than a decade of strong growth, interrupted only by the 2008-2009 global financial crisis, Belarus' economy has encountered major headwinds. Since 2012, growth has stalled, macroeconomic imbalances have intensified, and public finances have deteriorated. Unlike regional peers, the country was unable to take advantage of buoyant global demand, ample liquidity and strong risk appetite. This suggests that the causes for this disappointing outcome are domestic and rooted in the current economic model based on an outsized public sector and reliance on Russia for cheap energy and as main export market. The narrow export base has left the economy vulnerable to economic weakness in Russia and, indirectly, to volatility in global oil prices. These shocks have exposed major structural weaknesses, that have dragged down productivity and potential growth and increased Belarus' vulnerability to major shocks such as the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The policy response to the external headwinds has been pro-cyclical. It has focused on avoiding major financial disruptions and resorting to increased foreign borrowing to make it through the financing pressures rather than deeper structural adjustment needed to adjust to the new realities and anchor fiscal sustainability. It has focused on exchange rate adjustment accompanied by ad-hoc fiscal retrenchment. The latter, however, although significant, has been episodic and less than optimal as it has protected consumption at the expense of investment. The scope for fiscal adjustment has been constrained by the structural rigidities of Belarus' public finances. Looking forward, Belarus now faces a perfect storm of a global economic shock caused by the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, an unprecedented drop in oil prices, and the phasing out of the energy import price discount by 2024 due to the Russian tax maneuver. All these adverse external developments come against the background of deeply rooted structural rigidities, a heavy debt redemptions schedule and a much-reduced policy space compared with previous episodes of external pressures such as in 2009 and 2015
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Abstract: In 2020, Malaysia passes a crucial milestone in its demographic trajectory and becomes an aging society. Driven by a precipitous decline in fertility accompanied by a sustained rise in life expectancy, in recent years Malaysia has seen an uptick in the pace of demographic change. Rapid aging will be one of the most crucial megatrends affecting Malaysia in coming decades, raising policy challenges in areas such as employment, income security, health care, and aged care. The term silver economy has been coined to encompass all sources of opportunities that arise from economic activities that serve the needs and demands of older persons. While rapid aging is crucially important and will become even more so in coming decades, through the right choice of policies, the government of Malaysia can help the country achieve productive and inclusive aging. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented crisis with an enormous health and human toll, as well as exacerbated many of the policy challenges raised by aging both in the short term and more structurally. The report analyzes Malaysia's demographic, socioeconomic and macroeconomic contexts, as well as three select key policy areas where critical knowledge gaps exist-employment, income security, and aged care
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  • 35
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Abstract: The role of the public sector in housing delivery in many developed economies evolved from government as builder in the post-War era in the 1950s when the government directly constructed and delivered housing to meet the daunting demand for housing, to government as enabler and regulator in the 1980s and 90s when governments retreated from direct provision but started to focus on facilitating the private sector to deliver housing effectively, and to assist the poorest segment of the population. The point of departure is the belief that housing is essentially a private good that is best provided by the market. Today, the government's role is therefore focused on Should read: (i) establishing the enabling environment for the private sector (including private individuals) to deliver housing; (ii) addressing the market failures; and (iii) avoiding and/or correcting government policy failures. However, challenges persist for low-income households to find affordable accommodation in locations that work for them. Such shortages of affordable housing are most pronounced in developing countries, which in recent decades have seen rapid urbanization and the proliferation of informal settlements, which are increasingly challenging for the public sector to address. As the private sector and public sector fail to provide adequate and affordable housing for the lower-end of the market segment at the pace and scale that is needed, governments have since the later 2000's repositioned themselves as partners, and increasingly as entrepreneurs, to catalyze - and reduce the risk for - the private sector's entry into the affordable housing markets
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to fill the knowledge gaps to help advance Albania's vision of the Blue Economy, in the context of the country's aim of joining the EU. The two most important sectors with this regard are fisheries and tourism. Both industries are well established and offer the highest potential return on investment when it comes to the Blue Economy and have socio-economic and cultural significance for the coastal communities. The study further extends to cover the challenges of marine plastic pollution and examine possible solutions. For the purpose of cross-sectoral planning and investment coordination, the Blue Economy Development Framework (BEDF) is introduced as a distinct theme. The analysis concludes with a menu of options to develop the marine based economic activities and ultimately accelerate the country's transition towards the Blue Economy. The study reflects Albania's specific circumstances and the opportunities arising from integrated economic development of maritime sectors, including branding a 'Blue Albania' vision that could serve as a blueprint for future innovations in these sectors. Policy and decision makers from multiple institutions representing the GoA, as well as development partners and organizations such as the European Commission, have been consulted in the course of the study preparation
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Uganda's real GDP grew at 2.9 percent in FY20, less than half the 6.8 percent recorded in FY19, due to the effects of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) crisis, and is expected to grow at a similar level in FY21, but downside risks are high. Economic activity stalled during the latter part of the fiscal year due to a domestic lockdown that lasted over four months, border closures for everything but essential cargo, and the spillover effects of disruption in global demand and global supply chains due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This resulted in a sharp contraction in public investment and deceleration in private consumption, which hit the industrial and service sectors hard, particularly the informal service sector. On a calendar year basis, real GDP growth is expected to contract by up to 1 percent in 2020, compared to 7.5 percent growth in 2019, and, as a result, real per capita GDP growth is expected to contract by about 4.5 percent. Even if GDP growth rebounds strongly by 2022, the level of per capita GDP is likely to remain well below its pre-COVID trajectory. As a result of these impacts, the COVID-19 crisis is threatening to reverse some of the gains made on structural transformation and the declining poverty trend of the past decade. This transformation was characterized by a reduction in the workforce employed in on-farm agriculture and a take-off in industrial production, largely in agro-processing. However, following the COVID shock, there have already been widespread firm closures, permanent layoffs in industry and services, a rapid slowdown of activity particularly in the urban informal sector, and a movement of labor back to farming. At the same time, household incomes have fallen, which is concerning given the high levels of vulnerability to poverty, limited social safety nets, and impacts this might have on human capital development and Uganda's capacity to benefit from its demographic transition
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Abstract: If financial markets are to realign towards truly sustainable development the financial sector needs to differentiate commercial actors more accurately on their climate and environmental performance. A potential breakthrough to help in this challenge is the emerging field of -'Spatial Finance', the independent assessment of the location of a company's or a country's assets and infrastructure using ground data, remote sensing observations and modelled insights, offers a potentially transformative means to gain improved quantitative ESG insights. Rapid development is required if spatial finance is to deliver in the short term. In this report, authors outline a possible taxonomy and hierarchy for spatial finance, showing how discrete forms of technology, approaches and data can be considered within a single consistent framework. Using this framework, spatial finance could provide insights at differing scales for different applications from the asset-scale for project finance, to company-scale for investment, to country scale for sovereign debt. Throughout the document authors provide insights into current cutting-edge developments within the field, illustrated with case studies from practitioners and data providers, and explore potential future developments
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : World Bank
    ISBN: 9781464812798
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Narayan, Ambar, author Fair progress?
    DDC: 331.12/72
    Keywords: Income ; Occupational mobility ; Social mobility
    Note: Includes bibliographical references and index
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : World Bank
    ISBN: 9781464812828
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Policy research report
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Moving for prosperity: global migration and labor markets
    DDC: 331.6/2
    Keywords: Emigration and immigration Economic aspects ; Emigration and immigration Government policy ; Foreign workers ; Labor market ; Labor mobility
    Note: Includes bibliographical references and index
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Abstract: Vietnam has achieved remarkable success in reducing poverty while controlling inequality. The country's broad-based growth reflects the government's focus on developing labor-intensive export sectors while investing heavily in human capital that saw the country exceed its peers. However, gains have been concentrated among the Kinh and Hoa ethnic majority, while minority groups have not only continued to experience poverty rates far above the national average, but have seen slower progress too. This report analyzes recent trends in poverty and shared prosperity. It presents the findings of the 2016 Vietnam household and living standards survey (VHLSS), highlighting important progress and identifying new challenges. The report is organized into two main sections. The first section reviews Vietnam's progress in reducing poverty and promoting share prosperity. It describes updated poverty and shared prosperity trends, the nature of economic mobility, and the drivers of poverty reduction. The second section - titled leaving no one behind is more forward-looking, starting by identifying major constraints faced by the poor, then proceeding to lay out challenges for moving the poverty and shared prosperity agenda going forward
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: In 2017, the Philippines was among the top three growth performers in the East Asia region. Only Vietnam and China performed better. The Philippines growth performance slightly weakened in 2017 to 6.7 percent year-on-year from 6.9 percent in 2016. Growth was anchored in strong exports, while investment growth significantly slowed and consumption growth moderated. The Philippines' annual exports rose sharply in 2017 and became the main engine of economic growth, while imports continued to grow by double-digits. Investment growth slowed in 2017, following two consecutive years of rapid expansion, and climbing inflation slowed real wage growth and contributed to a moderation in private consumption growth
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Abstract: The skills for tomorrow's Jobs in Bangladesh attempts to address key skills challenges and identifyopportunities in the backdrop of fast technological and economic changes. It proposes mid to long-term strategic policy options that would contribute to economic growth and job creation in Bangladesh with a focus on post-secondary education and skills development sectors. It aims to inform the Government and the World Bank's jobs agenda. The study draws upon relevant literatures from international and national sources, the government's surveys and education statistics, and analytical works undertaken by the World Bank and other agencies. Moreover, the study was extensively informed and guided by knowledge and insights gathered through the experience from the World Bank funded operations and series of consultations on skills for future jobs with relevant stakeholders in Bangladesh
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Knowledge Economy Study
    Abstract: Coding bootcamps are intensive short-term programs designed to train participants in programming skills to make them immediately employable. They combine characteristics of traditional vocational training programs with the intensity of military bootcamps for new recruits, intermingling socio emotional and tech skills learning in an intense and experiential manner, in what could be referred to as skills accelerators. The authors refer to coding bootcamps in this report as the ready-to-work model. The initiative aims to collect and share examples and lessons of bootcamps in emerging markets, and measure the impact of bootcamp training on youth employment in selected countries. The program seeks to establish a framework of best practice for future projects in technology upskilling in the developing world. This report highlights the results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) carried out in Medellin (Colombia), complemented with qualitative studies in Beirut (Lebanon) and Nairobi (Kenya). This report is arranged as follows: Chapter 1 starts with introduction; Chapter 2 describes the intervention in Medellin,including the experimental allocation of training slots to the bootcamp; Chapters 3 and 4 present the qualitative studies in Beirut and Nairobi; The main findings from the three interventions are presented in Chapter 5; and lessons for future impact evaluations are described in Chapter 6
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: At present rates, the global 2030 Universal Health Coverage (UHC) targets under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals will not be met. Urgent action is needed to speed progress in the two dimensions of UHC, health service coverage and financial protection, and to ensure that no one is left behind. What can be done? First, countries can learn from past experience. This report identifies a set of factors common among countries that made outstanding progress on selected service coverage and financial protection indicators between 2000 and 2015. By adapting proven approaches to their own settings, and by addressing stubborn implementation bottlenecks, countries can accelerate progress towards UHC. Second, even as they benefit from models of success, countries must prepare to manage deeper health system transformation now on the horizon. Spurred by economic, technological, demographic, and epidemiologic forces, these transformations will reshape the landscape in which countries pursue their 2030 UHC goals, creating new risks but also opportunities
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  • 46
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: The Economic Update (SEU) evaluates the recent (2016-17) growth performance and macroeconomic policies in Senegal, thus providing a basis for the policy dialog with the Government and other stakeholders. The first section of the Economic Update evaluates the drivers of growth and the macroeconomic framework. Three-year perspectives are also included, underlining risks and challenges. The second section evaluates the agricultural sector in more detail focusing on the recent evolution of the agriculture sector and on the impact of public sector involvement
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Water Papers
    Abstract: The report is an advocacy piece to raise awareness around the need to shift the typical way urban water has been managed and to share emerging principles and solutions that may improve urban water supply security in water scarce cities. It aims to promote successes, outline challenges and principles, and extract key lessons learned for future efforts. It builds on the experiences of over 20 water scarce cities and territories from five continents, which represent a diversity of situations and development levels. This report argues that WSS service providers, policy makers, and practitioners should look at their mandate and responsibilities in a new light, and seek to embrace integrated water resources management considerations. Drawing from successful experiences from around the world, it extracts several underlying management principles applied by effective utilities. The report then aims to demystify solutions to address urban water scarcity, comparing and contrasting related institutional, technological, economic and social aspects. It then concludes with cross-cutting considerations relevant to planners, water operators and policy makers of water scarce cities
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: This report reviews South Africa's recent economic and social developments. It underlines that South Africa's current economic rebound may not be sustained if the fundamental factors undermining its growth potential are not boldly addressed. This includes in particular income inequality, which fuels resource contestation, policy uncertainty and scare private investors of seeing their investments overly taxed and expropriated. Nevertheless, inequalities are increasingly driven by labor markets developments, as opposed to race or location of origin. Policy actions could accelerate a projected decline in inequalities resulting from greater access to education. Using a dynamic computable general equilibrium, the report simulates a number of policy scenarios until 2030. Simulation results suggests that continuing to address corruption, restoring policy certainty in mining, improving the competitiveness of strategic state-owned enterprises, further exposing South Africa's large conglomerates to foreign competition, and facilitating skilled immigration would raise labor demand and create the fiscal space needed to eventually build labor supply from the poor population through education and spatial integration reforms. By 2030, extreme poverty could be almost eradicated and inequalities significantly reduced. And as inequalities decline, the social contract would strengthen and likely encourage further private investment - a possibility not captured in the simulations
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Industrial production and services growth remained resilient. Inflation has accelerated, primarily due to supply shocks. Monetary policy has been accommodative. Financial sector vulnerability is rising. With a tightening of prudential controls, lending rates are back to double digits. Despite significant recovery in both exports and remittances, the current account deficit widened sharply, driven by a surge in imports. The overall balance of payments swung into deficit for the first time since FY11. Consequently, the exchange rate has depreciated. Interventions to smoothen exchange rate adjustments have eroded foreign exchange reserves. The fiscal deficit has been contained as weak revenue growth was counterbalanced by even weaker growth in expenditures. GDP growth is projected in the 6.5-7 percent range in the medium-term, while macro stability will require heightened vigilance. Poverty reduction has continued but slowed. The amount of poverty reduction achieved by each percent of growth fell by a third. Extreme poverty is projected to fall modestly to 11-12 percent in the medium-term. Downside risks center on the solvency of banks and the run-up to elections elevating instability and policy uncertainty. Going forward, investment and innovation enabling reforms will be key to accelerating development progress
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Abstract: In order to understand a country as large and diverse as Russia, it is extremely important to consider spatial patterns of economic development. As Russia looks for new drivers of economic growth, it is important to understand the structural conditions that have defined economic development in Russia's regions. This report uses the Economic Potential Index (EPI) methodology to identify the conditions that drive regional development. Economic potential is the level of productivity that is possible for a region to achieve given its structural endowments, which are characteristics that are hard to alter in the short run. The methodology used in this report combines quantitative analysis of drivers of productivity across regions with in-depth case studies that focus on the role of regional governments and institutions in converting endowments into economic outcomes. This methodology generates insights that are relevant for both national and regional governments. The first chapter of this report provides an overview of regional development in Russia over the last 25 years and identifies "Russia-specific" national structural conditions that may affect regional development. The second chapter discusses the results of an assessment of economic potential at the regional level and the factors that shape it in Russia. The third chapter focuses on the role of national and regional governance, policy, and institutions in promoting economic development of the regions. The final chapter proposes policy priorities for both regional and national authorities
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Brazil has 12 percent of the global forest area, being the second largest forest area in the world (4,935,380 km2).Robust efforts by multiple government agencies have contributed to the reduction of annual deforestation rates in the Amazon by nearly 80 percent since 2004, to the lowest levels recorded since annual recordkeeping began in the late 1980s.The Native Vegetation Protection Law (NVPL), or Forest Code, created in 1934 and last modified in 2012, was established to protect natural vegetation in forest and non-forest biomes, conserve biological diversity, protect water resources, and prevent soil erosion on private lands. The law established Areas of Permanent Protection (APP), and stipulates a minimum proportion of native vegetation to be conserved as a Legal Reserve. APPs are mandatory on hilltops, steep slopes, coastal shrublands, mangroves, wetlands, around springs, and along watercourses and reservoirs.The legal mandate to reforest or recover natural non-forest vegetation in Brazil is closely aligned with several international conventions and commitments focusing on biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, especially the Aichi Target 15 of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD),and national climate mitigation commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Land-use targets are an important component of Brazil's Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) under the recent (2015) Paris agreement under the UNFCCC.Recovery of forest vegetation provides many social, economic, and environmental benefits, even if all of the qualities and components of the original forests are ultimately not restored.A major economic benefit of forest restoration is the development of supply chains for tree-planting activities and plantation maintenance, which generates employment and business opportunities.Forest restoration also provides increased protection (insurance) against flooding, landslides and other extreme climate events, with incalculable benefits for human life and wellbeing
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Philippines Economic ...
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    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: In September 2015, the 2030 agenda for sustainable development was adopted by member states of the United Nations (UN) at an historic UN summit. Sustainable consumption and production (SCP), as specifically reflected by SD goal (SDG) 12, is among the most important SDGs in the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. The Government of Turkey (GoT) is dedicated to taking action for the successful implementation of the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, it welcomes the universal and integrated nature of SDGs. The World Bank (WB) and other Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) are committed to helping national governments integrate their development agendas with the SDGs and supporting the design and use of economic instruments to ensure their effective implementation. The purpose of this report is to review Turkey's on-going efforts as well as international experience in implementing economic instruments to support SCP as specified in SDG 12, analyze the gaps, and discuss areas where Turkey may better adopt economic instruments and other incentive policies for promoting SCP in the new national development plan (NDP). The study contains six chapters. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two provides an overview of Turkey's involvement in the global sustainable development agenda, a summary of SDG12 and key themes of SCP. Chapter three introduces the conceptual framework on green financing, and summarizes international experience on the use of economic instruments with a focus on SCP. Chapter four explores the Turkish context of economic instruments to support SCP and reviews existing economic policies and instruments. Areas for improvement and recommendations are presented in chapter five. Chapter six provides concluding remarks
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  • 54
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This reports on the cost of doing business in Egypt consistently identify delays in land acquisition as one of the impediments to setting up new businesses as well as attracting foreign direct investments. Despite the provisions of Law 10/1990 (hereafter referred to as Law 10), which lays out a legal framework for the expropriation of real estate for public-interest projects, these delays persist due to overlapping in national and sectoral policies and practices. This Policy note acknowledges the absence of a comprehensive land administration system in Egypt. It focuses instead on the challenges facing land acquisition for public interest projects and theshortcomings of Law 10. It summarizes key challenges based on the findings of key research productsfrom the technical assistance (TA) program offered by the World Bank to the Egyptian government concerning land acquisition and policy reform, including the diagnostic analysis report prepared in June 2016 and the report of the TA Committee Members' visit to India prepared in May 2016. The key challenges discussed in this policy note fall under two broad kinds: limitations in law, and policy coherence. To help develop a more coherent and transparent approach to land acquisition, this note also lays out recommendations and a road map. The Annex to this note highlights the broader issues of land administration, with a special focus on the weak institutionalization of deeds and title registration systems
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    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Turkey covers the period FY18-21. It is aligned with the objectives of Turkey's 10th Development Plan and is based on the findings of a World Bank Group (WBG) Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) that was finalized in February 2017. The CPF aims to help Turkey to achieve its development objectives through building on the foundations of the existing program and consolidating gains in key areas where the WBG is already active, as well as developing the program further in areas which target the WBG twin goals of reducing extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. The CPF puts forward a flexible approach for the WBG's program that is appropriate for a middle-income country of Turkey's size and takes account of the evolving country and regional situation
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  • 56
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Somalia is emerging from 25 years of political instability and economic difficulty but hard data islacking for evidence-based planning. The civil war and ongoing conflict that started in 1991 fragmented the country, undermined political institutions, and created widespread vulnerability. The conflict has eroded the statistical infrastructure and capacity, leaving policy makers and donors to operate in a statistical vacuum due to the lack of reliable data. In the absence of representative household surveys not much was known about poverty. The lack of information poses a threat to the design and implementation of policies and programs needed to support economic resilience and development as well as assistance in the event of shocks
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  • 57
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: City Development Strategy
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Technology is one of the main drivers of productivity and economic growth. Developing countries have traditionally had difficulties in both developing technology and absorbing foreign technology. However, the recent emergence of tech startups present an opportunity. Tech start-ups are an effective a mechanism to both create local technology and absorb foreign technology. The objective of this report is to provide a better understanding of the status of Beirut's start-up ecosystem and provide policy recommendations for policy makers and other stakeholders who are interested in supporting the growth and sustainability of the ecosystem. The report is based on an in-depth survey of startups and supportive stakeholders of the ecosystem. The findings point out to an early-to middle stage start-up ecosystem that has passed its nascent growth phase but is still far from maturity. Skills, supportive infrastructure, finance pipeline, and community and networks are examined and gaps are identified. Policy recommendations to tackle these gaps are presented based on international practices
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  • 58
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This 10th South Africa Economic Update offers a review of the country's recent economic and social developments and outlook in the context of global economic prospects. It focuses on the role of innovation in fostering economic growth, job creation and poverty reduction in an environment in which more South Africans are getting poorer. Main conclusions emerging from this analysis suggest that policies to spur innovation can go a long way in addressing unemployment, poverty and inequality in South Africa. It is our hope that South Africa will continue, and possibly expand, using the World Bank vast body of knowledge, global experience and its convening power as a platform for exchange and peer-to-peer learning in the identification of pragmatic solutions to reach the country's National Development Plan's goals
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  • 59
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Knowledge Economy Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This report studies coding bootcamps. A new kind of rapid skills training program for the digital age. Coding bootcamps are typically short-term (three to six months), intensive and applied training courses provided by a third party that crowdsources the demand for low-skills tech talent. Coding bootcamps aim at low-entry level tech employability (for example, junior developer), providing a new tool for entry into the new world of digital jobs. This report studies the characteristics, methodologies, business models and impact of five coding bootcamps operating directly or through partners in developing countries. High employability and employment rates in low-entry tech positions (for example, junior developer, freelancer, and so on) reported by coding bootcamps suggest an untapped potential of this form of rapid tech skills training. From the case studies, there are two factors that seem to exert a major influence over employment outcomes: 1. selection criteria, and 2. extent of links with the local tech ecosystem. However, there is also criticism around bootcamp programs, which have been grounded in three key arguments: quality of programming skills, employability, and "short termism." Early evidence, which is based on a limited number of sources and mostly based on the data from bootcamp providers themselves, calls for additional, more representative, and holistic research
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  • 60
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Commodities Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The groundnut value chain is of major economic, social and political importance in Senegal. Most rural households grow the crop, and its transport, storage or processing is a key source of nonfarm employment in both formal and informal enterprises. Senegal's groundnut sector was originally developed by colonial authorities, using a monopoly over exports to control the domestic market. For groundnuts in Senegal, the French-owned oil processor was nationalized to form SONACOS in 1975, which proved increasingly costly to operate and was eventually privatized in 2005 to form SUNEOR in 2007. That too has suffered increasing losses and in January 2010 the government finally ended the monopoly system, allowing farmers to sell to competing firms for either direct export or processing. Despite turmoil in the groundnut processing sector, groundnut production itself remains a mainstay of the rural economy. This report builds on a number of previous studies to inform ongoing changes in the sector. Most notably, we build on the diagnostic analysis of the groundnut value chain that was conducted in 2014 (World Bank 2015) and addressed a set of key reform proposals. The focus of this report is detailed in its Terms of Reference (Annex 4)
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  • 61
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the five poorest countries in the world, whether measured by poverty rate or number of poor. Political instability and rapid demographic growth "the second highest in Africa" have driven an increase in the total number of poor that puts extreme pressure on the country's derelict infrastructure. Access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services is low, with particularly dramatic shortfalls among the poorest and rural dwellers, but a pervasive lack of truly safe services even among wealthier and urban households. Water contamination is common even among households with access to piped water in major urban areas, and nearly universal in the rural areas surveyed by this diagnostic. This contamination is making WASH a key contributing factor to a silent emergency that is placing DRC's poor and rapidly growing population at risk of permanent disconnect: widespread malnutrition. Malnutrition is especially common among DRC's children (43 percent in 2014) and has been shown to have irreversible negative effects on physical and cognitive development. This diagnostic analyses these trends and links them to institutional weaknesses in the WASH sector, in particular institutional fragmentation, weak capacity, and a bias toward specific institutions and services. Opportunities for improvement are analyzed and condensed into six clear messages that provide guidance on the way forward for the WASH sector in the DRC
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  • 62
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The authorities have actively pursued restoring credibility in the financial system following the collapse of the system's fourth largest bank in 2014. To restore credibility, the authorities - in addition to requesting a Basel Core Principles (BCP) assessment in 2015 and this financial sector assessment program (FSAP) - conducted an asset quality review (AQR) for banks and balance sheet review for non-banks, initiated reforms to Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) supervision and introduced a new bank resolution function. It is important that the authorities continue in their efforts to strengthen the banking sector. The FSAP stress test showed more pronounced effects, though broadly in line with that of the authorities, reflecting differences in approaches. While the financial safety net and crisis management arrangements are based on sound foundations, further effort is needed to fully develop the financial safety net's components. This includes strengthening the early intervention framework, and defining joint BNB - Ministry of Finance (MoF) strategies for liquidity assistance. A more targeted strategy is needed to address high nonperforming loans (NPLs), which can help reinvigorate the economy. A number of reforms are necessary to support the prudent development of the pension and insurance sector
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  • 63
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Reducing poverty and inequality continues to be an important national priority in Namibia. Vision 2030 - the country's guiding development strategy - has a subordinate vision that points to several goals: "Poverty is reduced to the minimum, the existing pattern of income-distribution is equitable and disparity is at the minimum." Vision 2030 is being implemented via a series of five-year National Development Plans, with the current National Development Plan IV (NDP4) covering 2012 through to 2017. NDP4 sets specific numerical targets. One is reducing the incidence of extreme poverty to less than 10 percent of individuals by the end of FY2016/17, measured at the national lower bound poverty line of N
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  • 64
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Pakistan's economy continues to grow strongly, emerging as one of the top performers in South Asia. Beneath the surface, however, a number of warning signs are emerging. Revenue growth is slowing, with the fiscal deficit growing for the first time in three years. Exports continue to fall as imports grow, substantially increasing the current account deficit. Investment rates - already low - fell further in FY16 (the latest data available). Finally, the energy sector circular debt has resurfaced. These emerging concerns suggest that renewed policy emphasis is required on macroeconomic stability - to prevent the country from losing the impressive gains achieved over the past four years - and other structural reforms such as those required in the energy sector. While the federal government necessarily carries the majority of this burden, provincial governments also have a part to play. The special sections of this update analyze some of the specific challenges facing Pakistan's most populous province, Punjab, including increasing own-source revenue, equipping youth with employable skills and ensuring the poor share in the benefits of growth. Punjab, along with federal and other provincial governments, is also confronted with the urgent task of lifting agricultural productivity and addressing distortive subsidies, which are impeding growth
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  • 65
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Ethiopia has achieved substantial progress in economic, social, and human development over the past decade. The country partnership framework (CPF) draws on the findings of the World Bank Group (WBG's) 2016 systematic country diagnostic (SCD) for Ethiopia, which identified eight binding constraints to ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity, along with two overarching challenges: the need for a sustainable financing model for growth, and inadequate feedback mechanisms to facilitate citizen engagement and government account- ability. This CPF succeeds the Ethiopia FY13-FY16 country partnership strategy (CPS), which was discussed at the Board on August 29, 2012. It also reflects lessons learned and resulting suggestions from the CPS completion and learning review (CLR), which is presented in this report. Following a decade of strong economic growth in Ethiopia, the CPF addresses the challenges of forging a growth path that is more broadly inclusive and sustainable. The CPF program will focus on: (i) promoting structural and economic transformation through increased productivity; (ii) building resilience and inclusiveness (including gender equality); and (iii) supporting institutional accountability and confronting corruption. This CPF adopts a spatial lens through which this five-year program will seek to deliver bold results and to tackle two of the greatest spatial challenges to Ethiopia's quest to achieve lower middle-income status by 2025
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  • 66
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Ukraine covers the 5 years from FY17 to FY21. The CPF is aligned with the objectives of the country's development strategy as outlined in the Government Program and Action Plan adopted in April 2017 and is based on the findings and recommendations of the World Bank Group (WBG) Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) for Ukraine. The objective of the WBG CPF in Ukraine during FY17-FY21 is to promote sustained and inclusive economic recovery after nearly a decade of stagnation and two years of economic crisis. The focus areas of the CPF broadly parallel the pathways identified in the SCD, but are further prioritized. The engagement will be highly selective and based on the intersection of the Government's development agenda, the development challenges and approaches outlined in the SCD, and the comparative advantage and capacity of WBG to deliver. The resulting CPF focus areas are : (i) Better Governance, Anticorruption, and Citizen Engagement; (ii) Making Markets Work; (iii) Fiscal and Financial Sustainability; and (iv) Efficient, Effective, and Inclusive Service Delivery
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  • 67
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: This Policy Paper present ...
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