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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases ; Education ; Health Policy and Management ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Job Skills ; Labor Market Policy and Programs ; Reproductive Health ; Social Protections and Labor ; Social Safety Nets
    Abstract: The report is structured as follows. Chapter 1 discusses the labor market constraints facing different segments of the working-age population, which can inform how to make work attractive. Chapter 2 explores the factors that are discouraging older people from re-entering the labor market and the need to optimize pension design to promote healthier and longer working lives. Chapter 3 explores ways to enhance human capital formation through the lifecycle, starting with early childcare and education, followed by upper secondary school, secondary VET, tertiary education, TVET and adult training. Chapter 4 identifies the enabling conditions needed to ensure that net migration can have a positive impact on the growth of economic participation and productivity. Chapter 5 focuses on ways to leverage public-private partnerships to providetraining and activation services and on how ALMPs could best be used to increase labor market participation. Finally, Chapter 6 explores the role that social protection can play in stimulating participation in the labor market
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Agribusiness ; Agricultural Finance ; Agriculture ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Social Policy ; Quality of Employment ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: In Burkina Faso, agriculture is the primary source of employment for the population, but it faces challenges due to low productivity and poor water management, exacerbated by the adverse effects of climate change. Increases in grain production have been achieved through the expansion of cultivated areas, thereby putting significant pressure on natural resources. At the policy level, agriculture has been identified as a priority sector for the transformation of Burkina Faso's economic structure as outlined in the Second National Plan for Economic and Social Development (PNDES II). At the institutional and organizational level, the implementation of the program budgeting since 2017, shifting from funds-based budgeting to outcome-based budgeting, aims at enhancing the efficiency of public expenditure by focusing on outcomes. The structure of the program budgeting includes more than twenty distinct budget programs. This large number of budget programs poses challenges in terms of coordination, optimization, and capitalization of public action in favor of the agricultural sector. In this context, the World Bank undertakes this third agriculture public expenditure review to help the Government of Burkina Faso produce evidence on the structure of public expenditures. In addition to the classic analysis of the efficiency of expenditure allocation, the efficiency of budget execution, as well as coordination, monitoring and evaluation, and accountability mechanisms in the sector, the report will examine the incidence and impact of public expenditures by analyzing four specific cases: (i) input subsidies, (ii) hydro-agricultural facilities and irrigation; (iii) agricultural finance, and (iv) expenditures allocated to forestry and natural resources
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Fiscal Measures ; Innovative Entrepreneurship ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Real and Intellectual Property Law ; SDG 8 ; Social Protections and Labor ; Tax Law
    Abstract: Viet Nam's economy slowed sharply in 2023, with three key drivers of growth -- exports, consumption, and private domestic investment -- is losing momentum. On the production side, the slowdown was led by industrial production. In the first quarter of 2024, the economy registered 5.66 percent (y/y) growth, mostly driven by the low base effect in exports, with consumption and investment recovering more gradually. Employment growth slowed and real average monthly incomes stagnated. Viet Nam's external position improved in 2023, underpinned by a large current account surplus. Viet Nam needs to increase domestic private sector productivity to realize its ambitious target of becoming a high-income country by 2045, and innovative entrepreneurship is essential to drive this growth. Improving the conditions for entry and growth of innovative startups, through development of a conducive entrepreneurial ecosystem, can help build a pipeline of highly productive firms in new and established sectors
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Support ; IDA ; Jobs ; Labor Markets ; Reform ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This evaluation is the first stage of the Independent Evaluation Group's assessment of the World Bank's support for more, better, and more inclusive jobs through International Development Association (IDA) financing, and it assesses the implementation of IDA-supported interventions directly supporting its jobs objectives across the three Replenishment cycles from fiscal years 2015 to 2022. Supporting the creation of more, better, and more inclusive jobs is critical towards achieving the goals of poverty reduction and shared prosperity in countries. This is especially true for countries that are eligible for International Development Association (IDA) financing. Since 2014, IDA has included jobs as a special theme, and subsequent IDA replenishments have had what this evaluation calls an 'IDA jobs strategy.' This strategy included explicit objectives, a series of policy commitments to achieve them, and results indicators to track them. This evaluation represents the first stage of the Independent Evaluation Group's assessment of the World Bank's performance in supporting more, better, and more inclusive jobs through IDA financing. It assesses the implementation of IDA-supported interventions that directly supported its jobs objectives across the three Replenishment cycles from fiscal years 2015 to 2022. The evaluation answers two questions: (i) To what extent IDA's strategy on jobs was grounded in sound analytics, adaptive, and operationally relevant (ii) To what extent the strategy has been translated into relevant and effective jobs interventions that directly address the objectives of more, better, and more inclusive jobs The scope of the evaluation is limited to the three main channels for achieving IDA jobs objectives: acting on labor demand, increasing labor supply, and improving labor market flexibility and geographic mobility. The report offers recommendations for further strengthening of the IDA jobs agenda towards the objective of supporting more, better, and more inclusive jobs
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Childcare ; Early Childhood Development ; Education ; Legal Framework ; Policies ; Services Mapping ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The "Comprehensive Assessment of the Childcare Landscape in Lebanon: A Mixed Methods Study" analyzes the supply and demand of formal childcare services for children aged 0-3. It provides a review of Lebanon's regulatory and institutional framework around childcare, maps out the current supply of services including cost and quality aspects, and deepens the understanding of households' childcare needs. Findings show that there is a mismatch between supply and demand, with a gap in provision for the youngest children and that supply is mostly private, costly, and concentrated in coastal areas. Childcare responsibilities limit women's ability to join the labor force, and affordability is a main constraint for families to access services, resulting in low demand for formal childcare. The study proposes measures for an inclusive expansion of quality and affordable childcare services in four areas: (i) an enabling environment for efficient, affordable provision of quality childcare services, (ii) a more equitable distribution of the unpaid care work burden within the household, (iii) improved State support to address households' care needs, and (iv) inclusive family-friendly workplace conditions in the private sector
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Cyclonic Storm ; Environment ; Grade Methodology ; Natural Disasters ; Rakhine State ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Extremely severe cyclonic storm Mocha made landfall as a Category 4-equivalent cyclone in the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale on Sunday May 14, 2023, at 07:07 UTC (14:07 local time) around Sittwe city, the capital of Rakhine State, Myanmar. Given the fragile and conflict-affected situation with limited access in Myanmar, the World Bank has adopted the Global RApid post-disaster Damage Estimation (GRADE) methodology to estimate damages arising from Cyclone Mocha. GRADE is a remote, desktop analysis to estimate damage to capital stock. This report summarizes the results of the GRADE conducted to assess damages following the impact of Extremely severe cyclonic storm Mocha in Myanmar during May 2023
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impact ; Covid-19 Impact ; Education ; Food Security ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital Accumulation and Utilization ; Inclusive Development ; Long-Term Economic Growth ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report is undertaken as a part of the Human Capital Project (HCP), a globalinitiative of the World Bank Group that aims to increase governments' awarenessof the importance of investing in people (World Bank date of publication not identifiedb). One of the maincomponents of the HCP is a cross-country metric--the Human Capital Index (HCI). The HCI estimates the amount of human capital a child born today can expect to accumulate by the age of 18, thus highlighting how current health and education outcomes shape the work productivity of the next generation. Moreover, given the cumulative nature of human capital, the HCI has clear milestones across the entire human life cycle: at birth, children need to survive; during childhood, they need to be well-nourished; at school age, they must complete all schooling and active adequate learning levels; and in adulthood, they need to stay in good health. Finally, the HCI includes a result: a score that ranges from 0 to 1. A country where an average child has virtually no risk of being stunted or dying before age five, receives high-quality education, and becomes a healthy adult, would have an HCI close to 1. Conversely, when the risk of being ill-nourished or prematurely dying is high, access to education is limited, and the quality of learning is low, the HCI would approach zero
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Employment ; Inclusive Society ; Income Inequality ; Labor Markets ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Structural Drivers ; Wage
    Abstract: This report is intended to inform public debate and policymaking on income inequality in Thailand. It aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of income inequality in Thailand and identify opportunities to promote more inclusive growth. The analysis uses a wealth of data from a variety of sources (detailed in Appendix A) to examine the pattern, structure, and drivers of income inequality in the country, with a special focus on inequality and labor market supply-side factors. It is structured as follows. This section has laid the foundation for analysis, examining historical trends in both consumption - and income-based measures of inequality while providing geographic context and data on public perceptions about inequality. It also provided a summary of literature findings. Section 2 analyzes the pandemic's impacts on inequality, including the role that social assistance played in mitigating its effects but also the potential scarring effects on children's human capital development. Section 3 examines the structural drivers of inequality and its persistence, focusing on the role of inequality of opportunity in human capital development and access to basic services. Finally, Section 4 provides policy options to create a more inclusive society by addressing the root causes of persistent inequality and mitigating the challenges brought about by the pandemic. In particular, since a significant share of the poor in Thailand are engaged in agriculture, the report underscores that improving farm incomes is crucial for alleviating poverty and reducing inequality. As such, Section 4 draws its recommendations from a recent study on the key challenges and opportunities facing Thai farmers to raise agricultural productivity and incomes
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Early Childhood ; Economic Growth ; Human Capital ; Human Capital Protection ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Strengths and Gaps
    Abstract: This human capital review assesses human capital outcomes in Mauritania and identifies actions to strengthen, utilize, and protect human capital. The government of Mauritania has demonstrated a strong commitment to placing human capital at the forefront of its long-term vision, with dedicated efforts focused on enhancing childhood health and education outcomes. Despite Mauritania's positive initiatives, the country's human capital wealth per capita has declined over the last 20 years; and it is imperative to look at ways to quickly reverse this situation. Children born today in Mauritania will only be 38 percent as productive when they grow up as they could have been had they enjoyed complete education and full health. Increasing the productivity of Mauritanians--both men and women--and thus allowing them to fully contribute to the development of their society entails transforming the human capital challenge to a human capital opportunity. This report takes a comprehensive, cross-sectoral approach and proposes recommendations for building, protecting, and utilizing human capital in Mauritania
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; ESG Integration ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Government Pension Fund ; Investments ; Pension Funds ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; Social Funds and Pensions ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report describes the ESG integration practices at GPF as a practical example of how a pension fund can integrate ESG considerations into its investment practices and processes. The report focuses on the incorporation of ESG issues into our investment analysis and decision-making process. Other elements of responsible investing such as active ownership and ESG disclosure practices whilst also key to GPF's overall approach, are not discussed in detail in this report. The report is a product of technical co-operation between teams from GPF and the World Bank. The report starts by providing some background information on GPF, including its investment philosophy and an overview of ESG investment philosophy before detailing the GPF ESG Score methodology. It then describes how the GPF ESG Score methodology is applied to equity and fixed-income investments, followed by an overview of how GPF ensures that ESG considerations are integrated into the selection, appointment and monitoring of external managers. It concludes with some reflections on the landscape of responsible investment and identifies areas where GPF expects to improve its investment process in the coming years
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Demographics ; Early Childhood Development ; Education ; Fetal and Maternal Health ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Gender ; Gender and Poverty ; Government Financing ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital ; Mortality ; Nutrition Services ; Pregnancy ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This Human Capital Review (HCR) report presents an in-depth analysis of human capital indicators throughout a person's lifetime, from in utero to productive aging. By examining the various stages of human capital accumulation, the report aims to provide accurate recommendations for specific groups in Sierra Leone. Thus, the report disaggregates data whenever possible. It relies on an extensive consultative process involving various stakeholders such as Government counterparts, development partners, teachers, adolescent girls, students, private sector representatives, and local representatives. The consultation process followed a Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) approach, which facilitates the identification and resolution of problems by local leadership. In addition, this report aims to inform the design and implementation of human capital reforms that will respond to specific challenges identified in the report
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Consumer Protection ; Consumer Protection Law ; Corruption and Anticorruption Law ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Capability ; Financial Consumer Protection ; Law and Development ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The 2022 Global State of Financial Inclusion and Consumer Protection (FICP) Report is an update to the 2013 and 2017 FICP reports. These surveys aim to provide a timely source of global data to benchmark efforts by financial sector authorities to improve the enabling environment for financial inclusion and consumer protection. To date, this is the only longitudinal and global survey of this nature. As such, this report serves as a valuable resource to shape the World Bank's country engagements, a reference document for regulators and supervisors and, finally, a tool for both public and private sector actors with an interest in knowing the developments in this sector. The Survey questionnaire covers key topics related to financial inclusion and financial consumer protection (FCP) and aligns with international guidance to financial sector authorities in these areas. Because the report aims to capture both a snapshot as well as trends over time, the survey questionnaire has been modified over the three cycles to reflect the changing policy and regulatory landscape of financial inclusion and consumer protection
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Asean Region ; Informal Waste Workers ; IWW ; Livelihood Models ; Marine Plastic Waste ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Vulnerabilities ; Work and Working Conditions
    Abstract: The present study focuses on a particular group of actors along the plastics collection and recycling value chain--informal waste workers (IWWs)--on whom limited information has been collected at the country level. Specifically, the study examines two questions: (i) what is the profile and vulnerabilities of informal waste workers in the three countries including gender-specific vulnerabilities; and (ii) what livelihood opportunities and community-based innovation models have been piloted in the selected countries, and can be used as case study examples in future policies and interventions, with the objectives of reducing vulnerability of IWWs and contributing to improving solid waste management and recycling value chains
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Education ; Education For All ; Employment ; Employment and Unemployment ; Human Capital ; Poverty ; Poverty Reduction ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Social Protections and Labor ; UMI Countries
    Abstract: This Human Capital Review aims to provide analytical foundations in the support of policies that improve human capital outcomes for the following four UMI countries in Central America: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama, and the Dominican Republic. The objective of this report is to identify the key constraints to human capital growth and understand how education and labor market policies can foster a resilient recovery, promote inclusive growth, and contribute to poverty reduction in these countries. The review also estimates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human capital outcomes using a multi-sectoral approach. The analysis compares human capital outcomes in the decade before the COVID-19 pandemic (2010-2019) against trends during the pandemic (2020-2021). Lastly, the report focuses on these four countries, which are the only UMI in Central America to take advantage of new data collected during the pandemic, which allowed to quantify some of the impacts of COVID-19 and understand some of their long-term implications for human development outcomes
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Data Development and Gender ; Economic Growth ; Employment and Unemployment ; Human Development and Gender ; Labor Market Policy and Programs ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development and Poverty ; Social Protection Delivery Systems ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The following analytical report summarizes the technical notes and presentations prepared by the World Bank and the Workforce Development Center under the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population of Kazakhstan (MLSPP). These works aimed to support the MLSPP in the preparation of the Concept Plan of Labor Market Development for 2024-2029. The teams analyzed existing barriers and the potential for the creation of quality jobs in Kazakhstan because employment is essential for economic growth, which contributes to reducing poverty. Despite slower economic growth and some institutional challenges, Kazakhstan, nevertheless, has been successful at reducing the poverty rate. The major factor contributing to Kazakhstan's growth has been productivity, regardless of the period. A much lower contribution stems from labor market factors and employment rates. Therefore, the teams focused on how to boost firm productivity to increase the number and accessibility of better jobs, as well as how to develop skills and provide good education to the different groups of the population and prepare people for new and old jobs. Based on the material delivered by the World Bank, the WDC and other local expert groups, the MLSPP was able to draft the Concept Plan of Labor Market Development for 2024-2029, which the Government of Kazakhstan approved on November 28, 2023
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; CPGA ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Preparedness ; Natural Disasters ; Primary Response ; Risk ; Social and Livelihood Support ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Crisis preparedness is cral to preventing shocks from becoming crises. Investments in ex ante preparedness are especially relevant in countries like Nepal that face high levels of exposure and vulnerability to a range of risks. In seeking to identify opportunities to strengthen the Government of Nepal's (GoN's) capacity to prepare for crisis events in an effective and timely manner, this Technical Annex presents findings from the application of the Crisis Preparedness Gap Analysis (CPGA) diagnostic in the country. It provides details on findings and entry points across the five componnts of crisis preparedness. For a summary, please refer to the accompanying CPGA Nepal Briefing Note. Following a brief description of the CPGA methodology, the Technical Annex presents a summary of findings from each CPGA component alongside identification of entry points and opportunities to strengthen crisis preparedness in the country. To provide a holistic assessment of preparedness, the CPGA focuses on five core components of crisis preparedness. These are (i) Legal and Institutional Foundations, (ii) Understanding and Monitoring Risks, (iii) FinancialPreparedness, (iv) Primary Response, and (v) Social and Livelihood Support
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Earthquake ; Environment ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Macroeconomic Impact ; Natural Disasters ; Recovery and Reconstruction ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Socioeconomic Impact ; Syria
    Abstract: Following the magnitude (Mw) 7.8 Turkiye-Syria Earthquake on February 6, 2023, and the (Mw) 6.3 earthquake on February 20, 2023, the World Bank launched the Syria Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA). The objective of the RDNA is to estimate the impact of the earthquake on physical assets and service delivery in the most affected areas. The RDNA covers six governorates with roughly 10million inhabitants, with an in-depth analysis of nine cities. It provides preliminary estimates to rebuild infrastructure and restore service delivery, and general guiding principles for recovery and building back better, focusing on early recovery (0-12 months) and short-term needs (1-3 years). The RDNA also analyses the macroeconomic and socioeconomic impacts of the earthquake to anticipate repercussions on the economic outlook and on the population's well-being. This RDNA contributes to the understanding of the impactof the earthquake on Syria. While the RDNA focuses on the damages incurred by the earthquake, the compounding effect of the pre-existing damages caused by the conflict are reflected in the pre-earthquake baseline. The RDNA follows a globally established and recognized damage, loss, and needs assessment methodology developed by the World Bank Group (WBG), the European Union (EU), and the United Nations (UN). This methodology has been applied globally in post-disaster and conflict contexts to inform recovery and reconstruction planning. Prior to this RDNA, the World Bank Group conducted six assessments to provide information on the effects of the ongoing conflict on population, physical infrastructure, and quality of service delivery
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Evaluation
    Keywords: Jobs ; Labor Markets ; Objectives ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The International Development Association (IDA) has included jobs as a special theme since the 17th Replenishment of IDA (IDA17) in 2014, when it explicitly recognized the role played by labor markets in intermediating between growth and inclusion. This acknowledgment of jobs marked a shift in IDA's inclusive growth strategy. Before the IDA17 strategy paper, IDA emphasized growth and the use of social safety nets to mitigate the effects of poverty. Beginning in 2014, however, jobs became more central to IDA's strategy for inclusive growth and for achieving the twin goals. IDA17, the 18th Replenishment of IDA, and the 19th Replenishment of IDA established specific policy commitments and results indicators under the jobs-related special theme. At the same time, the World Bank Group expanded and deepened its attention to jobs, resulting in an increasingly multidimensional jobs agenda characterized by a growing body of lending, technical assistance and diagnostics, and a strong focus on IDA-eligible countries, including through use of the Country Private Sector Diagnostic and IDA's private sector window. This evaluation will assess IDA's support for jobs-related objectives over fiscal years (FY)14-22, the period covering three IDA replenishments during which jobs became an IDA special theme (IDA17, the 18th Replenishment of IDA, and the 19th Replenishment of IDA). The objectives of this assessment are to interrogate the contribution of IDA's Bank Group financing to improving outcomes related to more, better paying, and more inclusive jobs; the role of IDA's jobs strategy at the corporate, country, and operational levels in this context; and the analytical underpinnings of jobs-related interventions. The evaluation will provide lessons and recommendations to inform the design of the Bank Group's future multidimensional jobs support and enhance IDA's effectiveness in this space based on eight years of strategic, diagnostic, and operational experience
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Foreign Labor Markets ; International Access ; Labor Markets ; Labor Migration ; Legal Framework ; NCA Countries ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This note aims to close the knowledge gap about the effectiveness and capacity of labor migration sending systems in NCA countries. The report assesses whether NCA countries have the fundamental elements of an effective labor migration sending system, identifies the missing elements, and offers recommendations for strengthening the systems over time. Filling such a knowledge gap is critical to inform policies that maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of economic migration. Programs and policies that help expand legal pathways for regular migration will not only promote mutually beneficial migration, but could be a step, albeit small, towards dissuading individuals from pursuing risky migration patterns. Indeed, evidence from Mexico indicates that investing in legal labor pathways can reduce irregular migration (Clemens and Gough, 2018). In this context, this note summarizes the main findings from three institutional diagnostics of the labor migration sending systems in NCA countries, with a view to deepening the understanding of the supply side of labor flows. To this end, and building on previous World Bank experience globally, a diagnostic tool was developed to identify what steps the NCA governments have taken to recognize and respond to foreign demand for workers. The tool examines if appropriate structures, systems, processes, and resources exist to prepare and deliver adequate labor supply arrangements in the context of bilateral agreements (BLAs) or Temporary Work Agreements (TWAs) with other countries. The diagnostic tool is organized around four main pillars to regulate, facilitate, fortify, and further access of labor migrants to international labor markets
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Adaptive Social Protection ; Crisis Response ; Resilience To Shocks ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Universal Social Protection
    Abstract: Interconnected and often devastating covariate shocks are a threat to human development. Covariate shocks are shocks that affect large numbers of people or communities at once and can be natural, economic, or political. Occurrence and the human devastation from natural disasters has increased over the last 50 years, and the negative impacts of climate change are expected to exacerbate this trend. Poor households are particularly vulnerable to covariate shocks because they lack adequate capacity to prepare for, cope with, and adapt to shocks. Covariate shocks can also impoverish vulnerable households when their capacity to prepare, cope, and adapt is overwhelmed. Covariate shocks vary in magnitude, speed of onset, predictability, and duration, and thus these aspects should be considered when designing the most appropriate social protection response. Moreover, the needs and challenges that vulnerable and directly affected populations face will have implications for social protection systems. Adaptive social protection (ASP) builds resilience by helping poor and vulnerable households prepare for, cope with, and adapt to covariate shocks. The purpose of this evaluation is twofold: (i) assess whether the World Bank support for social protection has incorporated adaptive elements over time, and (ii) assess how effective the World Bank has been at helping client countries make their social protection systems more adaptive
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  • 21
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Debt ; Fiscal Developments ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Inflation ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy ; Social Protections and Labor ; Women's Economic Power
    Abstract: Jordan's real growth registered 2.4 percent in 2022 and has accelerated to 2.7 percent in H1-2023, compared to a pre-COVID-19 (2012-2019) average of 2.4 percent. Growth was supported by the services sector, agriculture sector, in addition to a robust contribution from agriculture. Inflation decelerated significantly in 2023, supported by favorable base effect, monetary policy tightening and lower global commodity prices. External imbalances have narrowed, supported by a string recovery in tourism activity and travel receipts. Central government fiscal balance was supported by economic growth and revenue-enhancing reforms, whereas total expenditure grew at a slower pace. Despite these positive developments, entrenched structural constraints weigh on labor market outcomes, as labor force participation continues its gradual decline driven by a fall in both male and female participation. Jordanian female labor participation remains among the lowest in the world. Debt-to-GDP ratios continues to rise from already elevated levels with persisting pressures from the electricity and water sectors. The global and regional environments remain challenging. In particular, the conflict in the Middle East has the potential for material economic spillovers on the Jordanian economy, including through its impact on tourism activity. The "In Focus" section highlights the role of women and their increased economic participation as central to Jordan's development agenda. The piece takes a life cycle approach and follows the journey of girls and women from birth through education and into the labor market. It sheds light on two of the main barriers to women's increased participation in the economy: childcare and public transportation. A comprehensive institutional renovation, together with enabling policies and a clear signal regarding the role of women, are all crucial in removing barriers and facilitate the integration of women into the labor force
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Post-Pandemic ; Public Debt ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Tourism ; Travel-Dependent
    Abstract: This publication is the inaugural edition of the future publication series on Pacific Economic Update (PEU). It consists of two parts. Part A analyzes the recent economic developments in Pacific Islands. Based on these developments, the PI EU summarizes the outlook for the region's economies and risks to this outlook. Second, the PEU provides an in-depth examination of a public debt issues in the Pacific and proposes policy recommendations to address public debt related challenges. The PEU is intended for a broad set of audience, including regional forums, policy makers, business leaders, international donors and the community of analysts and professionals engaged in the economies of Pacific Island countries. In dealing with the challenges of rising inflation, tepid recovery from the pandemic and global slowdown, the PICs should strike a balance between supporting livelihoods and reducing future public debt risks. The need for fiscal support during the current environment of high inflation and tepid economic recovery is understandable as it provides the much needed relief for vulnerable households and businesses to navigate the crisis. Nonetheless, these support measures create significant fiscal burdens, and are unsustainable, particularly if the high energy and food prices persist longer than envisaged. Most PICs already face low capacity to finance unexpected shocks which would be further tested by a natural disaster event. Therefore, PICs should tread a delicate balance between fiscal support measures and achieving fiscal sustainability. Any forthcoming fiscal support should be well-targeted, time-bound, and deficit-neutral. Over the medium-term, fiscal efficiency gains and ongoing donor support is critical to finance key development challenges and climate adaptation. Revenue-based fiscal consolidation measures could include improving the efficiency of tax collections and eliminating tax exemptions. On the expenditure side, PICs have limited room to sharply cut spending given the expected modest growth and ongoing development needs. Therefore, it becomes imperative to improve the efficiency of public spending, to maximize social dividends for every dollar spent. Resulting savings from fiscal consolidation measures could help build sovereign wealth funds to provide added fiscal buffers during shocks and economic downturns. Due to high vulnerability to disasters and climate change, PICs will need to seek ongoing concessional financing for critical climate adaptation and development needs
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Administrative and Civil Service Reform ; Equity ; Opportunity ; Resilience ; Social Protection System ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Sustainability
    Abstract: This policy note assesses how Brazil's social protection and labor systems can be reformed most effectively to meet the challenges that the country will face in the next two decades while also fostering social inclusion and shared prosperity. This discussion is timely as Brazil is slowly recovering from the global COVID-19 crisis, which brought new challenges as well as accelerating existing socioeconomic transformations. Despite the fact that labor markets are slow to recover after economic crises in Brazil, implementing the right set of policies could enable the country to take advantage of changes in the world of work, new opportunities for human capital formation, and recent developments in technology and delivery systems to build back better than in the past. Serving as a companion piece on social protection and labor policies for the Flagship Report "Alternative Futures for Brazil: Inclusion, Productivity, Sustainability" (World Bank, Forthcoming), this note draws from a large body of recent analytical work by the World Bank team in Brazil. The vision of the flagship report is for Brazil to reach 2040, two decades from now, with a more productive and resilient and less unequal society
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2190
    Keywords: Education and Work ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Education ; Gender Based Violence ; Gender Equality ; Gender Norms ; Human Rights ; Informal Trading ; Labor Markets ; Labor Standards ; Law and Development ; Poverty ; Social Protections and Labor ; Teenage Pregnancies ; Women and Girls
    Abstract: Gender equality is a key foundation of inclusive and sustainable economic development that can translate into long-term and effective poverty reduction. While gender equality matters on its own as a human right, it also offers instrumental value for individuals, households, and societies at large. Global evidence consistently shows that empowering women and girls reduces poverty incidence and food insecurity, boosts economic growth and productivity, and enhances investments in children's human capital. Angola, a country where a third of the population lives in poverty and economic output is heavily dependent on its oil sector, stands out in Sub-Saharan Africa for its particularly large gender disparities, especially when compared to countries of same income levels. Family formation, education, and labor market decisions are intrinsically interwoven and connected, which in the case of Angola leads to extreme demographic pressure on an already weak public service system. To begin tackling these significant gender disparities, well-designed and targeted policies are needed. But there are significant knowledge gaps when it comes to understanding the key barriers facing Angolan girls and young women in accessing education and transitioning to the labor market. This report presents insights gained from the voices of young women and girls, their parents, and key informants through a series of interviews carried out in Luanda, home to a quarter of the country's population, in 2022. Based on these in-depth interviews with low-income young women in Luanda, this report points to the multiple challenges they face across their life cycle - challenges relating to the dimensions of education, family formation, and work. It also shows how those dimensions in a woman's life are deeply interconnected - and how they are determined by structural constraints including poverty and vulnerability, gender norms, corruption and lack of transparency in access to services and opportunities, and violence in public and private spheres
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  • 25
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2109
    Keywords: Palestinian Pension Agency ; Pension System ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; PER ; SIAD ; Social Funds and Pensions ; Social Insurance Administrative Diagnostic ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This work builds on the Public Expenditure Review (PER) analysis of the pension system conducted in 2016 but also brings important innovations. It updates the financial analysis conducted then and offers new policy recommendations, with the key objective of improving the affordability of the pension system, subject to benefit adequacy. The principal difference of this work is in the adopted approach, which looks at the pension system holistically and offers advice from the angle of rationalizing the overall public expenditure policy in pensions, rather than working with each pension scheme individually. In doing so, it takes a forward-looking approach and minimizes the dependency path of the convoluted legacy system. The work also incorporates a component that looks at the Palestinian Pension Agency's (PPA) administrative systems using a new Bank tool - Social Insurance Administrative Diagnostic (SIAD). The findings reveal a system with unfinished reforms and call for a comprehensive restructuring of the pension financing arrangements, along with a change of the construct of the system. This work is largely diagnostic in nature, offering high level policy recommendations and suggesting a comprehensive follow up analysis. While presenting a status quo analysis and illustrating effects of several parametric adjustments, the main set of recommendations is centered around the structural adjustments and financial restructuring in the public sector pension scheme, which would require a round of follow up work, elaborating and modeling various reform cases, including careful fine-tuning of the transitional provisions
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2196
    Keywords: Covid-19 ; Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Pandemic ; Primary Health Care ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: While the incidence of COVID-19 in Belize has subsided, the lasting health and economic impacts caused by the pandemic have demonstrated the need to build a resilient health system. The most recent figures from the Statistical institute of Belize confirm that there have been over 60,000 cases and 678 deaths due to COVID-19. Additionally, a rapid phone survey of over 2,000 households, conducted between December 2021 and January 2023, found that 20.6 percent and 26.8 percent of respondents reported losing their job permanently or temporarily, respectively, and an additional 64 percent of respondents reported a reduction in their income during pandemic. Ensuring the health system remains resilient to shocks is critical, especially given the pandemic's impacts on heath and the economy
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Human Capital ; Inclusive Development ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Sustainability
    Abstract: To respond to climate change effectively, human capital needs to be at the heart of policy responses. This policy note demonstrates the impacts of climate change across the lifecycle and provides a framework of policy and program interventions to protect, build, and use human capital to minimize climate change impacts and create opportunities for more sustainable and inclusive development on a livable planet. By demonstrating the scope of impacts of climate change on people and people's potential to contribute to climate action, the note also makes a case for prioritizing human capital investments as part of countries' Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and other climate strategies
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Cash Transfers ; COVID-19 ; Labor Market ; Pensions ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; Poverty ; Social Analysis ; Social Assessment ; Social Development ; Social Funds ; Social Protection System ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: A period of economic growth over the past decade led to a reduction in poverty and improvements in labor market outcomes in Montenegro. Substantial challenges remain, which have been aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, drawing attention to the role that social protection plays in reducing poverty and promoting human capital. This note presents a situational analysis of the social protection system in Montenegro. It assesses the extent to which the social protection system in Montenegro fulfils its purpose and proposes areas for reform in the short, medium, and long term. To this end, this note seeks to assess each category of social protection, namely: social assistance, social services, social insurance (specifically pensions) and labor market programs, in terms of program coverage, equity, sustainability and effectiveness
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Attracting Business Investment ; Business Environment ; Employment Policy ; Job Generation and Creation ; Jobs Policy ; Labor and Employment Law ; Labor Market Regulations ; Law and Development ; Private Sector Development ; Remittances ; Rural Development ; Rural Labor Markets ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Shaping a Better Future for the Filipino Workforce aims to inform jobs policy by examining key determinants and outcomes of jobs. Jobs are created when the macroeconomic environment is conducive and policies are predictable to businesses with sustained growth, trades, and investments. At the same time, a large body of literature also shows that economic growth alone is not sufficient for generating jobs. Jobs are created when firms pursue expansion through innovation and competitiveness and demand for more labor input, while workers' skills and human capital are able to meet the needs of firms. Intrahousehold resource allocation and decisions for labor supply also affect the jobs outcomes. It is not uncommon that workers as self-employed create jobs by initiating their own business. The market clearing process of labor is then affected by labor market institutions, most notably labor market regulations and labor policies and programs. These are key determinants of how easy it is to start a business or to hire a worker, how high labor costs are, and how efficiently firms and workers are matched. Part I looks into the country's labor market in chronological order, while Part II discusses three major areas of Philippine jobs - labor regulation, international migration, and emerging demands for green and digital jobs
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  • 30
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Benefits ; Human Capital ; Integration ; International Economics and Trade ; International Migration ; Job Markets ; Labor Markets ; Migration ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Protections and Labor ; Welfare
    Abstract: The global economic recovery remains fragile, creating choppy seas for the recovering Pacific. While global conditions have gradually improved since the pandemic and spillovers from Russia's invasion of Ukraine, progress on reducing inflation in major economies has proven more challenging than expected. Given that all Pacific countries are net importers, this has resulted in persistently high imported inflation. The speed of monetary policy tightening by major central banks has slowed, but easing is unlikely in the near term. Aggregate demand in major trading partners of the Pacific (particularly Australia and New Zealand) remains lackluster. This could limit demand for travel and tourism services and other income sources such as remittance and commodity exports. Despite uncertainties in the global economic recovery, Pacific economies are expected to see ongoing expansion in 2023 and 2024. Fiji led the Pacific's post-COVID-19 recovery with open borders and a strong rebound in 2022 and is now on track to reach its pre-pandemic output level in 2023. Ongoing recovery expectations in the Pacific are broadly in line with March 2023 World Bank projections except for Tuvalu and Palau, where growth has been revised down given weaker than expected outcomes in construction and tourism. In 2023, Pacific growth is expected to reach 3.9 percent and then moderate to 3.3 percent in 2024 as the initial post-COVID-19 rebound dissipates and the region moves towards its long-term trend growth of 2.6 percent. Nonetheless, uncertainty remains high and depends on whether a soft landing can be achieved among key trading partners as they battle ongoing inflation. Inflation remained stubborn across the Pacific at an average of over 6.7 percent in 2022, a substantial increase from the 1.5 percent average during 2019-2021. This has increased the risk of vulnerable populations falling into poverty. In line with global trends, Pacific inflation is expected to decline to an average of 6.0 percent in 2023 and gradually subside thereafter
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal Policies ; Inflation ; Labor Markets ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Protection ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: While armed clashed have declined, Libya continues to face fragmentation and fragility. The country's fragility is having far-reaching economic and social impact. Social conditions and public service delivery have been affected. Similar to numerous conflict-affected countries, the World Bank refrains from providing quantitative growth and macroeconomic forecasts. Despite the numerous challenges facing the country, the Libyan economy cab ne reconstructed and diversified by leveraging its substantial financial resources building on four critical pillars. The first is reaching a sustainable political agreement on the future of Libya. The second is the preparation of a shared vision on economic and social development that is based on accurate assessments of needs and aspirations. The third is the development of a modern and decentralized public financial management system that ensures adequate sharing of oil wealth and inter-governmental fiscal transfers as well as effective and transparent budget planning, execution, and reporting policies. The fourth is the establishment of a modern and comprehensive social policy that enables the reform of public administration and creates a clear distinction between social transfers and public wages
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  • 32
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Adaptive ; COVID-19 ; Inclusive Recovery ; Limited Spending ; Resilience ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; SPL
    Abstract: Social Protection and Labor (SPL) Systems help individuals and societies manage risk and volatility and protect them from poverty through instruments that address the challenges of resilience, equity and opportunity. SPL systems include social safety nets, social insurance, and labor market programs. As recent events have shown, the relative emphasis among goals - resilience, equity and opportunity - can change over time, with demands put on SPL program design and delivery systems differing in each context. In relatively stable times, programs are likely to focus on human capital formation, equality of opportunity, poverty reduction, and redistribution. This was the case in Central America prior to the COVID-19 emergency, albeit with some shortcomings. The goal of shock-responsiveness (resilience) dramatically came to the fore during the pandemic, even if recognized earlier during natural disasters and now more broadly with climate change. Globally and in Central America, SPL systems had a critical role in the response to the COVID-19 emergency
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Atlas Region ; Earthquake ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Female Labor Force ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Disasters ; Poverty ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Tourism ; Women's Economic Empowerment
    Abstract: The Moroccan economy is recovering. Following a sharp deceleration in 2022 caused by various overlapping commodity and climatic shocks, economic growth increased to 2.9 percent in the first semester of 2023, driven primarily by services and net exports. Inflation has halved between February and August 2023, but food inflation remains high. Lower commodity prices havealso contributed to a temporary narrowing of the current account deficit. The response to recent crises and the unfolding reform of the health and social protection systems are exerting pressures on public spending. However, the government is managing to gradually reduce the budget deficit
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access To Labor Market ; Accessibility ; Climate Change ; Disability Inclusion ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Stabilization ; Environment ; Health Services ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Inclusive Disaster Management ; Social Protection ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The impacts of climate change will be unevenly felt within and across countries partly due to social and economic inequalities. Persons with disabilities represent 16 percent of the global population and face widespread forms of social and economic marginalization yet have received little attention in prior studies of climate change and social inequality. The mortality rate of persons with disabilities in natural disasters is "up to four times higher than people without disabilities" (Stein and Stein 2021). How do the fast-moving shocks, flooding, drought, heatwaves and slower-moving social and economic effects of climate change impact persons with disabilities How can climate change adaptation efforts be disability inclusive This study examines these questions through original fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted in Uzbekistan. In November 2022, the authors interviewed persons with disabilities in three regions of the country. The resulting qualitative data afford key insights into how climate change and disability status interact to generate distinct vulnerabilities. Within the nascent field of climate change and disability studies, this report represents one of the first fieldwork-based accounts of how climate change presents heightened risks to persons with disabilities in a developing country context
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  • 35
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2113
    Keywords: Accessibility ; Accessible Learning ; Accessible Special Technologies ; Augmentative and Alternative Communication ; Climate Change and Health ; Climate Change Impacts ; Disability ; Education ; Inclusive Education ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The purpose of this toolkit is to generate knowledge on how to develop and adapt assessment tools using principlesof universal design that yield reliable and valid data andinformation to track the learning outcomes of marginalizedlearners, including learners with disabilities
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 11872
    Keywords: Economic and Employment Structure ; Economic Growth ; Governance ; Inflation ; Labor Force Participation ; Learning Employable Skills ; Skills Development System ; Social Protections and Labor ; Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) ; Youth Employment
    Abstract: Tanzania's rapidly growing population, particularly its youth, faces challenges in entering the labor market due to limited employable skills. This policy note first reviews the demand-side factors including Tanzania's economic, employment, and labor force characteristics, then it critically analyzes the technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and skills development system. It draws from existing studies and available data to provide an overview of key sector issues and highlights the challenges that require attention as they relate to cultivating employable skills for all Tanzanian youth. This policy note complements the World Bank Policy Note on Strengthening Basic Education System and Improving Learning Outcomes and offers timely input to the government's ongoing effort to strengthen the TVET sector
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Delivery Systems ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; GDP ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Reform ; Social Protection ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The global economy continues to face steep challenges, but Timor-Leste's economy is slowly recovering. Nevertheless, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita has not returned to pre-pandemic levels. Consumer price inflation reached 7.9 percent yoy in August 2022, one of the highest in the East Asia Pacific region. The real effective exchange rate (REER) has appreciated by about 10 percent since the first quarter of 2021. Enhancing productive capabilities through structural reforms and improving quality of public spending hold the key for accelerating and sustaining economic development. Extending the life of petroleum fund through fiscal consolidation is essential to delay the fiscal cliff and ensure the perpetuation of government spending to support economic growth. Despite receding impact of the pandemic, the level of government spending has not returned to the pre-COVID 19 levels
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Connectivity ; Digital Transformation ; Education ; Education For the Knowledge Economy ; Government Information Network ; Higher Education ; Higher Education Reform ; ICT Applications ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Internet ; Social Protections and Labor ; Vocational and Technical Education
    Abstract: The Digital Transformation of Philippine Higher Education recommends a medium-term strategy for the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). Chapter 1 presents an overview of the Philippine higher education sector and analyzes the sectoral and country context for digital transformation of higher education. Chapter 2 discusses the foundations and pillars that support digital transformation as well as the building blocks of common and shared platforms and services for students and academic, research, and administrative stakeholders in higher education. Based on the findings in Chapter 1 and global good practices on digital transformation in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 recommends strategic goals and actions for CHED and HEIs as well as other higher education key players to digitally transform Philippine higher education
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Education ; Education Reform and Management ; Evolving Skills ; Labor Markets ; Low-Income Countries ; Middle-Income Countries ; Social Protections and Labor ; Technical and Vocational Education and Training ; TVET
    Abstract: Reform of formal technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is urgently needed in most low- and middle-income countries. Demographic trends, coupled with higher rates of students completing lower levels of education, can lead to an exponential increase in the number of secondary TVET students in the next 20 years, particularly in low-income countries (LICs). However, there are significant risks attached to expanding a system that is often considered a second-tier educational track and to which challenged learners are often directed. Because of a broken link between TVET systems and labor markets in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs, together: L/MICs), TVET cannot deliver on its promise. The urgency is compounded by megatrends associated with globalization, technological progress, demographic transformation, and climate change, which affect both skills demand and the distribution of economic opportunities. This report offers guidance to policymakers designing and implementing TVET reforms, emphasizing core principles and practical considerations for L/MICs. There is much to be learned from recent L/MIC reform experiences like those in Bangladesh, El Salvador, and Mongolia, about identifying effective reform strategies and the likely impact of megatrends on future demand for TVET. The report focuses on secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary formal TVET, defined as TVET obtained within the formal education system that leads to diplomas, degrees, or other formal certifications. This overview, summarizing the main messages from the report, has three parts. The first, the TVET Promise, looks at the potential of TVET systems to deliver access to equitable, quality, and relevant training and contribute to employment and productivity. The second, the TVET Challenge, articulates the main limitations in practice for L/MIC TVET systems. The third, the Way Forward to Better TVET, proposes three interrelated transformations (three E's) and six policy priorities to help TVET deliver on its promise in L/MICs
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Disability ; Labor Law ; Labor Standards ; Social Protections and Labor ; Work and Working Conditions
    Abstract: The Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework, updated in 2022, lays out a road map for (i) including disability in the World Bank's policies, operations, and analytical work; and (ii) building internal capacity for supporting clients in implementing disability-inclusive development programs. The primary target audience of the Framework is Bank staff but it is also relevant to the Bank`s client countries, development partners and persons with disabilities
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Demography ; Employment ; Gender ; Growth ; Labor Supply and Labor Demand ; Living Standards ; Productivity ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The report is organized in four chapters. Chapter1 describes trends in growth, productivity, demography, employment, and living standards to inform the analysis of labor supply and labor demand carried out in the chapters that follow. The chapter starts by depicting aggregate trends in economic growth and living standards of the Tunisian population, the drivers of growth (e.g. remittances and migration, FDI, exchange rate, productivity, et cetera), and broad structural changes in terms of job creation and labor productivity growth. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the composition of the labor market and how it has changed over time, including demographics and labor force participation, employment and employment composition in terms of type of job, industrial sector, occupation both at the aggregate level and for different population groups based on gender, age, educational level, and geographical location. It turns the spotlight on two groups that face particular difficulties in accessing the labor market, namely women and youth, and advances hypotheses regarding key barriers to their engagement in the labor market. Chapter 3 shifts the focus to one of the most relevant dimensions that characterize the Tunisian labor market, namely the distinction between the public sector, formal and informal employment. The chapter investigates how individual characteristics are correlated with the probability of working in different types of employment; it provides an overview of recent trends in wages and of conditional wage gaps along a number of dimensions (men/women, public/private, formal/informal employment); and it illustrates how wage workers with different characteristics, in particular different educational endowments, benefit from the labor market. Finally, building on the findings of Chapter 1, Chapter 4 examines recent trends in the patterns of structural and spatial transformation along the employment and firm dimension. It provides an overview of the firm landscape in terms of size, industrial sector, geographical area as well as recent trends in firms' performance, dynamics, labor decisions and capital investments, as well as constraints and opportunities firms face
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Disability ; Health Indicators ; Health Policy and Management ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The objective of this Technical Note is to provide task teams and task team leaders (TTLs) with tools for designing and delivering health care services that are inclusive of disability. More specifically, the ambition of this Technical Note is to improve awareness and skills of TTLs and other World Bank employees toward recognizing the rights of persons with disabilities to receive equitable health care from the outset, to help drive demand from governments, and to identify concrete actions to promote disability-inclusion in health service delivery. The guide provides the rationale for disability inclusion, tips for engaging in dialogue, information and examples on disability-inclusive practices and operations, and specific guidance on integrating disability into health service programming and delivery supported by the World Bank
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  • 43
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Economic Inclusion ; International Economic Integration ; International Economics and Trade ; National Social Protection System ; Social Protections and Labor ; Trade Policies
    Abstract: This report seeks to inform the policy dialogue on how to accelerate Paraguay's international economic integration and in turn its medium- and long-term growth prospects. It benchmarks Paraguay's global integration; analyzes trade, investment and competition policies and the quality of related institutions; and provides recommendations for strengthening them and accelerating the country's global connection. Chapter 2 benchmarks Paraguay's trade outcomes along several dimensions, including export diversification, quality upgrading and export survival, and Chapter 3 follows with an analysis of how trade policies and the quality of the institutional framework are affecting trade performance and identifies opportunities for improvements. It also estimates the impact of the MERCOSUR-European Union (EU) Free Trade Agreement on Paraguay. Chapter 4 focuses on FDI patterns and the strengths and shortcomings of the supporting FDI policy framework to help integrate in regional and global value chains. Chapter 5 examines competition challenges in Paraguay's markets that could be affecting trade and FDI attraction and provides recommendations for strengthening competition policies and institutions. The preparation of this report has benefitted from the analysis of multiple data sources as well as extensive consultations with stakeholders from the private and public sectors
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Disability ; Employment and Unemployment ; Environment ; Job Creation ; Labor Markets ; Natural Disasters ; Social Funds and Pensions ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: An effective and equitable social protection system can help Kosovo to promote human capital, foster productivity, and reduce poverty. Since its independence in 2008, the country has made considerable socioeconomic progress, benefiting from the support of the international community and its own diaspora. Kosovo's economic growth has not been sufficient to reduce the high rates of unemployment or create formal jobs. It stands out as the Western Balkan country with the lowest labor market outcomes, especially for women, and is one of the poorest countries in Europe and the poorest in the Western Balkans, secondly to Albania. The recent Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of the population to the negative effects of shocks, which are anticipated to become more frequent with climate change. And yet, in contrast with other Western Balkan countries, Kosovo's working-age population is on the rise and the country stands to benefit from the demographic dividend. Kosovo can respond to these challenges and harness opportunities by investing in human capital while promoting employment and protecting those vulnerable to shocks. A strong social protection system can play an important role in promoting these objectives. This note presents a situational analysis of the social protection system of Kosovo. It assesses the extent to which the social protection system fulfils its purpose and proposes areas for reform in the short-, medium-, and long-term. The note is based on analysis of administrative data, the most recent European Union Survey on Individual Living Conditions (EIJ-SILC) and Household Budget Survey (HBS), a review of relevant literature, and engagement with technical experts in the Ministry of Finance, Labor and Transfers (MFLT) and with select development partners. The situational analysis of the social protection system in Kosovo unfolds as follows. After the introduction, section 2 reviews the country's main poverty and labor market outcomes; Section 3 provides a brief overview of the social protection system; Section 4 looks at non-contributory cash transfers to support the poor, vulnerable and disabled; Section 5 examines social services; Section 6 analyzes pensions; Section 7 explores employment and active labor market programs; Section 8 reviews the social protection response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic; and Section 9 concludes by identifying the knowledge gaps and main areas for reform
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  • 45
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Employment and Unemployment ; Job Creation ; Labor Markets ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: A decade since the spark of the Arab Spring, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region continues to suffer from limited creation of more and better jobs. Youth face idleness and unemployment. For those who find jobs, informality awaits. Few women attempt to enter the world of work at all. Meanwhile, the available jobs are not those of the future. These labor market outcomes are being worsened by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Jobs Undone: Reshaping the Role of Governments toward Markets and Workers in the Middle East and North Africa explores ways to break these impasses, drawing on original research, survey data, wide-ranging literature, and young entrepreneurial voices from the region. The report finds that a prominent reason behind MENA's unmet jobs challenge is a lack of market contestability in the formal private sector. Few firms in the region enter the market, few grow, and those that exit are not necessarily less productive. Moreover, firms in the region invest little in physical capital, human capital, or research and development, and they tend to be politically connected. At the macro level, economic growth has been mediocre, labor productivity is not being driven by structural change, and the growth of the stock of capital per capita has declined. New evidence generated for this report shows that the lack of dynamism is due to the prevalence of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). They operate in sectors where there is little economic rationale for public activity and they enjoy favorable treatment-flouting the principles of competitive neutrality. Meanwhile, labor regulations add to market rigidity, while gendered laws restrict women's potential. To change this reality, the state must reshape its relationship toward markets, toward workers, and toward women. The region must create a level playing field between SOEs and the private sector, replace labor rigidities with appropriate social protection and labor market programs, and remove barriers to women's economic participation. Governments can also foster new sectors and occupations, gradually propelling market contestability and job creation. All reforms will have to rely on improved data capacity and transparency to create a new social contract between governments and the people of the region
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  • 46
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Enterprise Surveys
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Competitiveness and Competition Policy ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Global Value Chains and Business Clustering ; Human Capital ; Private Sector Development ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Economic growth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has been weak since the global financial crisis of 2007-09 and the Arab Spring of the early 2010s. Achieving higher and sustainable growth is particularly important in view of other economic challenges facing the region: public debt in MENA countries has increased considerably over the last decade, accompanied by declining investment. This report seeks to understand what lies beneath that relatively slow growth, with a particular focus on the reasons for stagnating productivity and inadequate accumulation of human capital and physical capital in the region's private sector. To this end, the report summarizes the main findings from nine background papers based on enterprise survey data. It also draws conclusions for policy, not only for promoting stronger firm performance, but also for addressing the challenge of climate change by pursuing sustainable growth
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Energy ; Hydropower ; Labor Markets ; Renewable Energy ; Rural Development ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Social Protections and Labor ; Vocational and Technical Education
    Abstract: The Government of Pakistan (GOP) has adopted ambitious national renewable energy (RE) targets under the RE policy 2019. The policy sets out a growth trajectory for grid connected, non-hydro renewables, mandating at least 20 percent renewables in the country's installed power generation capacity by 2025 and 30 percent by 2030. The government has simultaneously approved a comprehensive power generation capacity expansion plan, the integrated generation capacity expansion plan 2021-2030. Since large hydropower makes up the bulk of capacity additions in the IGCEP, new wind, solar, and bagasse projects in the IGCEP account for approximately 11,700 MW compared to 16,300 MW of non-hydro RE needed to meet the national RE targets. To capitalize on the employment creation potential of the RE targets and the IGCEP, policy makers will have to anticipate changes in workforce trends and develop a preemptive plan to manage skill requirements and prevent workforce shortages. This study was commissioned by the World Bank to facilitate cohesive RE workforce planning and identify skill gaps that can inhibit RE investments in Pakistan. The findings of the study will help inform skill development in RE by providing policy makers and other stakeholders, including the higher education commission (HEC) and the national vocational and technical training commission (NAVTTC), with indicative employment projections required for long-term planning
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Civil Society ; Employment and Unemployment ; Food Security ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Social Development ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report focuses on the socio-economic impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Solomon Islands. The fourth round of the high frequency phone survey (HFPS) interviewed 2,671 households in January-February 2022 on the socio-economic impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19), including employment and income, community trust and security and COVID-19 vaccination. The January-February 2022 round occurred at the onset of the first wave of COVID-19
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Forecasting ; Employment and Unemployment ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Job Creation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Protections and Labor ; Urban Development
    Abstract: Jordan's economy achieved a relatively strong rebound, registering 2.2 percent growth in 2021. The nascent recovery was led by a broad-based expansion of the services and industrial sectors, while the rebound in the travel and tourism also exceeded expectations. This robust economic recovery was supported by accommodative but prudent monetary and fiscal policy along with a recovery in domestic demand and the gradual reopening of the economy. However, the recovery of some subsectors, particularly contact-intensive services continues to lag behind pre-pandemic level, leading to weak recovery in jobs, especially among the Jordanian youth. Moreover, the underlying improvement in domestic demand amid an unprecedented increase in the global commodity prices has kept the current account deficit elevated for another year. Nonetheless, Jordan ended 2021 on a strong footing as Central Bank's gross foreign reserves remained at a comfortable level, on the back of strong multilateral and bilateral support. Meanwhile, the Central Government resumed its fiscal consolidation path, aided by strong growth in both tax and non-tax revenues. The Jordanian economy is expected to sustain recent momentum during 2022, aided by a full opening of the economy and a return in tourism and travel which is anticipated to boost Jordan's services sector. However, persistent global headwinds, including rising international commodity prices, global supply chain bottlenecks, negative spillovers from Russian invasion of Ukraine, and Fed tapering, pose major downside risks to Jordan's economic outlook. Thus, a private sector driven growth and investment reform agenda needs to be put in place immediately which can help Jordan manage turbulence and uncertainty better
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Poverty Reduction ; Services and Transfers to Poor ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in vast numbers of people in need of social assistance, many of whom were not previously covered by social safety nets. To meet this unprecedented level of need, governments quickly scaled social assistance reaching over 1.7 billion people in low- and middle income countries. Scaling up social assistance presented two separate but related challenges: first, adapting targeting and registration to reach individuals not commonly included in social assistance databases, such as urban informal workers, and second, how to deliver government to person (G2P) payments safely and securely in the context of the pandemic. Countries that could leverage pre-pandemic investments in digital public infrastructure (DPI)- identification (ID), payments and trusted data sharing-were better able to implement COVID-response social assistance programs and reach more beneficiaries. This paper, analyzes the role of these DPIs, also called digital stack, in the social protection response to COVID by analyzing data on howCOVID-response social assistance programs register red and made payments to beneficiaries across178 programs across 85 countries. The analysis shows how these digital systems and infrastructure allowed for innovative targeting, registration, and payment approaches that covered a significantportion of the population. This paper uses administrative data on G2P registration and payment methods combined with anecdotal evidence from country case studies to show how pre-pandemic investments in digital databases, digital ID, and digital payments impacted countries' abilities to reach new beneficiaries and deliver payments safely in the context of the pandemic response. It further details workaround solutions implemented by countries without these assets and infrastructure in place, and how some countries were able to expand their digital infrastructure even amidst the urgency of the crisis response. The analysis concludes with suggestions as to the impact that the social assistance response to COVID-19 can have on the future of social protection payments, in terms of inspiring investments in building and strengthening G2P ecosystems globally
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Cash Transfers ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development and Poverty ; Social Funds and Pensions ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This Public Expenditure Review (PER) aims at informing government efforts to pursue its commitment to enhancing socioeconomic outcomes through more and better spending on human capital. To achieve this important objective, the Government of Egypt (GoE) aims at creating the fiscal space needed to increase growth-enhancing spending in a way that reflects positively on socioeconomic outcomes. This PER analyzes the adequacy, efficiency, and equity of public spending on the human development sectors. It examines options to create fiscal space by reducing inefficient and wasteful spending within this sector and increasing the impact of existing resources. From an equity perspective, the PER examines how public resources are distributed within the sector, and across income groups and/or geographical regions, and how system-wide reforms can reduce inequality in spending and outcomes. Drawing on a fiscal incidence analysis jointly carried out with the MOF, the distributional impact of potential fiscal measures and other policy changes is simulated to inform the reforms agenda. The first part of the review (Volume I) presents the macro-fiscal context and its constraints. It also presents an analysis of the social protection system in place to mitigate the effects of the challenging macroeconomic environment. The second part of the review (Volume II) focuses on the most difficult challenges facing the core human development sectors, namely health, education and higher education
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Disability ; Education ; Educational Sciences ; Inequality ; Job Creation ; Labor Markets ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Protections and Labor ; State-Owned Banks ; Total Factor Productivity
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Access of Poor To Social Services ; Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies ; Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Economic Growth ; Employment ; Employment and Unemployment ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Inflation ; Job Creation ; Living Standards ;