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  • 2005-2009  (1,026)
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development  (1,026)
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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal on development Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 7-60
    ISSN: 1996-580X
    Language: English
    Pages: 55 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Prestation de services dans les situations de fragilité : Principaux concepts, constats et enseignements
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal on development
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2006
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 7-60
    Keywords: Development
    Abstract: The establishment of effective and durable public services is a first priority in situations of fragility and conflict. This paper provides an understanding of the mutual influence of state fragility and service delivery and offers guidance to strengthen service provision and governance in these states. Based on an analysis of the major policy issues and approaches available, the paper identifies the challenges and dilemmas the international community and its partners face in fragile settings. It concludes with a set of policy lessons and recommendations intended to help donors better target their interventions.
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: competition law and policy Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 107-137
    ISSN: 1609-7521
    Language: English
    Pages: 32 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Corée : Mise à jour du Rapport sur la loi et les institutions en matière de concurrence
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: competition law and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD Publ., 1999
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 107-137
    Keywords: Governance ; Korea, Republic of
    Abstract: This report reviews the achievements of the Korean 3-Year Market Reform Road Map. This assessment is carried out in light of the OECD’s previous recommendations to shift KFTC priorities and resources toward core competition problems related to efficiency goals and away from its historic focus on conglomerate financial structure and governance; the need for further improvements in investigative powers and a clearer rule against hard-core cartels; implementation of recommendations to repeal exemptions for “small” business and exclusions of professional services and co-ordination with sectoral regulators about competition problems; and recent institutional changes to join the KFTC with the system for applying consumer protection law. This report was the basis for a monitoring review in the October 2006 session of the Competition Committee.
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Nuclear law bulletin Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 87-98
    ISSN: 1609-7378
    Language: English
    Pages: 12 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Jurisprudence
    Titel der Quelle: Nuclear law bulletin
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 1968
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 87-98
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Canada ; France ; United Kingdom
    Abstract: By decision dated 7 April 2009, Mr. Justice Hughes of the Federal Court of Canada denied an application for judicial review submitted by Linda Keen, the former President of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), by which she challenged the legality of the Order in Council which removed her as President. The court dismissed the application,2 finding that the decision had been lawful.
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: general papers Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 63-85
    ISSN: 1995-283X
    Language: English
    Pages: 24 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: general papers
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 63-85
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: More action is needed, by both Africa and the wider international community. Building peace and security is essential, both for economic development and for poverty reduction. Leadership is being taken by Africa itself. The number of conflicts has fallen. But even so, one-fifth of the population of Africa still live in conflict zones. More action is needed both to strengthen and support Africa’s own efforts to bring peace to the continent, and to tackle the wider global drivers of conflict, including the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons, and the trade in conflict resources.
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Nuclear law bulletin Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 117-133
    ISSN: 1609-7378
    Language: English
    Pages: 17 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Loi relative à la gestion des déchets radioactifs (République de Corée, 2009)
    Titel der Quelle: Nuclear law bulletin
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 1968
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 117-133
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Korea, Republic of
    Abstract: The purpose of this act is to safeguard against the dangers and harmful effects of radioactive waste and to contribute to public safety and environmental protection by laying down requirements for the safe and efficient management of radioactive waste.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1996-580X
    Language: English
    Pages: 86 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Compendium des exemples pays et enseignements tirés de l'application de la Méthodologie d'évaluation des régimes nationaux de passation des marchés : Mise en commun des expériences
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal on development
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2006
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 4, p. 55-140
    Keywords: Development
    Abstract: Abstract: This paper presents the experiences and the lessons learned by 22 partner countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia related to the application of the Methodology for the Assessment of National Procurement Systems of the OECD/DAC Joint Venture on Procurement. The Methodology was developed and approved for field testing in 2006 as an input for implementing the Paris Declaration agenda and to assist in strengthening country procurement systems. It is the result of the joint efforts of multilateral and bilateral development partners and of partner countries from around the world. These experiences and lessons represent some early results achieved by a group of volunteer partner governments working in collaboration with national stakeholders from civil society, the private sector, the media, elected members of parliament and with their international development partners. The present document is limited to sharing experiences in using the Methodology. Country examples from the pilot exercises and from other applications are used as case studies. A mapping of various country experiences in using the Methodology is provided in Annex A. The present document seeks to provide useful background information drawn from various available sources.
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: general papers Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 37-62
    ISSN: 1995-283X
    Language: English
    Pages: 27 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: general papers
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 37-62
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: It is now time to invest in Africa. The prospects are good. Africa is already attracting growing flows of private resources, as a result of its greater political stability and economic reforms. Significant new investors are now engaging in Africa, from within and outside the continent. Development assistance and debt relief alone will not be sufficient to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Africa now needs more and sustainable investment, both domestic and foreign, in order to accelerate economic growth and progress in poverty reduction, and become better integrated into the global economy. We call for the fulfilment of commitments made at African and G8 Summits and other global fora, including support from development partners to help Africa mobilise more investment, and better focus on mobilisible domestic revenue sources and indigenous resources. Areas such as infrastructure, extractive industry, tourism, agribusiness and ICT are particularly important drivers of development, and require support from development partners.
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: competition law and policy Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 49-105
    ISSN: 1609-7521
    Language: English
    Pages: 58 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Ententes : Poursuites en l'absence de preuves directes
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: competition law and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD Publ., 1999
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 49-105
    Keywords: Governance
    Abstract: Circumstantial evidence is employed in cartel cases in all countries. The better practice is to use circumstantial evidence holistically, giving it cumulative effect, rather than on an item-by-item basis. Complicating the use of circumstantial evidence are provisions in national competition laws that variously define the nature of agreements that are subject to the law. There are two general types of circumstantial evidence: communication evidence and economic evidence. Of the two, communication evidence is considered to be the more important. Economic evidence is almost always ambiguous. It could be consistent with either agreement or independent action. Therefore it requires careful analysis. National treatment of cartels, such as whether they are prosecuted as crimes or as administrative violations, can affect the burden of proof that applies to the cases, and hence the use of circumstantial evidence. It can be difficult to convince courts to accept circumstantial evidence in cartel cases, especially where the potential liability for having violated the anti-cartel provisions of the competition law is high. There are circumstances in countries that are relatively new to anti-cartel enforcement that could affect the extent to which they rely on circumstantial evidence in their cases.
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal on development Vol. 9, no. 4, p. 7-54
    ISSN: 1996-580X
    Language: English
    Pages: 48 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Vers une croissance pro-pauvres : L'emploi et la protection sociale
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal on development
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2006
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 4, p. 7-54
    Keywords: Development
    Abstract: Employment and social protection are two critical avenues towards achieving pro-poor growth and the Millennium Development Goals. In developing countries the majority of poor people work, but employment conditions are poor, productivity is low and incomes inadequate. Policies that improve conditions in the informal economy, increase the productivity and employability of poor people and improve the enabling environment for local entrepreneurship will lead to better employment outcomes. Social protection enables households to invest in productive activities and human capital, which raises their productivity and incomes. Social protection can be affordable, including for low-income countries, and efficiently tackles poverty through improved health, increased school attendance and less hunger and malnutrition. There is growing demand in developing countries for more public action on social protection and employment. To help donors respond, at its High Level Meeting on 27-28 May 2009 the DAC endorsed the following policy statement which encourages donors to provide adequate, long-term and predictable financial assistance to underpin developing countries’ efforts to build social protection systems and to make employment and decent work a key objective of development co-operation. In addition, through its Network on Poverty Reduction (POVNET), the DAC has developed policy guidance notes for donors on employment and social protection.
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  Nuclear law bulletin Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 99-115
    ISSN: 1609-7378
    Language: English
    Pages: 17 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Travaux législatifs et réglementaires nationaux
    Titel der Quelle: Nuclear law bulletin
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 1968
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 99-115
    Keywords: Nuclear Energy ; Belgium ; Brazil ; France ; Ireland ; Japan ; Korea, Republic of ; Moldova, Republic of ; Romania ; Serbia ; Slovenia ; Switzerland ; Turkey ; United States
    Abstract: One amendment changes the funding of the activities of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) whereby part of the fees is transformed into taxes. Besides taxes, fees and administrative fines, funding is possible by means of donations, legacies and extra fees.
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: general papers Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 5-35
    ISSN: 1995-283X
    Language: English
    Pages: 32 p
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: general papers
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD, 2008
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 2009, no. 1, p. 5-35
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: Climate change is a major threat to sustainable growth and development in Africa, and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change because of its overdependence on rain-fed agriculture, compounded by factors such as widespread poverty and weak capacity. The main longer-term impacts include: changing rainfall patterns affecting agriculture and reducing food security; worsening water security; decreasing fish resources in large lakes due to rising temperature; shifting vectorborne diseases; rising sea level affecting low-lying coastal areas with large populations; and rising water stress.
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    In:  OECD journal: competition law and policy Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 7-47
    ISSN: 1609-7521
    Language: English
    Pages: 42 p
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Ententes : Sanctions pénales contre les personnes physiques
    Titel der Quelle: OECD journal: competition law and policy
    Publ. der Quelle: Paris : OECD Publ., 1999
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 9, no. 3, p. 7-47
    Keywords: Governance
    Abstract: Corporate sanctions rarely are sufficiently high to be an optimal deterrent against cartels. Sanctions against natural persons can thus complement them. There is no systematic evidence proving the deterrent effects of sanctions on individuals, and/or assessing whether such sanctions can be justified. There is a trend among countries to accept as self-evident that individual sanctions, including imprisonment, can be a useful part of effective anti-cartel enforcement. If a country provides for individual sanctions, a strong argument can be made that relatively short prison sentences are the most cost effective deterrent. However, there are also reasons why countries may provide for longer prison sentences, most importantly that only longer statutory sentences adequately express a society’s condemnation of hard-core cartels. In addition to increasing levels of deterrence, sanctions against individuals can be a powerful incentive for individuals to reveal information about existing cartels and to cooperate in investigations. International law does not recognise the principle of double jeopardy that would prevent authorities in different countries from prosecuting the same person for participation in the same cartel. Nevertheless, where cartels are investigated in a multi-jurisdictional context, jurisdictions may consider arrangements to ensure that only one of them prosecutes an individual.
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  • 13
    ISBN: 9789264063600
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (116 p.) , ill.
    Series Statement: PISA
    RVK:
    Keywords: Education ; OECD ; PISA-Studie
    Abstract: The OECD’s PISA 2006 assessment of the science competencies of 15-year-olds offers the first comprehensive and internationally comparative knowledge base of students’ knowledge about the environment and environment-related issues. Green at Fifteen? presents an analysis of this knowledge base, including information on the sources of students’ awareness of environmental science, their attitudes towards the environment and how these attitudes interrelate with their performance in environmental science.
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  • 14
    ISBN: 9789264060203
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (150 p.)
    Series Statement: Jobs for Youth/Des emplois pour les jeunes
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Australia
    DDC: 331.3/40994
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Keywords: Junge Arbeitskräfte ; Australien ; Employment ; Social Issues/Migration/Health ; Australia ; Australien ; Jugendlicher Arbeitnehmer ; Arbeitsmarkt
    Abstract: Whatever the level of qualification, first experiences on the labour market have a profound influence on later working life. Getting off to a good start facilitates integration and lays the foundation for a good career, while a failure can be difficult to make up. This report contains - for Australia - a survey of the main barriers to employment for young people, an assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of existing measures to improve the transition from school-to-work, as well as a set of policy recommendations for further action.
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  • 15
    ISBN: 9789264056251
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (467 p.)
    Edition: Second Edition
    Series Statement: PISA
    Keywords: Education ; Economics
    Abstract: The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) surveys collected data on students’ performance in reading, mathematics and science, as well as contextual information on students’ background, home characteristics and school factors which could influence performance. This publication includes detailed information on how to analyse the PISA data, enabling researchers to both reproduce the initial results and to undertake further analyses. In addition to the inclusion of the necessary techniques, the manual also includes a detailed account of the PISA 2006 database. It also includes worked examples providing full syntax in SAS®.
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  • 16
    ISBN: 9789282102329
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (150 p.)
    Series Statement: ITF Round Tables no.144
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Terrorisme et transport international ; Pour une politique de sécurité fondée sur le risque
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Terrorisme et transport international : Pour une politique de sécurité fondée sur le risque
    Keywords: Transport
    Abstract: Security is critical to transport systems as they are often appealing targets for terrorist attacks. The significant costs of potential damage make effective security policies a key concern for transport decision makers. This Round Table examines the contribution economic analysis can make to improving security in aviation and maritime shipping by identifying methods for quantifying the benefits of security measures and assessing their effectiveness, and examining techniques to allocate resources targeting the highest risks.
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 24 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers no.2009/19
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  • 18
    ISBN: 9789264060548
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (35 p)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. De l'eau pour tous ; Perspectives de l'OCDE sur la tarification et le financement - Messages clés pour les décideurs
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. De l'eau pour tous : Perspectives de l'OCDE sur la tarification et le financement - Messages clés pour les décideurs
    Keywords: Environment
    Abstract: Water is vital for human and economic development, and for maintaining ecosystems. However, billions of people lack access to water and sanitation services, mainly due to poor governance and inadequate investment and maintenance. The situation is becoming more urgent due to increasing pressure, competition and even conflict over the use of water resources. The OECD has been working for many years to address these challenges. The results of recent work are summarised in Managing Water for All: An OECD Perspective on Pricing and Financing, which emphasises the economic and financial aspects of water resources management and water service provision, the need for an integrated approach (including governance considerations) to address these complex policy challenges, and the importance of establishing a firm evidence base to support policy development and implementation. The report examines: strategic financial planning for water supply and sanitation that balances the key sources of revenues for the water sector – the“3Ts” of taxes, tariffs and transfers; the design and implementation of water pricing strategies that balance financial sustainability with other policy objectives; recent developments in private sector participation in the water sector; and trends and the future outlook of water use in agriculture. It considers both developing and OECD countries and offers concrete recommendations and checklists for action. The report is an invaluable resource for policy makers, academics, NGOs and all others interested in the challenges facing the water sector today. The key messages for policy makers are summarised in this volume.
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  • 19
    ISBN: 9789264055698
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (229 p.) , ill.
    Series Statement: Competitiveness and Private Sector Development
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Sector specific sources of competitiveness in the Western Balkans
    RVK:
    Keywords: Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Branche ; Auslandsinvestition ; Investitionspolitik ; Südosteuropa ; Finance and Investment ; Industry and Services ; Südosteuropa ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Investitionspolitik
    Abstract: The Western Balkan region benefits from a cost-competitive labour force and geographic and cultural proximity to EU markets. However, cost competitiveness as a source of differentiation is not sustainable. Cost levels are increasing gradually in some sectors, reducing firms’ profitability. In order to sustain competitiveness, the Western Balkans needs to move up the value chain, from investing in automated technology to producing higher-quality goods and enhancing its human capital. This report examines the apparel manufacturing, automotive components and business process and technology outsourcing sectors, focusing on market competitiveness factors, industry key success factors and policy recommendations.
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  • 20
    ISBN: 9789264060777
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (164 p.)
    Series Statement: PISA
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Top of the class
    DDC: 371.262
    RVK:
    Keywords: Education ; PISA-Studie ; OECD ; Naturwissenschaften ; Unterricht ; Qualität
    Abstract: The rapidly growing demand for highly skilled workers has led to a global competition for talent. While basic competencies are important for the absorption of new technologies, high-level skills are critical for the creation of new knowledge, technologies and innovation. The OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has taken an innovative approach to examining educational excellence, by directly assessing students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes and exploring how these relate to the characteristics of individual students, schools and education systems. Based on PISA survey results, this report examines who the highest performing students are, what the characteristics of the schools they attend are, to what extent they engage in science related activities outside of school, what their motivations and attitudes towards science are, and what their career intentions are.
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  • 21
    ISBN: 9789264048751 , 9789264045743
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (241 p.) , ill.
    Edition: Fourth Edition
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Définition de référence de l'OCDE des investissements directs internationaux 2008 ; Quatrième édition
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OCDE Definición Marco de Inversión Extranjera Directa ; Cuarta edición
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Définition de référence de l'OCDE des investissements directs internationaux 2008 : Quatrième édition
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OCDE Definición Marco de Inversión Extranjera Directa : Cuarta edición
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als OECD OECD benchmark definition of foreign direct investment
    RVK:
    Keywords: Auslandsinvestition ; Statistische Methode ; OECD-Staaten ; Finance and Investment ; Economics ; Direktinvestition ; Auslandsinvestition ; Statistik ; Datenerhebung ; Richtlinie
    Abstract: Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a major driver of globalisation. The OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment sets the world standard for FDI statistics. It provides a single point of reference for statisticians and users on all aspect of FDI statistics, while remaining compatible with other internationally accepted statistical standards. This edition introduces new analytical data breakdowns and statistical treatments that better reflect the realities of today’s world economy. The revised Benchmark Definition provides methods for classifying different types of FDI (e.g., mergers and acquisitions, greenfield investments) and for identifying the ultimate investor. The new edition now addresses the uses of FDI statistics, including globalisation indicators, and provides a chapter relating to the statistics on the activities of multinational enterprises.
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  • 22
    Language: English
    Pages: 48 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers no.2009/12
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 10 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: CELE Exchange, Centre for Effective Learning Environments no.2009/07
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Reconstruire les écoles après le tremblement de terre du Wenchuan : La Chine s'inspire de l'expérience de l'OCDE, de l'Italie et de la Turquie
    Keywords: Education ; China, People’s Republic
    Abstract: Following the May 2008 earthquake in China, government officials visited the OECD, Italy and Turkey to draw lessons from international experience in seismic safety.
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 50 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD Digital Economy Papers no.152
    Keywords: Science and Technology
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the economic impact of proposals to add a non-cost “premium” to international telecommunication charges. This work follows up on earlier OECD work which examined international traffic exchange. The paper concludes that attempts to use non-market methods, and distort prices, is likely to have negative implications for the provision of international telecommunication services and that competition is acting to more efficiently meet policy goals.
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  • 25
    Language: English
    Pages: 113 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD Environment Working Papers no.8
    Keywords: Environment
    Abstract: The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness calls upon donor and partner countries to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of country systems in a way that guarantees ownership and sustainable results. Within this context, the current paper provides a synthesis of major elements and approaches of institutional assessment that may be applied to environmental management. It suggests that while a large number of diagnostic tools are in use, their level of elaboration is not sufficient for systemic sector-specific capacity assessments that would match partners’ and donors’ needs. In order to facilitate the improvement of these tools, the paper provides an inventory of core functions for environmental management. This inventory may be used by those involved in capacity assessments to consider more amply specifics of the environmental sector. Each function will need to be associated with benchmarks reflecting the multifaceted nature of institutional capacity. The evolving approaches to environmental management, as well as changes in the international and country context, impose the need to regularly update both the list of functions and complementary benchmarks.
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 16 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers no.2009/27
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: 22 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD Digital Economy Papers no.160
    Keywords: Science and Technology
    Abstract: This primer aims to provide policy makers a broad-brush understanding of the various dimensions of digital identity management (IdM). Consistent with the Seoul Ministerial Declaration, it also aims to support efforts to address public policy issues for securely managing and protecting digital identities, with a view to strengthening confidence in the online activities crucial to the growth of the Internet Economy.
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  • 28
    ISBN: 9789264062252
    Language: Ukrainian
    Pages: Online-Ressource (133 p)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions; Review of Models
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions; Review of Models (Russian version)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions: Review of Models
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions: Review of Models (Russian version)
    Keywords: Governance
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: 22 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers no.2009/08
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  • 30
    ISBN: 9789264063518
    Language: Hungarian
    Pages: Online-Ressource (425 p.)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Tertiary Education for the Knowledge Society; Volume 1 and Volume 2
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Tertiary Education for the Knowledge Society: Volume 1 and Volume 2
    Keywords: Education
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  • 31
    ISBN: 9789264062238
    Language: Russian
    Pages: Online-Ressource (143 p)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions; Review of Models
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions; Review of Models (Ukrainian version)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions: Review of Models
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions: Review of Models (Ukrainian version)
    Keywords: Governance
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  • 32
    ISBN: 9789264077904
    Language: Korean
    Pages: Online-Ressource (133 p.) , ill.
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Society at a Glance 2009; OECD Social Indicators
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Panorama de la société 2009 ; Les indicateurs sociaux de l'OCDE
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Gesellschaft auf einen Blick 2009; OECD-Sozialindikatoren
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Society at a Glance 2009: OECD Social Indicators
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Panorama de la société 2009 : Les indicateurs sociaux de l'OCDE
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Gesellschaft auf einen Blick 2009: OECD-Sozialindikatoren
    Keywords: Social Issues/Migration/Health
    Abstract: How are OECD societies progressing? How effective are their actions in promoting social progress? Society at a Glance provides a basis for addressing these twin questions. It offers a concise overview of quantitative social trends and policies across the OECD. This 2009 edition includes a wide range of information on social issues – such as demography and family characteristics, employment and unemployment, poverty and inequality, social and health care expenditure, and work and life satisfaction –as well as a guide to help readers understand the structure of OECD social indicators. In addition to updating some of the indicators from previous editions, Society at a Glance 2009 adds several new and innovative social indicators, including adult height, perceived health status, risky youth behaviour and bullying. For the first time, the report also provides a condensed set of headline social indicators summarising social well-being in OECD countries. In addition, a special chapter examines leisure time across the OECD.
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  • 33
    ISBN: 9789264073036
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (100 p.)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. La crise financière ; Réforme et stratégies de sortie
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. La crise financière : Réforme et stratégies de sortie
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als The financial crisis
    RVK:
    RVK:
    Keywords: Internationaler Finanzmarkt ; Finanzkrise ; Welt ; Internationale Finanzpolitik ; Internationaler Kreditmarkt ; Finanzkrise ; Bank ; Insolvenz ; Finance and Investment ; Governance ; Erde ; Finanzkrise
    Abstract: The financial crisis required governments to make massive interventions in their financial systems. This book sets out priorities for reforming incentives in financial markets as well as for phasing out these emergency measures.
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  • 34
    ISBN: 9789264068476
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (233 p.) , ill.
    Edition: Second edition
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. La mesure du capital - Manuel de l'OCDE 2009 ; Deuxième édition
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Medición del capital - Manual OCDE 2009 ; Segunda edición
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. La mesure du capital - Manuel de l'OCDE 2009 : Deuxième édition
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Medición del capital - Manual OCDE 2009 : Segunda edición
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Measuring capital
    RVK:
    Keywords: Kapitalstock ; Messung ; OECD-Staaten ; Economics ; Kapitalbildung ; Kapitalvermögen ; Kapitalertrag ; Messung
    Abstract: Capital - in particular of the physical sort - plays several roles in economic life: it constitutes wealth and it it provides services in production processes. Capital is invested, disinvested and it depreciates and becomes obsolescent and there is a question how to measure all these dimensions of capital in industry and national accounts. This revised Capital Manual is a comprehensive guide to the approaches toward capital measurement. It gives statisticians, researchers and analysts practical advice while providing theoretical background and an overview of the relevant literature. The manual comes in three parts - a first part with a non-technical description with the main concepts and steps involved in measuring capital; a second part directed at implementation and a third part outlining theory and a more complete mathematical formulation of the measurement process.
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  • 35
    ISBN: 9789264059771
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (102 p)
    Keywords: Social Issues/Migration/Health
    Abstract: The report analyses the retirement income systems of 18 Asian countries, including Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines and Vietnam. It says that reform is needed because: coverage of formal pension systems is relatively low; withdrawal of savings before retirement is very common; pension savings are often taken as lump sums and often do not provide people with adequate income over their lifetime; pensions payments are not automatically adjusted to reflect changes in the cost of living. In OECD countries, an average of 70% of the working-age population are eligible for a pension. However in South Asia, just 7.5% of the working-age population are eligible and in East Asia 18%. Furthermore, few countries in Asia/Pacific have social pensions to provide safety-net retirement incomes for people who are not members of formal schemes. Only in India are social pensions significant, with around 10 to 15% of older people covered.
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  • 36
    ISBN: 9789264049079
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (132 p.)
    Series Statement: OECD Reviews of Tertiary Education
    Keywords: Education ; Czech Republic
    Abstract: With tertiary education increasingly seen as a fundamental pillar for economic growth, these systems must now address the pressures of a globalising economy and labour market. This book provides an overview of the Czech Republic's tertiary education system, including an account of recent trends and developments, an analysis of strengths and challenges, and recommendations for future policy development with a view to helping understand how the organisation, management and delivery of tertiary education can help achieve economic and social goals.
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : Permanent Delegation of Italy to the OECD
    ISBN: 9789264077355
    Language: Italian
    Pages: Online-Ressource (158 p.) , ill.
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Economic Surveys; Italy 2009
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Études économiques de l'OCDE ; Italie 2009
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Economic Surveys: Italy 2009
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Études économiques de l'OCDE : Italie 2009
    Keywords: Economics ; Italy
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  • 38
    ISBN: 9789264060906
    Language: Spanish
    Pages: Online-Ressource (445 p.) , ill.
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation; 15 Mexican States 2009
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation: 15 Mexican States 2009
    Keywords: Governance ; Urban, Rural and Regional Development ; Science and Technology ; Industry and Services ; Mexico
    Abstract: Aunque México ha presentado estabilidad macroeconómica en años recientes, el país aún padece de un estancamiento en el crecimiento de su productividad. En un contexto mundial, la competitividad de México a largo plazo necesitará mayor acción tanto en el sector público como en el privado para estimular la innovación y el crecimiento económico en todas las regiones del territorio nacional. En este informe se revisan tanto las políticas nacionales como estatales de México y la manera en que pueden fomentar mejor los sistemas de innovación regional; incluye una semblanza de 15 estados.
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  • 39
    ISBN: 9789264049055
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (150 p.)
    Series Statement: OECD Reviews of Tertiary Education
    Keywords: Education ; Korea, Republic of
    Abstract: With tertiary education increasingly seen as a fundamental pillar for economic growth, these systems must now address the pressures of a globalising economy and labour market. This book provides an overview of Korea's tertiary education system, including an account of recent trends and developments, an analysis of strengths and challenges, and recommendations for future policy development.
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: 21 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD Digital Economy Papers no.158
    Keywords: Science and Technology
    Abstract: Product classifications are used by statistical offices and others for a number of measurement purposes. These include measurement of product usage, current and capital expenditure on products, domestic production, and trade in goods and services. They are therefore an important element of a set of statistical standards, with Information Economy (IE) standards no exception. This document presents the definition of information economy (IE) products developed by the WPIIS Classifications Expert Group. The product definitions complement the IE sector definitions that were released in early 2007. The latter are based on the 2007 revision of the UNSD’s International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC Rev. 4). The document includes two IE product definitions,3 ICT products and Content and media products. Each definition is a subset of the Central Product Classification (Version 2) developed by the United Nations Statistical Division (UNSD) and both are expressed in terms of 5-digit subclasses of the CPC. The CPC was finalised in December 2008.
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 20 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers no.2009/07
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  • 42
    ISBN: 9789264056275
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (475 p.)
    Edition: Second Edition
    Series Statement: PISA
    Keywords: Education ; Economics
    Abstract: The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) surveys collected data on students’ performances in reading, mathematics and science, as well as contextual information on students’ background, home characteristics and school factors which could influence performance. This publication includes detailed information on how to analyse the PISA data, enabling researchers to both reproduce the initial results and to undertake further analyses. In addition to the inclusion of the necessary techniques, the manual also includes a detailed account of the PISA 2006 database and worked examples providing full syntax in SPSS®.
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  • 43
    ISBN: 9789264066212
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (170 p.)
    Series Statement: Partnership for Democratic Governance
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Contracting out government functions and services
    Keywords: Öffentliche Dienstleistung ; Outsourcing ; Politische Instabilität ; Politischer Konflikt ; Afghanistan ; Kambodscha ; Kongo (Demokratische Republik) ; Ruanda ; Südsudan ; Development ; Entwicklungsländer ; Öffentliche Dienstleistung ; Contracting-out
    Abstract: This second volume of the Partnership for Democratic Governance Series investigates whether ‘contracting out’ core government functions and services has been conducive to capacity development. Each case study discusses the evidence and emerging lessons of contracting out in fragile and post-conflict situations. The chapters contained in this publication first appeared as contributions to the Partnership for Democratic Governance's collaborative online platform, PDF Online. Through this platform, users are able to post comments on discussion papers, send messages to the authors and easily find ifnormation relevant to the topics covered in this publication. Selected as a 2009 Notable Document by the American Library Association Government Documents Round Table.
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: 2008 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD/ITF Joint Transport Research Centre Discussion Papers no.2009/06
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  • 45
    ISBN: 9789264071209
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (16 p.)
    Series Statement: OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Essai n 452 ; Études de toxicité chronique
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Essai n 452 : Études de toxicité chronique
    Keywords: Environment
    Abstract: The objective of these chronic toxicity studies is to characterize the profile of a substance in a mammalian species (primarily rodents) following prolonged and repeated exposure. The Test Guideline focuses on rodents and oral administration. Both sexes should be used. For rodents, at least 20 animals per sex per group should normally be used at each dose level, while for non-rodents a minimum of 4 per sex per group is recommended. At least three dose levels should be used in addition to the concurrent control group. Frequency of exposure normally is daily, but may vary according to the route chosen (oral, dermal or inhalation) and should be adjusted according to the toxicokinetic profile of the test substance. The duration of the exposure period should be 12 months. The study report should include: measurements (weighing) and regular detailed observations (haematological examination, urinalysis, clinical chemistry), as well as necropsy procedures and histopathology.
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  • 46
    Language: English
    Pages: 49 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD Digital Economy Papers no.167
    Keywords: Science and Technology
    Abstract: This report gives an overview of sensor technology and fields of application of sensors and sensor networks. It discusses in detail selected fields of application that have high potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reviews studies quantifying the environmental impact. The review of the studies assessing the impact of sensor technology in reducing greenhouse gas emissions reveals that the technology has a high potential to contribute to a reduction of emissions across various fields of application. Whereas studies clearly estimate an overall strong positive effect in smart grids, smart buildings, smart industrial applications as well as precision agriculture and farming, results for the field of smart transportation are mixed due to rebound effects. In particular intelligent transport systems render transport more efficient, faster and cheaper. As a consequence, demand for transportation and thus the consumption of resources both increase which can lead to an overall negative effect.
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Beijing : Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
    ISBN: 9789264062405
    Language: Chinese
    Pages: Online-Ressource (171 p.)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Latin American Economic Outlook 2008
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Perspectives économiques de l'Amérique latine 2008
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Perspectivas Económicas de América Latina 2008
    Keywords: Development
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  • 48
    ISBN: 9789264072992
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (32 p)
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oleiros (La Coruña) : Netbiblo, S.L. Grupo Biblo, Spain
    ISBN: 9789264079809
    Language: Spanish
    Pages: Online-Ressource (298 p)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Factbook 2008; Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Panorama des statistiques de l'OCDE 2008 ; Économie, environnement et société
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Factbook 2008: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Panorama des statistiques de l'OCDE 2008 : Économie, environnement et société
    Keywords: Economics
    Abstract: Factbook 2008 (Libro de datos de la OCDE 2008) es la cuarta edición de una amplia y dinámica selección de estadísticas anuales de la OCDE: Con más de 100 indicadores que cubren un amplio rango de áreas: economía, agricultura, educación, energía, medio ambiente, ayuda extranjera, salud y calidad de vida, industria, información y comunicaciones, población/trabajadores, comercio e inversiones, impuestos, gasto público e investigación y desarrollo. Este año, el libro de datos de la OCDE contiene un capítulo dedicado a la productividad. Los datos son proporcionados por todos los países miembros de la OCDE con totales por regiones, y en algunos casos, de economías de países no miembros. Para cada indicador, hay una explicación de 2 páginas. La primera página de texto incluye una breve introducción seguida de una definición pormenorizada del indicador, comentarios sobre la comparación, una evaluación de tendencias a largo plazo relacionadas con el indicador, y una lista de fuentes para mayor información de los datos. La siguiente página contiene un cuadro estadístico y una gráfica que proporcionan, a simple vista, el mensaje clave que se deriva de los datos. Un enlace interactivo (StatLink) se adjunta a cada estadística remitiendo al lector a una página web en la que encontrará los datos correspondientes en formato Excel. El OCDE Factbook 2008 es una referencia clave para todo el que trabaja en temas de economía y políticas.
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  • 50
    ISBN: 9789264063488
    Language: Greek, Modern (1453- )
    Pages: Online-Ressource (76 p)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance; A Handbook for Policy Makers
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. L'orientation professionnelle ; Guide pratique pour les décideurs
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance; A Handbook for Policy Makers (Bulgarian version)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance; A Handbook for Policy Makers (Czech version)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Uddannelses- og erhvervsvejledning; En håndbog for beslutningstagere
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Berufsberatung; Ein Handbuch für politisch Verantwortliche
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Orientación professional ; Guía para responsables políticos
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance; A Handbook for Policy Makers (Latvian version)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance; A Handbook for Policy Makers (Slovak version)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. L'orientation professionnelle : Guide pratique pour les décideurs
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers (Bulgarian version)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers (Czech version)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Uddannelses- og erhvervsvejledning: En håndbog for beslutningstagere
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Berufsberatung: Ein Handbuch für politisch Verantwortliche
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Orientación professional : Guía para responsables políticos
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers (Latvian version)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Career Guidance: A Handbook for Policy Makers (Slovak version)
    Keywords: Education ; Employment
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Warsaw : Ministry of Regional Development, Poland
    ISBN: 9788376100814
    Language: Polish
    Pages: Online-Ressource (245 p.) , ill.
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Territorial Reviews; Poland 2008
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Examens territoriaux de l'OCDE ; Pologne
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Territorial Reviews: Poland 2008
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Examens territoriaux de l'OCDE : Pologne
    Keywords: Governance ; Urban, Rural and Regional Development ; Poland
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  • 52
    ISBN: 9789264063426
    Language: Korean
    Pages: Online-Ressource (196 p.) , ill.
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Babies and Bosses - Reconciling Work and Family Life; A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Bébés et employeurs - Comment réconcilier travail et vie de famille ; Synthèse des résultats dans les pays de l'OCDE
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Babies and Bosses - Reconciling Work and Family Life: A Synthesis of Findings for OECD Countries
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Bébés et employeurs - Comment réconcilier travail et vie de famille : Synthèse des résultats dans les pays de l'OCDE
    Keywords: Employment ; Social Issues/Migration/Health
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    ISBN: 9789264044395
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (310 p.) , ill.
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Perspectives de l'OCDE sur les pensions privées 2008
    Keywords: Finance and Investment
    Abstract: As the role of private pension systems grows in importance, there is a need to monitor their development and review their performance in an international context, especially following the crisis in the financial markets in 2008. This first edition of the OECD Private Pensions Outlook provides essential data on assets, investments, membership, and industry structure based on the latest official statistics, as well as a framework for evaluating the trends shaping the pensions industry, based on the role of the private pensions in relation to the public pension system. It also provides comprehensive country profiles, describing private pension arrangements in individual OECD countries. This edition's special feature covers the implications for pensions and private pensions policy of the financial crisis. This publication includes StatLinks, URLs linking graphs and tables via the internet to Excel® table containing the underlying data.
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  • 54
    ISBN: 9789264060180
    Language: German
    Pages: Online-Ressource (79 p.)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy; China 2008
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: China 2008
    Keywords: Science and Technology ; China, People’s Republic
    Abstract: Welche Kriterien müssen die Innovationsergebnisse eines Landes erfüllen, und welcher Zusammenhang besteht zwischen ihnen und der Wirtschaftsleistung? Welches sind die Hauptmerkmale, Stärken und Schwächen des Innovationssystems eines Landes? Wie können die Regierungen die Innovationstätigkeit fördern? Die OECD-Prüfungen der Innovationspolitik bieten eine umfassende Analyse des Innovationssystems einzelner OECD-Mitglieds- und -Nichtmitgliedsländer, bei der die Rolle der Politik und der Regierung im Mittelpunkt steht. Sie geben zudem konkrete Empfehlungen zu der Frage, wie ein breites Spektrum von die Innovationsergebnisse der Länder beeinflussenden Politikmaßnahmen zu verbessern ist. Bei jeder Prüfung werden bewährte Praktiken identifiziert, aus denen andere Länder lernen können. China hat über einen mehr als zwanzig Jahre andauernden Zeitraum ein spektakulär hohes Wirtschaftswachstum zu verzeichnen. Gleichwohl ist China heute mit der großen Herausforderung des Übergangs von einem stetigen zu einem vom sozialen, wirtschaftlichen, ökologischen und umweltpolitischen Standpunkt her gesehen nachhaltigen Wachstum konfrontiert. Die Innovationstätigkeit wurde als eine Hauptantriebskraft für dieses neue Wachstumsmodell identifiziert, und die chinesische Regierung hat eine nationale Strategie initiiert, die bis zum Jahr 2020 eine innovationsinduzierte Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft entstehen lassen soll. Wird es China gelingen, die Herausforderung dieses Übergangs zu meistern? Welche Veränderungen werden hierzu im Bereich der Politikmaßnahmen und Institutionen erforderlich sein? Wie wird sich die Wandlung Chinas zu einer künftigen innovationsgestützten Volkswirtschaft auf die OECD-Länder sowie auf die weltweiten Systeme der Wissensproduktion, -verbreitung und -nutzung auswirken? Der vorliegende Bericht versucht Antworten auf diese Fragen zu finden, indem er den derzeitigen Zustand des nationalen Innovationssystems Chinas und seiner Investitionspolitik analysiert und besonders wichtige Verbesserungen empfiehlt, die sowohl im politischen als auch im institutionellen Umfeld erforderlich sind, damit es China gelingt, die Innovationstätigkeit durch einen marktorientierten Ansatz zu fördern.
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  • 55
    ISBN: 9787502362225
    Language: Chinese
    Pages: Online-Ressource (127 p.)
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Measuring Productivity - OECD Manual; Measurement of Aggregate and Industry-level Productivity Growth
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Mesurer la productivité - Manuel de l'OCDE ; Mesurer la croissance de la productivité par secteur et pour l'ensemble de l'économie
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Measuring Productivity - OECD Manual: Measurement of Aggregate and Industry-level Productivity Growth
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Mesurer la productivité - Manuel de l'OCDE : Mesurer la croissance de la productivité par secteur et pour l'ensemble de l'économie
    Keywords: Economics ; Industry and Services
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  • 56
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    ISBN: 9789264076457
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (44 p)
    Series Statement: OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 5
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Essai n 509 ; Essais au champ de plantes cultivées
    Parallel Title: Parallelausg. Essai n 509 : Essais au champ de plantes cultivées
    Keywords: Environment
    Abstract: Crop field trials are conducted to determine the magnitude of the pesticide residue in or on raw agricultural commodities, including feed items, and should be designed to reflect pesticide use patterns that lead to the highest possible residues. Objectives of crop field trials are to: (1) quantify the expected range of residue(s) in crop commodities following treatment according to the proposed or established good agricultural practice; (2) determine, when appropriate, the rate of decline of the residue(s) of plant protection product(s) on commodities of interest; (3) determine residue values such as the “Supervised Trial Median Residue” and “Highest Residue” for conducting dietary risk assessment; and (4) derive maximum residue limits (MRLs). This Test Guideline requires one sample from treated plots at each sampling interval for crops that have eight or more crop field trials. The test substance(s) should be stored under appropriate conditions for the study duration and applied soon after preparation or mixing. Test substance applications should not be made in strong wind, during rain or when rainfall is expected shortly after application. For all applications, the application rate should be expressed in terms of amount of product and/or active ingredient per unit area. At the end of each crop field trial, the (stored) samples are analysed for residue level (expressed for example in mg/kg).