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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases ; Education ; Health Policy and Management ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Job Skills ; Labor Market Policy and Programs ; Reproductive Health ; Social Protections and Labor ; Social Safety Nets
    Abstract: The report is structured as follows. Chapter 1 discusses the labor market constraints facing different segments of the working-age population, which can inform how to make work attractive. Chapter 2 explores the factors that are discouraging older people from re-entering the labor market and the need to optimize pension design to promote healthier and longer working lives. Chapter 3 explores ways to enhance human capital formation through the lifecycle, starting with early childcare and education, followed by upper secondary school, secondary VET, tertiary education, TVET and adult training. Chapter 4 identifies the enabling conditions needed to ensure that net migration can have a positive impact on the growth of economic participation and productivity. Chapter 5 focuses on ways to leverage public-private partnerships to providetraining and activation services and on how ALMPs could best be used to increase labor market participation. Finally, Chapter 6 explores the role that social protection can play in stimulating participation in the labor market
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Decent Work and Economic Growth ; Early Childhood Education ; Education ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Primary Education ; Quality Education ; SDG 4 ; SDG 8
    Abstract: As Malaysia strives to become a high-income economy, the need for advanced and specialized skills will be crucial to maintain its economic competitiveness. Sophisticated skills, whether cognitive, technical or socio-emotional, are built on strong foundational skills. Malaysia has expanded early childhood education and achieved near universal primary education with remarkable equity in resources and student experiences. Part 1 of this Malaysia Economic Monitor (MEM) presents a review of recent economic developments and a macroeconomic outlook. Part 2 begins by outlining the learning outcomes challenge and identifying the bottlenecks that the Malaysian education system faces in improving learning outcomes. This section attempts to understand why overall learning outcomes in Malaysia are low relative to expectation, with low-income students doing especially poorly. Reflecting this, the special thematic topic identifies the steps that can be taken to improving foundational skills and learning outcomes in Malaysia
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Access To Education ; Economic Development ; Economic Forecasting ; Education ; Education Governance ; Inflation ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the benefits of investing in early childhood education (ECE) for human capital development and economic growth, which lays the foundation for cognitive development, socioemotional skills, and lifelong learning. Recognition of the need to expand participation in preschool education in the Philippines is increasing. In response to the increasing demand for ECE, the Philippine Development Plan (PDP) 2023-2028 aims to increase the participation rate in early learning programs of children aged 0 to 4 years from 16 percent to 63 percent by 2028. The current National System for Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) aims to promote the holistic development of children aged 0 to 4 years throughout the country. this report focuses specifically on center-based ECE programs for 3 to 4-year-old children to demonstrate that gaps and opportunities still remain in ECE service provision in this setting and age group. Chapter 1 discusses the early education system in the Philippines. Chapter 2 presents case studies on the implementation of ECE programs at the local government unit (LGU) level. Chapter 3 presents country case studies of Malaysia, Indonesia, and Peru from which the Philippines may derive lessons in ECE implementation. Finally, the report summarizes key findings and policy recommendations submitted for the consideration of the Philippine government
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Covid-19 Impact ; Current Status Of Education ; Curriculum and Instruction ; Education ; Education and Employment ; Education Finance ; Education Financing ; Education Quality ; Education Resource Allocation ; Education Sector Spending ; Effective Schools and Teachers ; Motivation For Education
    Abstract: The education sector in the Lao PDR (Laos) faces significant challenges. Access to education improved over of the past decade but substantial gaps remain, and previous progress is being undermined by the impacts of COVID-19 and ongoing economic difficulties. The quality of education was already poor before these shocks. The sector is severely underfunded due to a steep decline in public resources allocated to education. In addition, limited job prospects for graduates reduce demand for quality education. To prevent these challenges from causing a lost decade for education in Laos, urgent attention is needed in three areas. First, the government should implement comprehensive economic and fiscal reforms to increase available resources for education and facilitate private sector development to create income earning opportunities for graduates. Second, resource allocation within the sector should be improved for equity and balance. Lastly, the education sector needs to better translate available resources into the learning outcomes of children and youth by reducing inefficiencies and rigidities that constrain the key drivers of learning: teachers, school financing, teaching and learning materials, and school infrastructure. Addressing constraints in these three areas will help reverse the decline in education financing, close access gaps, and enhance service quality
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Childcare ; Early Childhood Development ; Education ; Legal Framework ; Policies ; Services Mapping ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The "Comprehensive Assessment of the Childcare Landscape in Lebanon: A Mixed Methods Study" analyzes the supply and demand of formal childcare services for children aged 0-3. It provides a review of Lebanon's regulatory and institutional framework around childcare, maps out the current supply of services including cost and quality aspects, and deepens the understanding of households' childcare needs. Findings show that there is a mismatch between supply and demand, with a gap in provision for the youngest children and that supply is mostly private, costly, and concentrated in coastal areas. Childcare responsibilities limit women's ability to join the labor force, and affordability is a main constraint for families to access services, resulting in low demand for formal childcare. The study proposes measures for an inclusive expansion of quality and affordable childcare services in four areas: (i) an enabling environment for efficient, affordable provision of quality childcare services, (ii) a more equitable distribution of the unpaid care work burden within the household, (iii) improved State support to address households' care needs, and (iv) inclusive family-friendly workplace conditions in the private sector
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impact ; Covid-19 Impact ; Education ; Food Security ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital Accumulation and Utilization ; Inclusive Development ; Long-Term Economic Growth ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report is undertaken as a part of the Human Capital Project (HCP), a globalinitiative of the World Bank Group that aims to increase governments' awarenessof the importance of investing in people (World Bank date of publication not identifiedb). One of the maincomponents of the HCP is a cross-country metric--the Human Capital Index (HCI). The HCI estimates the amount of human capital a child born today can expect to accumulate by the age of 18, thus highlighting how current health and education outcomes shape the work productivity of the next generation. Moreover, given the cumulative nature of human capital, the HCI has clear milestones across the entire human life cycle: at birth, children need to survive; during childhood, they need to be well-nourished; at school age, they must complete all schooling and active adequate learning levels; and in adulthood, they need to stay in good health. Finally, the HCI includes a result: a score that ranges from 0 to 1. A country where an average child has virtually no risk of being stunted or dying before age five, receives high-quality education, and becomes a healthy adult, would have an HCI close to 1. Conversely, when the risk of being ill-nourished or prematurely dying is high, access to education is limited, and the quality of learning is low, the HCI would approach zero
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Accreditation Policies ; Childhood Development ; Early Childhood Development ; Early Education ; ECED ; Education ; GOI
    Abstract: Investments in early years of education and childhood development are among the most cost-effective and beneficial a country can make to tackle learning poverty, promote healthy child development, and enhance shared prosperity. Over the past two decades, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) has scaled up its commitment to early childhood education and development (ECED) through various educational reforms, policies, programs, and financial investments. With the expansion of Indonesia's ECED system, the GoI has committed to improving its quality since the early 2000s. As a key mechanism to raise the quality of ECED services, the GoI actively encourages PAUD centers to become accredited. An analysis of factors that influence whether and how PAUD centers participate in the accreditation system is helpful to inform continuous quality improvement of Indonesia's ECED services. The World Bank is providing the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology (MoECRT) technical assistance and advice to improve Indonesia's ECED system. Supported by the Learning for Human Capital Development Programmatic Advisory Services and Analytics (PASA), this study was conducted to inform further improvements to Indonesia's ECED accreditation system. This report presents the findings from the abovementioned ECED accreditation system assessment and is organized in four main sections after an introduction. Section I describes the study's background and the country context, with emphasis on the ECED system and its quality assurance mechanisms. Section II details the methodology used. Section III presents a summary of the survey results. Section IV discusses the implications of the findings and outlines recommendations to inform accreditation policies and programs
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Demographics ; Early Childhood Development ; Education ; Fetal and Maternal Health ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Gender ; Gender and Poverty ; Government Financing ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital ; Mortality ; Nutrition Services ; Pregnancy ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This Human Capital Review (HCR) report presents an in-depth analysis of human capital indicators throughout a person's lifetime, from in utero to productive aging. By examining the various stages of human capital accumulation, the report aims to provide accurate recommendations for specific groups in Sierra Leone. Thus, the report disaggregates data whenever possible. It relies on an extensive consultative process involving various stakeholders such as Government counterparts, development partners, teachers, adolescent girls, students, private sector representatives, and local representatives. The consultation process followed a Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) approach, which facilitates the identification and resolution of problems by local leadership. In addition, this report aims to inform the design and implementation of human capital reforms that will respond to specific challenges identified in the report
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Education ; Education Reform ; Education Reform and Management ; Existing Teachers ; Learning ; Teaching Practices
    Abstract: In 2023, growth in the Pacific islands (PIC-11) decelerated but remained robust at 5.5 percent--about two and a half times the long-term average. Fiji's output surpassed pre-pandemic levels in 2023 despite a notable deceleration, with growth rates halving from 20 percent in 2022 to eight percent in 2023. The PIC-11, excluding Fiji, experienced a noteworthy rebound of 2.7 percent growth in 2023, after a 0.5 percent output contraction in 2022. The trajectory of accelerated and sustainable growth in Pacific Island countries depends on a workforce that is well educated and equipped with enhanced skills and capabilities. Boosting education and skills is essential for long-term growth and poverty reduction in the Pacific Island countries. While multiple factors influence learning, once a child enters school, teachers have the largest impact. A robust body of evidence guides policymakers in improving teaching quality and ensuring that all young children acquire strong foundational skills. This report outlines a three-pronged program of action based on this evidence: attracting and recruiting effective teachers, enhancing existing teachers' capacity, and motivating greater teacher effort. Recognizing that 54 percent of teachers expected to teach in 2035 are already recruited, the report emphasizes a special focus on enhancing the capacity of existing teachers. It provides examples of rigorously evaluated interventions, such as structured pedagogy and access to pre-recorded lectures by highly rated teachers. Implementing these recommendations will aid regional countries in accelerating learning, allowing children and societies to achieve their aspirations
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Education ; Education For All ; Employment ; Employment and Unemployment ; Human Capital ; Poverty ; Poverty Reduction ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Social Protections and Labor ; UMI Countries
    Abstract: This Human Capital Review aims to provide analytical foundations in the support of policies that improve human capital outcomes for the following four UMI countries in Central America: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama, and the Dominican Republic. The objective of this report is to identify the key constraints to human capital growth and understand how education and labor market policies can foster a resilient recovery, promote inclusive growth, and contribute to poverty reduction in these countries. The review also estimates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human capital outcomes using a multi-sectoral approach. The analysis compares human capital outcomes in the decade before the COVID-19 pandemic (2010-2019) against trends during the pandemic (2020-2021). Lastly, the report focuses on these four countries, which are the only UMI in Central America to take advantage of new data collected during the pandemic, which allowed to quantify some of the impacts of COVID-19 and understand some of their long-term implications for human development outcomes
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Education ; Financial Economics ; Fiscal Policy ; Fiscal Risks ; Footprint ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Non-Oil Revenue ; Quasi-Fiscal Activities ; SNG
    Abstract: The first three chapters of the PFR review the core fiscal policy and revenue mobilization issues. Chapter 1 discusses the fiscal landscape, fiscal framework, and progressivity of fiscal policy. Chapter 2 looks at the footprint of quasi-fiscal activities, which affects the overall fiscal stance and exposes certain fiscal risks. Chapter 3 discusses the stagnation in non-oil revenue and collection across taxes and outlines reform options to improve the tax regime. This PFR also covers education and social protection spending, constituting about 42 percent of generalgovernment budget spending, and is critical for Kazakhstan's social agenda and long-term development goals. Chapter 4 analyzes the efficiency of public spending on education, discusses challenges in delivering equitable access to quality education, and offers options for enhancing spending effectiveness through institutional and policy changes. Chapter 5 discusses the efficiency and effectiveness of spending on the social protection system, particularly the coverage and targeting of social assistance programs, issues in implementing active labor market programs, and challenges in delivering social insurance. Because of data constraints, this PFR excludes analysis on social benefits, pensions, and the State Social Insurance Fund. The last two chapters cover the core system of public-finance management issues on budgeting and inter-governmental fiscal relations. Chapter 6 considers options for further improving budgeting, planning, and monitoring to deliver better fiscal outcomes for inclusive and resilient growth. While Chapter 7 examines emerging subnational fiscal issues and options to simplify and improve certainty in the transfer mechanism from central to SNGs and within the SNG hierarchy
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: Education ; Inequality ; Limited Safety Nets ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis, Poverty ; Poverty Reduction, Inequality ; Rural Households ; Telecommunications Sector
    Abstract: The share of Uganda's population that lives below the poverty line has fluctuated over the last seven years, greatly influenced by shocks that have tested the resilience of the people. The COVID-19 pandemic pushed both urban and rural residents into poverty. Inequality, which reflects the extent to which different population groups benefit from Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth, and affects the transmission of growth into poverty reduction, remained largely unchanged over this period and may even have worsened in urban areas. The findings of this report show that previously identified patterns and drivers of Uganda's poverty changes persisted well into 2020 - shaped by low productivity and high vulnerability. Identified inequality of economic opportunities and unequal accumulation of the human capital could hold back structural change in employment. Accelerating poverty reduction in such a setting requires a two-pronged strategy. While at the macroeconomic level, policies addressing growth fundamentals are important for reducing poverty, from a microeconomic perspective, the report's analysis shows that two strategies will be crucial. The first strategy is to lift the productivity and incomes of poor households in both rural and urban areas. While tackling agricultural productivity and job creation are at the top of the agenda here, making mobile phone services more widely accessible and affordable is a potential opportunity. The second strategy is to strengthen people's resilience to shocks, particularly in rural areas. To have an impact, policies in both these areas will have to address the inequality in opportunities analyzed in the report. This document provides an overview of key report findings and identifies priority actions
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Accessibility ; Child-Focused ; Curriculum and Instruction ; Disability ; Education ; Education Reform and Management ; Inclusive Education ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: This report presents a review of different approaches in service delivery being implemented in the regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA) to ensure the inclusion of children with disabilities in education. The review examines in what ways (and the extent to which) different approaches have been operationalized and contextualized to enable the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream education systems, focusing specifically on primary schooling
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  • 14
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Education ; Education Indicators and Statistics ; Education Reform and Management ; Learning Acceleration ; Learning Poverty
    Abstract: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, global learning levels were unacceptably low. In 2019, learning poverty, the share of children unable to read and understand a simple text by age 10, had reached 57 percent in low- and middle-income countries (World Bank and others 2022b). This constituted a global learning crisis. Despite significant expansion in access to schooling in most low, and middle-income countries over the past 50 years to near-universal levels for primary school, progress in improving global learning levels had stalled. This report, Learning Recovery to Acceleration: A Global Update on Country Efforts to Improve Learning and Reduce Inequalities, takes stock of what countries have done so far to recover and accelerate learning since reopening schools, and what we have learned from their experience. It follows the RAPID Framework for Learning Recovery and Acceleration, which we published with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, U.K.'s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), UNESCO, UNICEF and USAID in 2022 as a menu of policy actions based on past evidence and on policies that many countries were already implementing. To a large extent, many of the policies and interventions needed to recover from the pandemic setbacks and accelerate learning are known. One lesson is clear: political and financial commitment are vital for improving learning and reducing inequality. Effective education strategies require societies' determination to make education a priority and devote the necessary human and financial resources to end the learning crisis. Policymakers, schools, and communities must work urgently to recover learning, tackle deep-rooted systemic challenges, and build resilience to future disruptions
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Adult Literacy ; Agency ; Education ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gender Barrier To Education ; Gender Bias in Education ; Girls Primary Education
    Abstract: This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note discusses in detail the status of girls' and women's education in Madagascar and proposes several strategic lines of action to assist girls and young women in completing schooling. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: health, economic opportunities, and agency
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Climate Impact on Girls ; Education ; Education For All ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Economics ; Gender Bias in Education ; Girls Life Choices ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development ; Systemic Gender Gaps ; Women and Girls Health ; Women's Agency ; Women's Economic Opportunity
    Abstract: This Overview presents the findings from the mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, illustrating the key gender gaps in the country and shedding light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. On the basis of the research findings, the Overview presents key gender gaps in Madagascar and proposes four strategic lines of policy recommendations to (i) assist girls and young women in completing school education, (ii) improve women's and girls' access to professional health care and prevent teenage pregnancy, (iii) enhance women's economic opportunities, and (iv) improve women's and girls' voice and agency through the elimination of all forms of gender-based violence. Four thematic notes accompany this Overview and present detailed findings in the four key dimensions: education, health, economic opportunities, and agency
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Economics of Education ; Education ; Education Finance ; Education Reform and Management ; Enabling Factors ; Higher Education ; Integration ; Regional Cooperation
    Abstract: Higher education systems in South Asia have undergone significant changes in the past two decades. Each country in the region has experienced a rapid rise in university enrollment, fueled by demographic growth and the resulting expansion of secondary education. However, in the absence of sufficient financial resources to accommodate increasing student numbers, most higher education institutions are facing daunting challenges. Unlike the recent evolution in Europe and East Asia, South Asian higher education systems and institutions have made little progress in working together so far, notwithstanding the positive results of a few noteworthy partnerships, such as the creation of the South Asian University. The ability of South Asian nations to work together in the higher education sphere will, to a significant extent, determine their capacity to support the development efforts of their respective countries in an effective and dynamic manner. Against this backdrop, the main objective of this report is to explore the potential for increased regional collaboration and integration in higher education in the South Asia region
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 7800
    Keywords: Adolescent Pregnancy ; Child Marriage ; Economic Inclusion ; Education ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Gender ; Health ; Livestock and Animal Husbandry ; Trade Facilitation ; Violence Against Women ; Women and Girls ; Women's Leadership
    Abstract: This gender assessment has been prepared as an input for the preparation of the World Bank's Country Partnership Strategy for Mozambique (2023-2027). However, this assessment is not limited to areas of the World Bank's current country engagement; rather, it seeks to provide a general overview of the key challenges and opportunities facing Mozambican women and girls across different dimensions of their lives. The assessment adopts a life-cycle approach identifying key inflection points in the lives of women and girls that either limit or facilitate their empowerment. The assessment is based on a desk review of available studies, reports, and data from Mozambique, and draws on global evidence, largely from the Africa region
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Contraceptive Use ; Cutting ; Education ; Female Genital Mutilation ; Gender ; Gender and Health ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Poverty ; Gender-Based Violence ; Girls Education Status ; Maternal Health Access ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development ; Women's Access To Health Services ; Women's Agency ; Women's Economic Opportunity
    Abstract: Evidence shows that Guinean women and girls face important barriers across all dimensions of well-being that prevent them from having access to opportunities on an equal footing with men. The poor agency of women and girls, as reflected in the high prevalence of discriminatory legal and social norms, translates into gaps in health, education, employment, and entrepreneurship, ultimately undermining their capacity to fulfill their potential and imposing important societal costs. This report presents a summary of the key challenges facing Guinean women and girls relative to men and boys. The report has a particular focus on early family formation, a common phenomenon in the country with important implications for girls' and women's well-being and opportunities in life. On the basis of this diagnostic and a review of evidence of what works, the report proposes some strategic lines of action to address the existing constraints and effectively empower Guinean women
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Basic Education Financing ; Education ; Education Sector Strategy and Lending ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Policies ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Funding ; Public Spending ; Zanzibar
    Abstract: Since 2015, because of healthy economic growth and a strong commitment to strengthening human capital, Zanzibar has made significant progress in the provision of good quality basic education services. Government spending has risen and has supported ambitious plans to provide inclusive and equitable access to quality education and skills training. Since 2015, sector targets for increasing access to public services were largely met in education, and in some instances surpassed. Yet despite these significant successes, the basic education sector continues to face challenges in providing good-quality services and reaching the marginalized. This Zanzibar Basic Education Public Expenditure Review aims to: (i) assess the scale of the financing challenge in basic education (preprimary, primary, and secondary education); (ii) analyze the adequacy, efficiency, and equity of current levels and uses of public spending on education; and (iii) from this analysis, and drawing on relevant international practices, present a set of policy suggestions for improvements in public funding for basic education in Zanzibar
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 11872
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Covid-19 Pandemic Impact On Education Spending ; Curriculum and Instruction ; Education ; Education Finance ; Education Funding Indicators ; Education Reform ; Education Reform and Management ; Education Spending Per Child ; Educational Outcome Focus ; Evidence-Based Education Policy ; Gender Equity in Education ; Teacher Effectiveness
    Abstract: Education needs to recover the space it lost in national budgets because of COVID-19. Many LICs and LMICs decreased the prioritization of education spending with the onset of COVID-19. Half of these countries reduced their annual spending on education in 2020, compared to 28 percent in 2019. Emerging evidence suggests that after falling in 2020, the share of education in national budgets of LICs and MICs recovered in 2021 but by 2022 it remained below its 2019 pre-pandemic level. Meanwhile, many HICs protected education shares over that period and some even increased resources specifically for learning recovery. Education financing needs to expand to ensure sufficient per-capita spending to meet national education goals. Given variation across countries, common international benchmarks on education spending should not be used deterministically to assess the adequacy of financing. Spending per school-age child, the most accurate indicator of financing adequacy, averages US53 dollars in LICs, US318 dollars in LMICs, US980 dollars in UMICs and US7,800 dollars in HICs. These stark differences surpass differences in countries' living standards and costs of delivering education services. Many LICs and LMICs that meet common international benchmarks on education spending (such as 4-6 percent of GDP or 15-20 percent of public budgets) still spend very little per school-age child due to their small state budgets and large young populations
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2113
    Keywords: CDR Approach ; Education ; Effective Schools and Teachers ; Motivation ; Skills and Knowledge ; Teacher Policy ; Teachers
    Abstract: This report zooms into what lies behind the success or failure of teacher policies: how teachers experience these policies, and how systems scale and sustain these policies. The report argues that for policies to be successful, they need to be designed and implemented with careful consideration of the barriers that could hinder teachers' take-up of the policy (individual-level barriers), and the barriers that could hinder the implementation and sustainability of policies at scale (system-level barriers). Teacher polices too often fail to yield meaningful changes in teaching and learning because both their design and implementation overlook how teachers perceive, understand, and act in response to the policy and because they miss what is needed at a system level to achieve and sustain change. To avoid this, policymakers need to go beyond what works in teacher policy to how to support teachers in different contexts to adopt what works, while making sure it is implementable at scale and can be sustained over time. This requires unpacking teacher policies to consider the barriers that might hinder success at both the individual and system levels, and then putting in place strategies to overcome these barriers. The report proposes a practical framework to uncover the black box of effective teacher policy and discusses the factors that enable their scalability and sustainability. The framework distills insights from behavioral science to identify the barriers that stand in the way of the changes targeted by the policy and to develop strategies to overcome them. The framework is used to examine questions such as: What changes are required at an individual level to achieve the specific goals of a given teacher policy What barriers constrain the adoption of these changes How can the policy be better designed and implemented to tackle these barriers Moreover, the report draws on evidence from quantitative and qualitative studies on successful and failed teacher policies to examine the factors that make teacher policy operationally and politically feasible such that it can work at scale and be sustained over time
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2113
    Keywords: Accessibility ; Accessible Learning ; Accessible Special Technologies ; Augmentative and Alternative Communication ; Climate Change and Health ; Climate Change Impacts ; Disability ; Education ; Inclusive Education ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The purpose of this toolkit is to generate knowledge on how to develop and adapt assessment tools using principlesof universal design that yield reliable and valid data andinformation to track the learning outcomes of marginalizedlearners, including learners with disabilities
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2119
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Education ; Environment ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; GHG ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 25
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2119
    Keywords: Climate Change Impacts ; Debt Indicators ; Economic Growth ; Education ; Environment ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; GHG ; Inflation ; Life Expectancy At Birth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Europe and Central Asia region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Connectivity ; Digital Transformation ; Education ; Education For the Knowledge Economy ; Government Information Network ; Higher Education ; Higher Education Reform ; ICT Applications ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Internet ; Social Protections and Labor ; Vocational and Technical Education
    Abstract: The Digital Transformation of Philippine Higher Education recommends a medium-term strategy for the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). Chapter 1 presents an overview of the Philippine higher education sector and analyzes the sectoral and country context for digital transformation of higher education. Chapter 2 discusses the foundations and pillars that support digital transformation as well as the building blocks of common and shared platforms and services for students and academic, research, and administrative stakeholders in higher education. Based on the findings in Chapter 1 and global good practices on digital transformation in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 recommends strategic goals and actions for CHED and HEIs as well as other higher education key players to digitally transform Philippine higher education
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access To Educaton ; Becoming Upper-Middle-Income ; Economics of Education ; Education ; Gender and Education ; Gender Inequity ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Girls Education Gap ; High Stunting Rate ; Human Capital Investment ; Skill Utilization ; Social Development
    Abstract: Pakistan can realize major economic growth and development by investing in its people and their human capital. But the reality is that Pakistan's human capital is low and has improved only marginally over the past three decades. Inequalities in human capital outcomes have persisted or widened over time between the rich and poor, men and women, and rural and urban areas and among the provinces. Human capital outcomes are low across the board, with even the most economically advantaged groups in Pakistan having lower human capital outcomes than less economically advantaged groups in peer countries. Pakistan's Human Capital Index (HCI) value of 0.41 is low in both absolute and relative terms. It is lower than the South Asia average of 0.48, with Bangladesh at 0.46 and Nepal at 0.49. Pakistan's human capital outcomes are more comparable to those in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has an average HCI value of 0.40. To enhance its human capital, Pakistan should adopt a life cycle approach to building, protecting, and deploying human capital, starting before birth, continuing through early childhood development, and schooling, culminating in increasingly productive employment. This calls for a long-term commitment, recognition of the multidimensional and cumulative nature of human capital investments, deliberate efforts from multiple stakeholders and sectors to build on intersectoral linkages, and a continuity of policies across political parties and governments. Many countries previously at Pakistan's level of development have managed to precisely do this, even with regional variations and gaps just as large. Pakistan has the tools to implement the recommendations in this report, provide stewardship for human capital investments, and enhance economic growth over the long term. Pakistan's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown that the country can manage complex challenges, despite its institutional constraints
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  • 28
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Education ; Education Reform and Management ; Evolving Skills ; Labor Markets ; Low-Income Countries ; Middle-Income Countries ; Social Protections and Labor ; Technical and Vocational Education and Training ; TVET
    Abstract: Reform of formal technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is urgently needed in most low- and middle-income countries. Demographic trends, coupled with higher rates of students completing lower levels of education, can lead to an exponential increase in the number of secondary TVET students in the next 20 years, particularly in low-income countries (LICs). However, there are significant risks attached to expanding a system that is often considered a second-tier educational track and to which challenged learners are often directed. Because of a broken link between TVET systems and labor markets in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs, together: L/MICs), TVET cannot deliver on its promise. The urgency is compounded by megatrends associated with globalization, technological progress, demographic transformation, and climate change, which affect both skills demand and the distribution of economic opportunities. This report offers guidance to policymakers designing and implementing TVET reforms, emphasizing core principles and practical considerations for L/MICs. There is much to be learned from recent L/MIC reform experiences like those in Bangladesh, El Salvador, and Mongolia, about identifying effective reform strategies and the likely impact of megatrends on future demand for TVET. The report focuses on secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary formal TVET, defined as TVET obtained within the formal education system that leads to diplomas, degrees, or other formal certifications. This overview, summarizing the main messages from the report, has three parts. The first, the TVET Promise, looks at the potential of TVET systems to deliver access to equitable, quality, and relevant training and contribute to employment and productivity. The second, the TVET Challenge, articulates the main limitations in practice for L/MIC TVET systems. The third, the Way Forward to Better TVET, proposes three interrelated transformations (three E's) and six policy priorities to help TVET deliver on its promise in L/MICs
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2113
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Edtech ; Education ; Education Indicators and Statistics ; Education Reform and Management ; FLC ; Foundational Learning ; Teachers
    Abstract: The FLC Progress Report showcases initiatives that have helped create tools and knowledge for countries to improve foundational learning through their educational systems. Since it is the first such report for the FLC, it will cover the transition to the FLC from the previous SABER3 program to its incarnation as the FLC umbrella trust fund. It will also examine recent and current challenges, including the slowdown in the pace of implementation during the COVID related school and ministry closures. The pandemic both stymied and shaped how the FLC initiatives worked, where we worked, and when we worked. We have had to adapt. Fortunately, implementation has picked up in the last year and technical teams have been working tirelessly to accelerate implementation
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  • 30
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2109
    Keywords: Education ; Education Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Health ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; HRM ; Human Development ; Macro Fiscal Context ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Expenditure ; Sustainability
    Abstract: This is an overview of the CAR Human Development (HD) Public Expenditure Review (PER). This overview provides an analytical basis to decision-makers and stakeholders for the formulation of ambitious yet fiscally responsible interventions to improve human capital outcomes in CAR. The PER examines public expenditure trends of the education, health, and social protection (SP) sectors with a focus on adequacy, efficiency, and equity of expenditures as well as human resource management (HRM). The primary objective is to provide analytical insights for government policy development and prioritization strategy as it seeks to achieve a resilient recovery and rebuild its education and health sectors and establish a strong SP system which will help the poorest households invest and protect their own human capital. The PER can also serve as a useful source of knowledge and information to development partners seeking to deepen the impact of their support to the human capital development sectors. The recommendations put forth by the PER are those identified as fiscally sustainable and most important for rebuilding and strengthening human capital development sectors, including a focus on future human resource (HR) recruitment needed in the education and health sectors
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  • 31
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Climate-Smart Agriculture ; Education ; Education Finance ; Energy Resources Development ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Systems ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Inclusion ; Investment and Investment Climate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; NEDI ; Off-Grid Solar Access ; Transport and Trade ; Water and Sanitation
    Abstract: Kenya's north and northeastern region is a host to 11 percent of the total population scattered across 63 percent of the country's landmass. The arid and semi-arid region experiences recurrent droughts that create vulnerabilities for the nomadic pastoralist communities, pervasive insecurity, suffers fragility, and has been a host to the largest population of refugees in sub-Saharan Africa over the last three decades. These policy choices contributed to the significant lag in most of the development indicators for this region compared to the rest of the country. The region has huge infrastructure deficits, low literacy rates, and contributes only a modest 4.7 percent to the national gross domestic product. To address the socio-economic disparities and inequality challenges, the Government of Kenya with support from World Bank (WB) launched the North and Northeastern Development Initiative (NEDI) in 2018. The NEDI, the region's first significant, integrated, and transformative investment, cuts across foundational sectors including energy, water, transport, social protection, displacement, and agriculture
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 11872
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Childhood Trauma ; Climate Change and Health ; Disability ; Earthquake Impact On Learning ; Earthquake-Related Learning Loss ; Economic Consequences Of Trauma ; Economic Impact Of Trauma ; Education ; Emotional Damage From Disasters ; Labor Markets ; Post-Traumatic Stress and Learning ; Psychosocial Impact Of Natural Disaster
    Abstract: The recent earthquakes in 11 provinces in Turkiye affected the learning of more than 5 million students. The natural disasters occurred during a global economic contraction and regional conflicts just after special circumstances caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. These challenges resulted in learning losses, emotional and psychosocial damages with expensive economic consequences that is estimated at more than 3.5 percent reduction in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) annually if not tackled carefully and in a timely manner. These challenges require policy decisions to protect the education system and the learning and skills assets given the political commitment to build back better. This report (i) quantified the challenges, (ii) evaluated the immediate steps taken since the 6th of February by the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) and proposes an emergency response system that can be deployed during future disasters and crises, and (iii) recommends a roadmap to support the education system for recovery from the earthquake emergency. The roadmap focuses on the earthquake regions and consists of (i) institutionalizing of an integrated national program targeting education and care aiming at a strong head start for 3-, 4- and 5-years old children and support to mothers and families; (ii) supporting green and resilient reconstruction to provide a learning environment for all children; (iii) establishing a learning catching up program for acceleration and support towards learning and wellbeing of vulnerable groups; (iv) securing the skills asset for improved production and economic growth with a futuristic vision towards green and technological innovations aiming at signature programs in general secondary, vocational education, professional and higher education focusing on the skilling and reskilling agendas; and finally (v) establishing a national center of excellence for education management in emergencies
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Adolescent Well-Beng ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Drop-Out Rate Reduction ; Economic Growth ; Education ; Energy and Environment ; Financial Sector and Social Assistance ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gendered Adolescent Health Trends ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Secondary Education ; Water Resources Management ; Youth Health ; Youth Well-Being
    Abstract: This report focuses on the trends of adolescent and youth well-being in Tanzania, identifying how and why well-being has or has not changed over time. The report conceptualizes well-being holistically. Well-being can be defined as one's ability and opportunity to learn, make decisions, live a healthy life (physically and mentally), be well-nourished, express agency, have peace of mind, and ultimately be economically empowered. Well-being can be accumulated over time and is a composite of multiple aspects that affect the life one lives and the quality of that life. In many ways, how to live a good life and whether one is living this good life has been a key question asked across countries, and there are multiple frameworks that have been used to measure well-being. For the purposes of this study, six domains of well-being are recognized: (1) education and learning, (2) bodily integrity, (3) health, (4) psychological well-being (peace), (5) voice and agency, and (6) economic empowerment and skills. These domains are interconnected, and, also considered is the idea of peace of mind, without which, there is no wellness
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  • 34
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 11872
    Keywords: Access To Basic Education ; Education ; Education Governance ; Education Quality ; Free Education ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Law ; School Learning Environment ; Teacher Quality
    Abstract: The implementation of the fee-free basic education policy (FBEP) in Tanzania since 2015 has led to consistent growth in the education sector. However, the rapidly increasing school-age population has been creating demands for additional resources and capacity that are often not met. Persistent challenges related to institutional governance and insufficient education spending toward core teaching and learning matters further hinder service delivery and result in inadequate learning outcomes. This note draws evidence from existing studies and available data, taking a holistic approach to assess the performance of the basic education system in Mainland Tanzania in the last decade. It describes the basic service delivery indicators but also goes beyond to analyze the underlying challenges in institutional governance and basic education financing. Recognizing that basic education can deliver fundamental literacy, numeracy, as well as socioemotional skills which are crucial building blocks for continued education and training, employment, and lifelong fulfillment for all Tanzanian citizens, the policy note highlights the following areas that require attention: equitable access; learning outcomes; quantity, quality, and management of teachers; school learning environment; the curriculum and language of instruction; national examinations and learning assessments; and governance and finance
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2113
    Keywords: Blended Learning ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Economic Growth ; Education ; Energy and Environment ; ICT ; Information and Communication Technologies ; K-12
    Abstract: This report proposes a preliminary guiding framework to define and deploy blended learning models at the K-12 level in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Drawing lessons from international examples and good practices, the proposed framework aims to provide key considerations for the strategic and effective use and integration of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in K-12 schools
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Education ; Education For All ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Global Markets ; Green Growth ; Green Issues ; Illegal Deforestation ; Inclusion ; Productivity ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions ; Sustainable Development Financing
    Abstract: This package of Public Policy Notes is directed to Brazilian policy makers and society to present the World Bank Group's overview of key challenges facing the country at this juncture, and possible ways forward to address them. We present an agenda prioritized around four issues of core relevance to Brazil's recovery and its future resilience. First is the goal of financing development sustainably given the immediate challenge of situating the country's enormous growth, inclusion and climate action needs within a credible macroeconomic framework and efficient and effective fiscal policies. The second theme addressed in this note is building opportunities through productivity-led growth. With the growing reliance of Brazilians on social assistance policies, it is critical to keep sight of growth and jobs as the most important vehicles for the dignity and upward mobility of the poor. Third is increasing the capabilities and economic inclusion of the poor so that they are better able to capture the opportunities that come with growth. Thefourth theme we address in this note is meeting Brazil's potential as a as a leader in green and climate friendly development. This document is accompanied by a package of six policy presentations and an underlying set of more detailed policy reports that can be accesses here: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/brazil
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  • 37
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Insecurity ; Economic Investment and Savings ; Education ; Global Shocks ; Inequitable Access ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Uneven Distribution
    Abstract: Amidst repercussions from the Russia-Ukraine conflict, lingering supply chain disruptions, and tightening global financial conditions, Egypt is experiencing a spike in inflation and has suffered abrupt large-scale portfolio outflows; adding pressures to the country's already stretched public finances and external accounts. The Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) has undertaken exchange rate and monetary policy adjustments since March 2022 by allowing the exchange rate to depreciate and by raising key policy rates, in order to contain the widening trade deficit, capital reversal and the ensuing drop in foreign exchange buffers. In tandem, the government announced social mitigation packages. The authorities' efforts to restore macroeconomic stability, rebuild reserves, and push ahead with structural reforms is supported by the 46-month International Monetary Fund (IMF) program, along with other multilateral and bilateral financing and investments. This report provides an update on the recent economic developments and outlook of the Egyptian economy, while embedding the analysis in long-standing challenges. It also features a Special Focus on Education Sector reforms that draws on the World Bank Egypt Public Expenditure Review for Human Development Sectors. A key message is that education spending, its efficiency, and the overall learning outcomes require improvements in order to meet the needs for robust human development, poverty reduction, improved equity, and long-term growth. According to the report, there are three key (inter-connected) priorities going forward: (1) establishing sustained macroeconomic stability and enhancing the competitiveness of Egyptian economy to ensure resilient sources of foreign income activities (exports and FDI). This requires continuing to push ahead with business environment reforms; (2) streamlining budgetary and off-budget expenditures and increasing revenues to create the fiscal space required to allocate more resources for priority areas (such as the education sector); and (3) unleashing the private sector's potential in higher value-added and export-oriented activities to create jobs and improve living standards
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  • 38
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Keywords: Covid-19 ; Education ; Education For All ; Environment ; Gender ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Natural Resources ; Natural Resources Management ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Sustainability
    Abstract: The Performance and Learning Review (PLR) summarizes progress in the implementation of the World Bank Group (WBG) Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Cambodia for Fiscal Year (FY) 2019-2023 (Report No. 136500-KH). The CPF, discussed by the Board of Executive Directors on May 30, 2019, proposed a joint WBG program of assistance covering three focus areas: (i) promoting state efficiency and boosting private sector development; (ii) fostering human development; and (iii) improving agriculture and strengthening sustainable use of natural resources. A cross-cutting theme of strengthening governance, institutions and citizen engagement underpins reforms in all three focus areas. These areas address the key development challenges identified in the 2017 Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) (Report No. 115189-KH) and are aligned with the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC)'s Rectangular Strategy Phase IV and the National Strategic Development Plan 2019-2023 and remain relevant to support Cambodia's post COVID-19 recovery
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Covid-19 ; Economic Growth ; Education ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: As the two-year Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis appears to wane, new economic shocks have cast shadows over the global economy heightening uncertainty about the short-to-medium path to recovery. The supply shock associated with the war in Ukraine is expected to blunt the promising economic recovery around the world and has raised the specter of stagflation in advanced countries, leading to tightening conditions in global financial markets. Measures undertaken by China to control the spread of the Omicron variant of COVID-19 are also impacting its growth and the performance of global value chains. Additional risks threaten the recovery prospects of the global economy. New COVID-19 variants continue to be a severe risk, and as people around the world grow weary of pandemic-measures, this 'fatigue' could hamper attempts at controlling the spread. Vietnam's economy is rebounding after two bruising years but faces domestic challenges and an unfavorable external environment in the short-to-medium-term. High vaccination rates facilitated the re-opening of the Vietnamese economy after the lockdowns of Q3-2021. Chapter 1 of this Taking Stock report reviews the recent developments in Vietnam's economy and assesses its short-to-medium term prospects. It examines the country's growth performance, its external balance, and monetary and fiscal policy responses during the first half of 2022. Chapter 2 reviews the performance in tertiary education access and outcomes
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Independent Evaluation Group Studies
    Keywords: Early Childhood Development ; Education ; Monitoring and Evaluation
    Abstract: Ratings for the Early Childhood Development Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately unsatisfactory, Bank performance was moderately unsatisfactory, and Quality of monitoring and evaluation was modest. This assessment offers the following lessons: (1) Collaboration, strong national ownership of the NSP, and financial support are requisite conditions but do not ensure performance and outcomes because the World Bank must also provide rigor and candor in its dialogue and advice. (ii) Country teams need to share and archive lessons and implementation knowledge, including Global Practice knowledge, across projects. (iii) The institutional arrangements for cross-sectoral or cross-ministerial action and coordination are less likely to succeed when authority is centered in one of the involved ministers or ministries. (iv) Intersectoral coordination may more likely be sustained with "light mechanisms" and financial resources that empower ministries and national agencies to focus on achieving a convergence of common policies, actions, and results
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Disability ; Education ; Educational Sciences ; Inequality ; Job Creation ; Labor Markets ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Protections and Labor ; State-Owned Banks ; Total Factor Productivity
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Education ; Education For All ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) tools can have a catalytic effect in advancing both educational access and learning outcomes for children with disabilities. Despite tremendous potential, a gap exists between technology advancements and their large-scale application in educating children with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries. This landscape review of ICTs for disability inclusive education by the Inclusive Education Initiative seeks to understand the current status and trends in the practice of educational technology (EdTech) and the use of ICT in improving the educational participation and outcomes of children with disabilities. The review explores what factors enable or restrict this improvement within the wider EdTech ecosystem
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  • 43
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Education ; Emerging Markets ; Export Competitiveness ; Private Sector Development ; Social Capital
    Abstract: A small open economy, Benin has seen growth that is above average for the region. The volatility of high growth spells combined with low productivity growth has translated into limited gains in income per capita. Following its transition from low-income country to lower middle income country status in 2020 Benin is at the start of a new growth path. Its challenge is to boost the structural transformation of its economy driven by new growth drivers capable of sustaining an economic acceleration, lifting labor productivity and creating quality jobs for its young labor force, including women. While Benin's economy has been spared by the worse of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) crisis, the shock has reinforced the need to focus on structural reforms that address long term challenges and ensure that economic recovery is sustainable and inclusive. The key conclusions that underpin this report, following the country economic memorandum (CEM) 2.0 framework suggest that investing further in human capital and closing gender gaps, particularly to accelerate the decline in fertility rates, and integrate women and youth into a higher quality labor market, should be central. Deepening market integration, connecting people and creating agglomeration economies through transport infrastructure and services should catalyze additional opportunities, taking advantage of Benin's geographical position
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Investment Climate Assessment
    Keywords: Economics of Education ; Education ; Education Services Industry ; Educational Institutions and Facilities ; Higher Education ; Industry ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: Malaysia's higher education sector expanded rapidly in the late 1990s, with the number of institutions peaking in 2001 and the number of international students peaking in 2017. Following improvements in the quality of local universities and the establishment of branches of international campuses in Malaysia, the country has become a net receiver of foreign students. Enhanced trade in the higher education sector, and the expansion of the sector, bodes well for Malaysia's next phase of economic development. The objectives of this paper are to document the pattern of trade in higher education services in Malaysia and to analyze the main factors that constrain trade in this sector. First, the paper aims to document Malaysia's higher education landscape and the pattern of trade in each of the four modes of services trade. Second, it seeks to identify key policy challenges and constraints affecting this sector. The paper employs a combination of quantitative, qualitative, and institutional research methods. The paper finds that despite numerous liberalization measures, a number of remaining restrictions and limitations continue to impact trade in the sector. The paper finds that the most significant policy challenges likely relate to domestic constraints. To attract foreign students and faculty members and to enhance trade in the higher education sector, it is crucial to ease the visa and immigration processes and rules. Furthermore, measures to enhance the digitalization of administrative processes at the regulatory agencies and at Higher Education Institution (HEIs) can increase efficiency, with the potential to reduce the burden associated with excessive documentation requirements. It is also crucial that agencies and universities systematically collect more data to better inform policy reforms and guide universities in how to improve their programs
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Economic Development ; Education ; Governance ; Human Capital ; Human Rights ; Indigenous Communities ; Inequality ; Law and Development ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Colombia has long held great promise. The World Bank's 1950 report on Colombia, the institution's first ever study on a developing country, declared, "The potentialities for development in the future are great." The country boasts a vibrant culture, rich natural resources, and resilient people. Despite its great potential, the country's development has been disappointing. As recently as the early 1980s, Colombia's income per capita was similar to that of Chile, Malaysia, Poland, and the Republic of Korea (Figure 1). Subsequent growth in those countries has exceeded Colombia's, and the Republic of Korea is now four times richer in per capita terms than Colombia. Three interlocking long-run constraints have held Colombia back. The first is violence, which has claimed the lives of one million Colombians since 1948. The second is inequity rooted in the nation's history-the Currie Report highlighted 70 years ago that "a wide disparity in levels of income exists between a small wealthy group and the great mass of the population." The third is institutions that have favored the interests of an elite over inclusive growth
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Country Population Profiles ; Demographics ; Education ; Educational Populations ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital ; Population and Development
    Abstract: How much talent is lost in Brazil because of unideal education and health conditions The Brazil Human Capital Review is part of the Human Capital Project, a global initiative of the World Bank Group that aims to raise attention on the importance of investing in people. Its focus relies on the conditions hindering children to flourish their potential labor productivity in Brazil. As a first step, this report proposes the Human Capital Index (HCI) to estimate the expected productivity of a child born today by the age of 18 when education and health conditions remain unaltered. Or simply, the HCI estimates the productivity level of the next generation of works. The results are alarming. How can Brazil recover from a decade lost in terms of human capital formation Mitigating the effects of the pandemic should be a priority. In the short-term, recommendations include: (a) adapt and strengthen policies already in place that have proven effects on human capital; (b) use the national conditional cash transfer program to support those more heavily affected by the pandemic; and (c) set as utmost priority a learning recovery and acceleration plan for the coming years
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Covid-19 ; Education ; Education Indicators and Statistics
    Abstract: This brief summarizes the state of student learning outcomes in Myanmar before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and presents retrospective estimates of the losses in learning and future earnings of students resulting from the disruptions caused by the pandemic and the military coup of February 1, 2021. It shows that Myanmar had been facing a learning crisis even before the COVID-19 pandemic as reflected in very low levels of learning outcomes in reading and math, and large disparities in learning outcomes across different population groups. This crisis was aggravated by the pandemic and the coup which caused schools to remain closed for almost two years. As a result, the children in Myanmar have been experiencing significant learning losses which will, in turn, also reduce their future earnings substantially. This points to the need for both shorter term learning recovery focused interventions as well as longer term interventions aimed at strengthening system resilience
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Education Sector Review
    Keywords: Education ; Educational Institutions and Facilities ; Primary Education ; Rural Development ; Rural Education
    Abstract: The ReadHome Track and Trace to Strengthen Book Supply Chains project involved the creation of a best practices guide to implementing track and trace solutions for Teaching and Learning Materials (TLM). Support was also provided to five target countries to adapt these best practices to the country context to enable the development of robust, locally-owned supply chain monitoring systems to ensure delivery of TLM to the schools and families that need them most
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Curriculum and Instruction ; Education ; Educational Sciences ; Literacy ; Primary Education
    Abstract: The Early Grade Reading Rainbow is a simple way to understand the key messages from the science of reading. Each rainbow color represents one of eight key skills students need to master to become independent readers. This guide presents the basic elements of an approach to decreasing learning poverty through planning for a program of reading instruction aligned with the science of reading. Each page deals with a single element of the program: it starts with understanding the key findings of the science of reading and then proposes how these can be instantiated in a multi-year series composed of daily lesson plans, each building on the previous one. It also proposes that teacher guidance and support be provided, and that instruction and materials be in the language students best speak and understand. It further proposes that teaching and learning materials be made available to each child, that assessments be aligned with the progression of subskills that are the focus of instruction, and that these materials be adapted to the local linguistic and cultural context
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Education ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Industry ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Infrastructure Finance
    Abstract: This report provides a region-wide analysis on the status of the digital economy in South Asia. It identifies opportunities and challenges for national and regional action to realize the transformational potential of digitalizing economies, societies, and governments. The report synthesizes and builds upon country assessments produced for Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. It follows the World Bank's digital economy assessment framework, covering different dimensions of the digital economy from digital infrastructure and public platforms to digital financial services, skills, and the trust environment. It also discusses the opportunities and benefits of regional integration and collaboration. First and foremost, enabling access to high-quality affordable broadband, and increasing its adoption, will yield substantial social and economic benefits. These benefits include better access to information, education, and training, greater administrative efficiency in public services, and improved economic growth and productivity. There are currently significant gaps in connectivity access and usage within and across South Asian countries. While most countries have closed the gaps in mobile network coverage, fixed broadband coverage remains a challenge. The usage gap (represented by the number of people living within range of a mobile network but not using the Internet) remains the region's biggest challenge, and is driven by gaps in digital literacy, gaps in affordability for the poorest quintiles, and a lack of relevant content and applications. While there is significant diversity across South Asia, countries in the region might consider adopting a twin-track approach as follows: a) implement policies to enhance competition and attract private sector investment for the upgrade and roll out digital infrastructure, especially for fixed fiber networks that connect users over the middle and last miles, and b) invest heavily in demand-side policies and programs to enhance digital skills and increase affordability, especially for the poorest in the region
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  • 51
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Education ; Gender ; Health Care Services Industry ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Industry ; Nutrition ; Population and Development ; Social Capital
    Abstract: A small open economy, Benin has seen growth that is above average for the region. The volatility of high growth spells combined with low productivity growth has translated into limited gains in income per capita. Following its transition from low-income country to lower middle income country status in 2020 Benin is at the start of a new growth path. Its challenge is to boost the structural transformation of its economy driven by new growth drivers capable of sustaining an economic acceleration, lifting labor productivity and creating quality jobs for its young labor force, including women. While Benin's economy has been spared by the worse of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) crisis, the shock has reinforced the need to focus on structural reforms that address long term challenges and ensure that economic recovery is sustainable and inclusive. The key conclusions that underpin this report, following the country economic memorandum (CEM) 2.0 framework suggest that investing further in human capital and closing gender gaps, particularly to accelerate the decline in fertility rates, and integrate women and youth into a higher quality labor market, should be central. Deepening market integration, connecting people and creating agglomeration economies through transport infrastructure and services should catalyze additional opportunities, taking advantage of Benin's geographical position
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  • 52
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access of Poor To Social Services ; Education ; Income ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Nationalities and Ethnic Groups ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development ; Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement
    Abstract: The Development Response to Displacement Impacts Project (DRDIP) is a World Bank-supported regional program in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Uganda, Djibouti, and Kenya), which aims to improve access to social services, expand economic opportunities, and enhance environmental management for host and forcibly displaced communities. It was initiated in 2016 for a five-year period with hundred million US dollars total funding for Ethiopia provided by the government of Ethiopia and the World Bank. For Phase II, DRDIP aims to improve and strengthen the nonfarm livelihood interventions, focusing on women and youth. This study assesses the activities implemented under DRDIP's nonfarm livelihood subcomponent and provides an analysis of the nonfarm economy in Ethiopia's refugee-hosting areas to shape future DRDIP interventions. Promising nonfarm livelihood options for refugee and host communities, particularly women and youth, are identified. The study findings offer actionable recommendations with clearly identified entry points for increasing the effectiveness and impact of DRDIP's nonfarm livelihood activities on the targeted refugees and host communities
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  • 53
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Early Childhood Development ; Early Childhood Education ; Economics of Education ; Education ; Education Finance
    Abstract: This study used qualitative data analysis to draw both theoretical and practic