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  • 101
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (128 pages)
    Series Statement: Women, Business and the Law
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Discrimination ; Domestic Violence ; Empowering Women ; Equal Rights ; Gender Disparities ; Gender Equality ; Gender Inequality ; Women ; Women's Rights
    Abstract: Women, Business and the Law 2023 is the ninth in a series of annual studies measuring the laws and regulations that affect women's economic opportunity in 190 economies.The project presents eight indicators structured around women's interactions with the law as they move through their lives and careers: Mobility, Workplace, Pay, Marriage, Parenthood, Entrepreneurship, Assets, and Pension. The 2023 edition identifies barriers to women's economic participation and encourages reform of discriminatory laws. This year, the study also includes research, a literature review, and analysis of 53 years of reforms for women's rights. Examining the economic decisions that women make throughout their working lives as well as tracking regulatory changes from 1970 to today, the study makes an important contribution to research and policy discussions about the state of women's economic opportunities. By presenting powerful examples of change and highlighting the gaps still remaining, Women, Business and the Law 2023 is a vital tool in ensuring economic empowerment for all. Data in Women, Business and the Law 2023 are current as of October 1, 2022
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  • 102
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Blue Transformation ; Gateway Ports ; International Shipping ; Natural Disasters and Climate Resilience ; Sector Governance and Institutions ; Transport, Maritime Transport
    Abstract: This report has eight chapters. Following the introduction (Pacific Peoples and the Sea), the next six chapters each focus on a separate significant component of Pacific maritime transport, analyzing the major influences and challenges, and, where relevant, key areas for future attention. The topics are: international shipping, gateway ports, domestic maritime transport, four related sectors, cruise ship tourism, tuna fisheries, fossil fuel imports, and bulk shipping, natural disasters and climate resilience, and sector governance and institutions. The final chapter, transforming pacific maritime transport, ways forward, distils the report's findings into the most significant and far-reaching opportunities to transform maritime transport in the Pacific. These are grouped into three broad themes, infrastructure, services, and governance and capacity building. Ways Forward comes at the end and, for readers unable to view the whole report, is a good place to begin. The rest of this executive summary explains why the Pacific is a special case for investment and provides a summary of the main chapters and findings. But first, it describes which Pacific Island countries contributed to the study
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  • 103
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Climate Change Impact On Debt Growth ; Country Debt Capacity ; COVID-19 Pandemic Impact On Debt ; Debt Sustainability Framework ; Determining Debt Distress ; Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Economic Insecurity ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; IFC ; Inflation ; Low-Income Country Debt ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; MIGA ; World Bank Debt Data
    Abstract: This evaluation, requested by the Committee on Development Effectiveness of the Executive Board of the International Development Association (IDA), is intended to provide input and insight into the upcoming World Bank-International Monetary Fund (IMF) review of the Low-Income Country Debt Sustainability Framework (LICDSF) currently planned for fiscal year 2023. The sharp rise in debt stress among low-income countries and a changing global risk landscape leading up to and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic have pushed concerns with debt sustainability to the top of the global policy agenda. This evaluation assesses the World Bank's inputs into the LIC-DSF and how it uses LIC-DSF outputs to inform various corporate and country-level decisions. Main findings and recommendations include: (i) Expectations of the World Bank in taking the lead on long-term growth prospects should be clarified. (ii) Recently increased attention to debt data coverage should be sustained and extended; greater attention is needed to assess data quality. (iii) The DSA should be more directly and consistently used to inform priorities for the identification of fiscally oriented prior actions in development policy operations and SDFP performance and policy actions. (iv) The World Bank should continue to give increasing attention in the LIC-DSF to the long-term implications of climate change, in terms of both growth and fiscal requirements of adaptation and mitigation
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  • 104
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Contraceptive Use ; Cutting ; Education ; Female Genital Mutilation ; Gender ; Gender and Health ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Poverty ; Gender-Based Violence ; Girls Education Status ; Maternal Health Access ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development ; Women's Access To Health Services ; Women's Agency ; Women's Economic Opportunity
    Abstract: Evidence shows that Guinean women and girls face important barriers across all dimensions of well-being that prevent them from having access to opportunities on an equal footing with men. The poor agency of women and girls, as reflected in the high prevalence of discriminatory legal and social norms, translates into gaps in health, education, employment, and entrepreneurship, ultimately undermining their capacity to fulfill their potential and imposing important societal costs. This report presents a summary of the key challenges facing Guinean women and girls relative to men and boys. The report has a particular focus on early family formation, a common phenomenon in the country with important implications for girls' and women's well-being and opportunities in life. On the basis of this diagnostic and a review of evidence of what works, the report proposes some strategic lines of action to address the existing constraints and effectively empower Guinean women
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  • 105
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Environment ; Natural Resource Management ; Risk and Resilience
    Abstract: This supplementary guidance note is based on the report, Defueling Conflict: Environment and Natural Resource Management as a Pathway to Peace (2022), which was funded by the State and Peacebuilding Fund. This document is intended to encapsulate the key ideas to support Risk and Resilience Assessment (RRA) teams to collect knowledge on and deepen and nuance the treatment of the environment and natural resources in RRAs. Additional examples and analyses are available in the original report
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  • 106
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Access To Education ; Employment ; Freedom of Expression ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Social Development ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Restrictions ; Women
    Abstract: Through various decrees from the Interim Taliban Administration (ITA), women and girls have been systematically excluded from public and political domains, and restricted in their freedom of expression, access to education, and some forms of employment. As the restrictions continue to mount, it is increasingly important to safely consult with women and girls on their needs and priorities. The Afghanistan gender monitoring survey (AGMS) is intended to provide a snapshot of women's own perceptions of their situation and to bring the voices of Afghan women into data collection efforts to inform the humanitarian-development response. The AGMS interviews were conducted in September and October 2022. This first round of data collection will provide an important baseline from which to assess the additional impacts of the December bans. This report presents the main results of the AGMS, conducted by the World Bank
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  • 107
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Business Expansion ; Cross-Border Trade ; Gender and Economics ; International Economics and Trade ; Trade and Regional Integration ; Trade Facilitation ; Women
    Abstract: This report summarizes the main challenges that men- and women-led companies (also referred to as traders or trade firms) and customs brokers face in undertaking cross-border trade of merchandise goods in the Republic of Tajikistan. The report also provides recommendations to address these challenges. Global research has shown that the expansion of international trade is essential for poverty reduction, and it provides better job opportunities and increased returns, particularly for women working in export-oriented sectors. Oftentimes, however, women may face more or different challenges than men that prevent them from fully participating in trade. While globally there is a growing body of research on why women participate less in cross-border trade than men, there is still a lack of data and research that quantifies the exact nature of the trade facilitation challenges that women traders face at the firm level. Generally, trade facilitation measures are assumed to be nondiscriminatory in their design; however, implementing and delivering these measures may not necessarily impact all traders similarly. Studies by the World Bank, for example, found that men and women traders often face different trade facilitation challenges, including in areas such as access to information, usage of electronic payments, submission of electronic documents, pre-declaration of goods, consultations with the government, and participation in trade or industry- specific associations. This study in Tajikistan explored a range of topics, primarily within the scope of the World Trade Organization's Trade Facilitation Agreement (WTO TFA), including experiences with public consultations and enquiry points, clearance and release of goods, formalities connected with import and export and transit procedures, detentions of goods, appeal or review procedures, and publication and availability of information. Areas beyond the WTO TFA, such as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's invasion of Ukraine, transport, and safety and security issues at the borders, were also researched. Data collection for this report was done via phone survey interviews across Tajikistan and was complemented by qualitative research methods, such as focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and technical visits to select border crossings in the country. The work was built upon a similar methodology developed and used in other surveys by the World Bank Group. The data collected in the study and the resultant analysis contribute to the literature on trade and gender. Importantly, the report helps fill a significant knowledge gap in Tajikistan, where there is no robust country-representative research shedding light on gender-specific challenges faced by cross-border traders. This study adds to the increasingly important dialogue on addressing gender equality issues in trade policies. The study may be useful to the government of Tajikistan, development organizations, and others in ensuring that trade interventions can benefit all traders equally
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  • 108
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Keywords: DEBT ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Excessive Credit Growth ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Inclusion Gaps ; Financial Sector Reform ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The Republic of Korea's astonishing economic development commenced shortly after the end of the Korean war. Today, Korea is the world's tenth largest economy based on gross domestic product, a key development partner of the World Bank Group, an important contributor to the International Development Association, the fund established to support the world's poorest countries, and a unique international donor. Over the past decade, the East Asia and Pacific region has experienced significant economic growth and development. This has been especially evident in the financial sector. Nevertheless, many challenges remain. Risks such as excessive credit growth, asset bubbles, high levels of household and corporate debt have emerged, increasing the vulnerability of the financial sector to shocks. Consequently, ensuring the stability and resilience of the financial sector is crucial for sustainable economic development in the region. When it comes to financial inclusion, despite the good progress made in many developing countries in the region, there are still significant gaps across the region. A large portion of the population in some countries in the region especially in rural areas and among vulnerable groups, still lack access to formal financial services such as savings account and payment systems. This hampers their ability to save, invest and participate in the formal economy, limiting their economic opportunities and potential growth. Against this backdrop, with the support of the Korea Trust Fund, the World Bank has made a significant impact in enhancing the financial sector in the East Asia and Pacific region. These selected stories speak to the positive impact that the Seoul Center's partnership with the Ministry of Economy and Finance has had within the recipient countries. The booklet presents these in detail
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  • 109
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Green Infrastructure ; Hydro Power ; Landscape Restoration ; Sustainable Land Management ; Vakhsh River ; Water
    Abstract: This report outlines the main results of a study conducted to assess the potential role of landscape restoration/nature-based solutions/green infrastructure in the Vakhsh River Basin, Tajikistan, to reduce the impacts of soil erosion on the hydropower cascade, increase agricultural productivity, improve livelihoods, and inform about investment opportunities. This assessment finds sediment sources and loadings in the Vakhsh River Basin, considers the potential correlation between soil erosion and sedimentation in hydropower reservoirs, proposes possible and cost-effective landscape restoration measures, and estimates the value of ecosystem services provided. The study also presents recommendations for implementing the proposed interventions for the Vakhsh River Basin and for scaling up to other degraded areas throughout the country
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  • 110
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2109
    Keywords: Education ; Education Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Health ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; HRM ; Human Development ; Macro Fiscal Context ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Expenditure ; Sustainability
    Abstract: This is an overview of the CAR Human Development (HD) Public Expenditure Review (PER). This overview provides an analytical basis to decision-makers and stakeholders for the formulation of ambitious yet fiscally responsible interventions to improve human capital outcomes in CAR. The PER examines public expenditure trends of the education, health, and social protection (SP) sectors with a focus on adequacy, efficiency, and equity of expenditures as well as human resource management (HRM). The primary objective is to provide analytical insights for government policy development and prioritization strategy as it seeks to achieve a resilient recovery and rebuild its education and health sectors and establish a strong SP system which will help the poorest households invest and protect their own human capital. The PER can also serve as a useful source of knowledge and information to development partners seeking to deepen the impact of their support to the human capital development sectors. The recommendations put forth by the PER are those identified as fiscally sustainable and most important for rebuilding and strengthening human capital development sectors, including a focus on future human resource (HR) recruitment needed in the education and health sectors
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  • 111
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Cash Transfers ; COVID-19 ; Labor Market ; Pensions ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; Poverty ; Social Analysis ; Social Assessment ; Social Development ; Social Funds ; Social Protection System ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: A period of economic growth over the past decade led to a reduction in poverty and improvements in labor market outcomes in Montenegro. Substantial challenges remain, which have been aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, drawing attention to the role that social protection plays in reducing poverty and promoting human capital. This note presents a situational analysis of the social protection system in Montenegro. It assesses the extent to which the social protection system in Montenegro fulfils its purpose and proposes areas for reform in the short, medium, and long term. To this end, this note seeks to assess each category of social protection, namely: social assistance, social services, social insurance (specifically pensions) and labor market programs, in terms of program coverage, equity, sustainability and effectiveness
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  • 112
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Evaluation
    Keywords: Access To Basic Services ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impacts ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Governance Indicators ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Abstract: Between 1993 and 2013, Mozambique became one of the fastest-growing economies in Sub-Saharan Africa boosting incomes and living standards. Political and macroeconomic stability provided the foundation for robust growth led by a rebounding agricultural sector and significant donor support. Growth, however, decelerated beginning in 2016 in the face of low commodity prices, a hidden debt crisis, and natural disasters. In FY18, Mozambique was formally classified as a fragile country. The Covid-19 pandemic further eroded growth. In light of the country's evolving context, this Country Program Evaluation (CPE) reviews the World Bank Group's engagement in Mozambique over the period FY08 into FY21. The CPE assesses the extent to which the Bank Group's support was relevant to Mozambique's main development challenges and drivers of fragility as well as how Bank Group support evolved and adapted over time. The evaluation delves into four themes that are relevant to Mozambique's pursuit of the Bank Group's Twin Goals of Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity: (i) low agricultural productivity; (ii) unequal access to basic services; (iii) weak institutions and governance; and (iv) vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters. The evaluation presents findings from each of the four themes covered and distills lessons from Bank Group experience in Mozambique to inform future strategies and engagements
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  • 113
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Cloud Computing ; Data Classification Matrix ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; PII ; Public Sector ; Security
    Abstract: This data classification matrix and cloud assessment framework supports the policy goals articulated in the World Bank's Institutional and procurement practice note for cloud computing services in the public sector. The framework is intended to support World Bank client countries, practitioners, and multilateral and bilateral development partners to manage the risks of acquiring public cloud solutions. These suggestions are based on good practices identified in the practice note. The framework first offers a data classification scheme for government data and personally identifiable information (PII) of citizens that governments and their contractors handle based upon the confidentiality, integrity, and availability security objectives. The framework then suggests cloud security requirements corresponding to each proposed data classification level. These security requirements are based upon international standards and good practices identified in the practice note. The framework also offers a checklist for procuring agencies seeking to procure cloud services
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  • 114
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; COVID-19 ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Systems ; Transition ; Vulnerabilities
    Abstract: This report provides an assessment of the stability of the financial systems of selected Pacific Island Countries (PICs) in the context of COVID-19 and emerging risks. The report brings together an analysis of information provided by the central banks of the PICs covered by this study over the last two years. The purpose of the study is to assess the financial stability and vulnerabilities and to provide technical guidance to the PIC authorities to assist in their financial sector policy response. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the financial systems of the PICs. Chapter 2 presents an analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on the financial systems of the PCIs and the policy responses to the pandemic. Chapter 3 looks at the challenges of transitioning from the pandemic to normal policy settings. Chapter 4 provides a set of bespoke policy recommendations with the aim of enhancing the ability to deal with financial sector risks and vulnerabilities. Finally, Chapter 5 puts forward recommendations for the assessment of climate and environmental related risks on the PICs. The report finds that the pandemic has negatively impacted economic growth in the PICs, challenging financial stability. Due to various relief measures adopted by governments in the region, and the lagged economic impact of the pandemic, the PICs' financial sectors do not yet fully reflect the risks to bank profitability and asset quality, which could materialize over 2022-23. Response and
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  • 115
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Human Capital ; Investment and Investment Climate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Investment ; Productivity Growth ; Public Investment
    Abstract: Bulgaria has followed sound macroeconomic policy in recent years and has weathered the Covid-19 economic crisis relatively well. The country embarked on a thorough transformation to a functioning market economy in the run-up to European Union (EU) membership in 2007 which, since 2018, has been followed by a firm course towards eurozone entry. But income convergence to average EU levels has been held back by low pre-crisis economic growth averaging only 2.1 percent in 2010-2019. At pre-Covid-19 crises growth rates, Bulgaria is not expected to converge to average EU income levels in the foreseeable future. The average income level masks substantial regional inequalities which continue to widen and undermine human capital formation and growth. A key constraint that can be seen in all growth policy areas, and also limits the pace of greening of the Bulgarian economy, is weak governance capacity and institutions. This report is organized around the World Bank long-term growth model (LTGM) which allows to simulate Bulgaria's growth path under different scenarios. The structure of the report focuses on the key identified constraints to and opportunities for Bulgaria's faster long-term economic growth and income convergence. The report discusses complementary policy areas when needed and refers to related studies for more in-depth analysis and policy options in these cases
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  • 116
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Labor Force ; Labor Markets ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training, Public Services ; Social Protections and Labor, Labor Standards ; Unemployment
    Abstract: Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) face the dual and interlinked challenge of lack of jobs and low quality of public services. Labor force participation rates, especially of women, are among the lowest in Europe, and the country faces high and sustained levels of unemployment, especially of the youth. Even within the employed sector there are concerns regarding the quality of jobs, including high levels of informality. The dearth of quality jobs is linked to skills mismatches between the demand and supply of labor, which in turn reflects the relatively low quality of human capital of workers, and poor education and health services. The objective of this report is to examine the "public sector labor market" in BiH and its implications for this twin challenge. The public sector labor market is defined as the employment, compensation, management, and work environment practices of the public sector. These practices influence the employment choices of individuals, such as whether to work and preferences over public sector or private sector employment. They also affect the selection, retention, motivation, and productivity of public sector workers, which in turn impact the ability of the government to effectively deliver its variety of outputs. The report measures these features of the public sector labor market through an original household survey conducted by the World Bank (WB) in 2021-2022 that is representative of the urban areas of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and the Republika Srpska (RS)
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  • 117
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: CCDR ; Climate Change Governance ; Environment, Climate Change and Environment ; Environmental Governance, Climate Change ; Environmental Studies
    Abstract: Honduras is highly vulnerable to extreme natural hazards, which are expected to increase because of climate change. These will have significant consequences for all of Honduran society, affecting important economic sectors and threatening food and water security and human health. The impacts of climate change are expected to disproportionately affect the poorest and most vulnerable, such as indigenous peoples and afro‑descendants (IPADs) and women. These impacts will likely compound existing challenges such as migration, internal displacement, and land conflicts and insecurity. Even though Honduras's contribution to global emissions is significantly low, the country has opportunities to pursue low‑carbon development that will create co‑benefits and foster synergies with climate change adaptation, particularly in the agriculture, water, forestry, energy, and transport sector. This CCDR recommends focusing on a parallel approach of a) cross‑sectoral recommendations in the short term that allow for the creation of an enabling environment for sectoral recommendations in the long term and long term, while b) accelerating policy reforms and investments through a phased approach for priority sectors. This phased approach to sectoral action would help the country gradually enhance ambition while also harnessing the enhanced institutional capacities and increased enabling environment
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  • 118
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Agri-Food System ; Agriculture Sector ; Agriculture, Agricultural Sector Economics, Public Expenditure ; Mandanas Ruling
    Abstract: The recent positive policy directions embodied in the New Thinking and One DA agenda have not yet fully translated into a shift in public expenditure patterns in the Philippine agriculture sector. One result is that agricultural growth remains low, and poverty in rural areas, where farming remains the main source of income, has stayed high. Underinvestment in public goods in agriculture, vital for inclusive growth, also drives the lack of growth. The continued bias supporting rice production has come at the expense of other agricultural products. The situation could worsen with the ongoing devolution resulting from the Mandanas Ruling of the Supreme Court unless the shift in the agriculture budget from central government to local government units (LGUs) accompanies clear changes in expenditure policies. To take full advantage of the opportunities arising from the new strategic directions and to devolve more responsibilities to LGUs, agricultural public expenditure policies must deal with challenges in three dimensions. First is the challenge of aligning expenditures with the ambition of the New Thinking. The second challenge is improving the currently low effectiveness of public spending, which is one factor behind the relatively low agricultural share in the government's overall budget. The third challenge is successfully implementing the financial and functional devolution resulting from the Mandanas Ruling. This Philippines Agriculture Sector Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) aims to (a) help the government evaluate the direction of spending policies under the New Thinking strategy and (b) consider the best way forward in devolving agricultural services to LGUs as a result of the Supreme Court's Mandanas Ruling
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  • 119
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Evaluation
    Keywords: Jobs ; Labor Markets ; Objectives ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The International Development Association (IDA) has included jobs as a special theme since the 17th Replenishment of IDA (IDA17) in 2014, when it explicitly recognized the role played by labor markets in intermediating between growth and inclusion. This acknowledgment of jobs marked a shift in IDA's inclusive growth strategy. Before the IDA17 strategy paper, IDA emphasized growth and the use of social safety nets to mitigate the effects of poverty. Beginning in 2014, however, jobs became more central to IDA's strategy for inclusive growth and for achieving the twin goals. IDA17, the 18th Replenishment of IDA, and the 19th Replenishment of IDA established specific policy commitments and results indicators under the jobs-related special theme. At the same time, the World Bank Group expanded and deepened its attention to jobs, resulting in an increasingly multidimensional jobs agenda characterized by a growing body of lending, technical assistance and diagnostics, and a strong focus on IDA-eligible countries, including through use of the Country Private Sector Diagnostic and IDA's private sector window. This evaluation will assess IDA's support for jobs-related objectives over fiscal years (FY)14-22, the period covering three IDA replenishments during which jobs became an IDA special theme (IDA17, the 18th Replenishment of IDA, and the 19th Replenishment of IDA). The objectives of this assessment are to interrogate the contribution of IDA's Bank Group financing to improving outcomes related to more, better paying, and more inclusive jobs; the role of IDA's jobs strategy at the corporate, country, and operational levels in this context; and the analytical underpinnings of jobs-related interventions. The evaluation will provide lessons and recommendations to inform the design of the Bank Group's future multidimensional jobs support and enhance IDA's effectiveness in this space based on eight years of strategic, diagnostic, and operational experience
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  • 120
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Blockchain ; Cyber Security ; EMDES ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Legal Concerns ; Tokenization
    Abstract: The purpose of this report is to assess whether digitizing the equity or debt financing used for infrastructure projects using blockchain, that is, tokenized infrastructure, provides enough benefits to justify the use of this technology. The information presented here aims to inform the World Bank whether it should explore the possibility of tokenizing one of its infrastructure projects. The conclusions are based on interviews with tokenization start-ups, experts, and the review of current and planned regulatory frameworks in selected jurisdictions and use cases/pilots to date
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  • 121
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Childcare ; Digital Technology Gap ; Economic Inclusion ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Law ; Violence Prevention ; Women's Empowerment ; Women's Land Rights
    Abstract: The focus and approach of South Asia Second Regional Gender Action Plan (SAR RGAP) are based on an analysis of regional trends in key gender outcomes in South Asia, an assessment of SAR RGAP, and an extensive set of consultations, including country-level consultations conducted across the WBG. Implementation of SAR RGAP will take place in the context of the WBG's broader strategy for gender and the latest International Development Association (IDA) commitments. The World Bank Group Gender Strategy prioritizes four domains of gender equality: (a) improving human endowments, (b) more and better jobs for men and women, (c) women's access to productive assets, and (d) improving women's voice and agency and engaging men and boys (WBG 2015). An update of the Gender Strategy is currently under preparation, with completion expected in 2024. SAR RGAP aligns with this broader strategy but is also selective and therefore focuses on the most pressing gender gaps in the region. SAR RGAP also follows the December 2021 IDA replenishment, aligning with all eight of its policy commitments for gender: (i) investing in women's empowerment, (ii) scaling up productive economic inclusion, (iii) expanding childcare, (iv) supporting medium, and high-skilled employment opportunities for women, (v) closing the gap in digital technology, (vi) strengthening women's land rights, (vii) increasing support for prevention of and response to GBV, and (viii) implementing fiscal policy and budget systems to close gender gaps
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  • 122
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (136 pages)
    Series Statement: International Development in Practice
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Abstract: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic underscored the need for many countries to develop more effective and accessible primary health care systems, as well as more efficient ways to quickly disperse and collect health information. Governments throughout the world-regardless of economic status-identified the need for robust digital health care solutions as an important element in attaining these goals. Telemedicine or health hotline services have shown for more than 60 years that they can help people to receive accurate and timely health information and make informed decisions about when to seek treatment. These services offer the ability to provide health information and care remotely, thereby extending the reach of the health care system, improving efficiencies, and enhancing the quality of care. Despite telemedicine's well-established benefits, few nationally scaled telemedicine or health hotline services exist-and even fewer are government owned. Health services that are stewarded by governments and embedded into public health systems are more likely to sustain impact at scale. However, many digital health solutions are set up for emergency response or with donor funding but are not embedded within the government systems and budgets. Other proposed solutions for national systems fail, despite their effectiveness or impact, because they are developed without government input and without a plan for government to eventually steward the solution. Planning National Telemedicine and Health Hotline Services: A Toolkit for Governments builds on the existing evidence to help governments establish successful and sustainable nationwide telemedicine or health hotline services. This toolkit lays out a multiphased approach to implementing these services that helps to ensure that governments are fully committed to providing longterm and sustainable services within the framework of the public health system. The phases include the initial assessments through technical considerations; setting up and scaling up these services; designing and implementing solutions; developing strategies and implementation roadmaps and budgets; and partnering with the private sector. The toolkit also provides helpful tools, for example, to cost out and design the system, contract with service providers, and engage mobile network operators
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  • 123
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Closing Gaps ; Gender and Economics ; Gender and Law ; Gender Equality ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Women's Legal Status
    Abstract: Djibouti has experienced a record of strong economic growth and has made considerable progress in various developmental indicators in recent years. Despite this important progress, major challenges remain as Djibouti's development has not been equitable nor inclusive, including from a gender perspective. Djibouti has experienced dynamic social change reflected in the considerable improvement over the years in women's rights and responsibilities as well as their access to opportunities, but the patriarchal societal structure and the disconnect between constitutional and legal frameworks continue to impede women. This gender assessment provides a comprehensive view of the status of women in Djibouti along three dimensions: endowments in human capital, economic opportunities, as well as voice and agency, which encompasses issues such as gender based violence, decision making, and political participation, among others
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  • 124
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Additionality ; Banking Sector ; Capacity Building ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Additionality ; Financial Collaboration ; Financial Competition ; Governance ; Non Bank Financial Institutions ; Nonfinancial Additionality
    Abstract: Additionality is a core feature of private sector development finance institutions (DFIs). It is the unique contribution that a DFI or a multilateral/ bilateral bank brings to a private investment project that is not offered by commercial sources of finance. The key idea is that the investment project should add value without crowding out private sector activity. Identifying and articulating project additionality is particularly important in middle- income countries (MICs) since financial markets in MICs are more developed, and private investment far exceeds official development assistance. This evaluation report examines the relevance and effectiveness of IFC's approach to additionality in MICs and seeks to explain the factors that contribute to or constrain its realization. While the evaluation focuses on IFC's additionality on the level of the project, it also applies the lens of country and sector context to draw additional learning. Thus, it considers whether additionality can occur beyond the level of a single project-for example, at the country and sector level. Both at the project level and beyond the project, the evaluation derives lessons and offers recommendations on how IFC can further strengthen its additionality
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  • 125
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2184
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Adaptation to Climate Change ; Digital Sector ; Economic Diversification ; Energy Supply ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Regional Trade Integration ; Taxation and Fiscal Policy
    Abstract: Economic Diversification in the DRC is hindered by a business environment and key regulatory and fiscal constraints that are not conducive to private sector-led growth. Policies aimed to address the main bottlenecks hindering sustainable and inclusive growth include: i) improving business regulation; ii) promoting access to digital, electricity, and financing; iii) addressing inefficient taxation and fiscal policy challenges; iv) encouraging fiscal decentralization; and v) attracting value chain development. The two case studies discussed in complementary reports are intended to better illustrate the opportunities and challenges described in the Country Economic Memorandum and considered important for economic diversification and job creation through structural transformation and stronger trade and regional integration. The focus is on two key potential growth-driving sectors (mining and agribusiness) that offer substantial opportunities for expansion in the context of global energy transition, food insecurity, and further regional integration. While opportunities and constraints specific to the EV battery-related mining and cassava value chain are presented (and include a climate dimension), most of the challenges and recommendations could also apply to several other products or sectors of the economy (e.g., maize or any manufactured or processed product). The purpose of the illustrative case studies is to highlight how the business environment in general is not attractive to private investment, SME expansion, or product competitiveness
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  • 126
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Adolescent Health ; Agriculture ; Education Indicators and Statistics ; Fiscal Consolidation ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gender Gaps ; Greening Agriculture ; Inflation ; Labor Markets ; Low Labor Force ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Western Balkans
    Abstract: In the context of weakening global demand, growth in the Western Balkans decelerated over the course of 2022 and into 2023. Against the background of the lasting effects of shocks from Russia's invasion of Ukraine, sticky inflation, and tighter financial conditions, global demand has been weakening, and this has a divergent impact across the Western Balkans (WB6). On the one hand, the slowdown in global demand contributed to weaker-than expected performance of industrial production in the whole European Union (EU) region and in the WB6. On the other hand, global demand has proved more resilient in services and, for travel, with twice as many people traveling globally during Q1 2023 as in the same period in 2022 (UNWTO). This has particularly benefited Albania, Kosovo, and Montenegro, where services exports have reached new record highs. In contrast, weakening global demand for goods has weighed on Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), North Macedonia and Serbia. On the demand side, private consumption remained in general an important growth driver, despite rising price pressures. Reforms are needed to consolidate the recovery toward sustainable growth, while negotiations with the EU hold the potential to bolster prospects in the Western Balkans. As the WB6 agriculture sector is undergoing a major structural transformation, efforts to green agriculture are also important to ensure access to the EU market and for the competitiveness of agriculture, rural development, and food and nutrition security. Most WB6 countries have recently included agriculture greening in their development strategies. Historically, the environmental footprint of the WB6 agriculture sector has been relatively low. But this has been more an unintended outcome of still high rurality and low farming intensity rather than a result of public policy and expenditure choices. Agricultural public expenditures, while substantial in terms of amounts and adequate to influence agricultural production, have not yet prioritized financing of greening and climate-smart agriculture. It is important for the WB6 countries to accelerate greening of their agriculture by learning from the EU's green transition and better utilization of the existing public funds available for agricultural development
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  • 127
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2201
    Keywords: Access To Employment ; Access To Public Transportation ; Bus Ticket Price ; Communities and Human Settlements ; Curriculum and Instruction ; Disability ; Early Childhood Development ; Gender ; Motorized Transport ; Traffic Congestion ; Urban Development ; Urban Mobility Trends
    Abstract: The Metropolitan Areas of Cordoba, Mendoza, Salta and Neuquen-Cipolletti were the focus of this analytical work. These metropolitan areas represent urban centers of different sizes and regions of the country, as they are in the Central, Cuyo, North and Patagonia regions, respectively. They also have a heterogeneity of characteristics in terms of population, mobility patterns, infrastructure, public services, and institutional frameworks, among other aspects relevant to the analysis. In short, they synthesize many of the multiple challenges faced by Argentine cities in terms of mobility. However, the data available to most transport planners in Argentina, including these four metropolitan areas, is inadequate to understand exactly how travel patterns have changed in recent years, what their drivers are, and what persistent changes might look like in the future. A World Bank report on Buenos Aires (2022) laid the analytical framework for replicating such a study in other cities, drawing on other data sources and using alternative tools to support a more comprehensive diagnosis of urban mobility
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  • 128
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Climate Impact on Girls ; Education ; Education For All ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Economics ; Gender Bias in Education ; Girls Life Choices ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development ; Systemic Gender Gaps ; Women and Girls Health ; Women's Agency ; Women's Economic Opportunity
    Abstract: This Overview presents the findings from the mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, illustrating the key gender gaps in the country and shedding light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. On the basis of the research findings, the Overview presents key gender gaps in Madagascar and proposes four strategic lines of policy recommendations to (i) assist girls and young women in completing school education, (ii) improve women's and girls' access to professional health care and prevent teenage pregnancy, (iii) enhance women's economic opportunities, and (iv) improve women's and girls' voice and agency through the elimination of all forms of gender-based violence. Four thematic notes accompany this Overview and present detailed findings in the four key dimensions: education, health, economic opportunities, and agency
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  • 129
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Education ; Education Indicators and Statistics ; Education Reform and Management ; Learning Acceleration ; Learning Poverty
    Abstract: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, global learning levels were unacceptably low. In 2019, learning poverty, the share of children unable to read and understand a simple text by age 10, had reached 57 percent in low- and middle-income countries (World Bank and others 2022b). This constituted a global learning crisis. Despite significant expansion in access to schooling in most low, and middle-income countries over the past 50 years to near-universal levels for primary school, progress in improving global learning levels had stalled. This report, Learning Recovery to Acceleration: A Global Update on Country Efforts to Improve Learning and Reduce Inequalities, takes stock of what countries have done so far to recover and accelerate learning since reopening schools, and what we have learned from their experience. It follows the RAPID Framework for Learning Recovery and Acceleration, which we published with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, U.K.'s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), UNESCO, UNICEF and USAID in 2022 as a menu of policy actions based on past evidence and on policies that many countries were already implementing. To a large extent, many of the policies and interventions needed to recover from the pandemic setbacks and accelerate learning are known. One lesson is clear: political and financial commitment are vital for improving learning and reducing inequality. Effective education strategies require societies' determination to make education a priority and devote the necessary human and financial resources to end the learning crisis. Policymakers, schools, and communities must work urgently to recover learning, tackle deep-rooted systemic challenges, and build resilience to future disruptions
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  • 130
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Fiscal Adjustment ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Health Care ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Revenue Mobilization ; Social Protection ; Spending Trends ; Taxes, Transfers and Equity
    Abstract: Having implemented a substantial fiscal response to COVID-19, Thailand's government now faces the medium-term challenge of reducing elevated deficit and debt levels, and the structural challenge of meeting rising spending needs, including those associated with an aging population, while maintaining fiscal sustainability. In this context, this Public Revenue and Spending Assessment sets out revenue and expenditure choices that will help to ensure a more inclusive and sustainable economy. This will require raising revenue, improving the efficiency of public spending, and ensuring that revenue and spending policy measures support the most vulnerable and are responsive to climate-related challenges. Within this overall framework, the report provides several recommendations to improve the quality of spending in the health, education, and social protection sectors, as well as a detailed assessment of fiscal policies that will contribute to the achievement of climate mitigation and adaptation goals
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  • 131
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Economic Impacts ; Employment ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Support ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Policies
    Abstract: More than three years after the first COVID-19 case was discovered in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region, it is time to take stock of the lasting effects-and opportunities-of the pandemic and identify which policies may have helped stem the economic losses suffered by households and firms. To do so, this regional report examines the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on households and firms in six countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. This volume examines: (a) the links between impacts on firms and households, in particular through the employment channel, and (b) governments' fiscal responses to the COVID crisis, through transfers, subsidies, and taxes. It identifies and explains changes in household well-being by examining the economic effects of the pandemic on labor markets. As the source of employment and wage income, businesses have a direct role in determining jobs and earnings, and, indirectly, welfare, poverty, and inequality. When faced with a shock, firms responded by adjusting employment, reducing wages, increasing prices, and reducing services provided. All of these channels directly affected households' wellbeing. For this reason, the report focuses on firms in addition to households. Governments responded through various instruments, providing transfers and subsidies and lowering the tax burden to both households and firms
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  • 132
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (114 pages)
    Series Statement: South Asia Development Matters
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Air Pollution ; Airsheds ; Clean Energy ; Cost-Effective Policy ; Geospatial Pollution Model ; Greenhouse Gas Emissions ; Particulate Matter ; Premature Deaths
    Abstract: South Asia is home to 9 of the world's 10 cities with the worst air pollution. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in some of the region's most densely populated and poor areas are up to 20 times higher than what the World Health Organization considers healthy (5 micrograms per cubic meter). This pollution causes an estimated 2 million premature deaths in the region each year and results in significant economic costs. Controlling air pollution is difficult without a better understanding of the activities that cause emissions of particulate matter. Air pollution travels long distances in South Asia and gets trapped in large 'airsheds' that are shaped by climatology and geography. 'Striving for Clean Air' identifies six major airsheds in the region and analyzes four scenarios for reducing air pollution with varying degrees of policy implementation and cooperation among countries. The analysis shows that cooperation between different jurisdictions within an airshed is crucial, and a schematic road map with three phases is proposed. The phases in the road map may overlap when the rate of progress differs, depending on local circumstances. Phase 1 would improve monitoring and institutions; Phase 2 would introduce additional and joint targets for cost-effective abatement; and Phase 3 would mainstream air quality in the economy
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  • 133
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2190
    Keywords: Education and Work ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Education ; Gender Based Violence ; Gender Equality ; Gender Norms ; Human Rights ; Informal Trading ; Labor Markets ; Labor Standards ; Law and Development ; Poverty ; Social Protections and Labor ; Teenage Pregnancies ; Women and Girls
    Abstract: Gender equality is a key foundation of inclusive and sustainable economic development that can translate into long-term and effective poverty reduction. While gender equality matters on its own as a human right, it also offers instrumental value for individuals, households, and societies at large. Global evidence consistently shows that empowering women and girls reduces poverty incidence and food insecurity, boosts economic growth and productivity, and enhances investments in children's human capital. Angola, a country where a third of the population lives in poverty and economic output is heavily dependent on its oil sector, stands out in Sub-Saharan Africa for its particularly large gender disparities, especially when compared to countries of same income levels. Family formation, education, and labor market decisions are intrinsically interwoven and connected, which in the case of Angola leads to extreme demographic pressure on an already weak public service system. To begin tackling these significant gender disparities, well-designed and targeted policies are needed. But there are significant knowledge gaps when it comes to understanding the key barriers facing Angolan girls and young women in accessing education and transitioning to the labor market. This report presents insights gained from the voices of young women and girls, their parents, and key informants through a series of interviews carried out in Luanda, home to a quarter of the country's population, in 2022. Based on these in-depth interviews with low-income young women in Luanda, this report points to the multiple challenges they face across their life cycle - challenges relating to the dimensions of education, family formation, and work. It also shows how those dimensions in a woman's life are deeply interconnected - and how they are determined by structural constraints including poverty and vulnerability, gender norms, corruption and lack of transparency in access to services and opportunities, and violence in public and private spheres
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  • 134
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: ALDFG ; Environment ; Fishing Gear ; Marine Plastic Pollution ; Persistent Organic Pollutants ; Plastic Waste ; Pollution Management and Control
    Abstract: In recent years, marine plastic pollution has emerged as a significant global issue. At the global level, it is estimated that 80 percent of all plastic pollution found in the marine environment originates from land-based sources and the remaining 20 percent from marine sources. Abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG), colloquially known as ghost gear, contribute significantly to plastic pollution in the ocean. Estimates of the contribution to ALDFG vary based on model and estimation techniques employed, and gear loss and impacts also vary by gear type. The physical impacts of ALDFG are well-documented and not only include entanglement and capture but also ingestion. Abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear, as with other marine plastic pollution, can travel long distances via winds and ocean currents before sinking, accumulating along shorelines, or converging in large plastic patches in the oceans, such as the one in the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BoBLME). The problem of ALDFG is global, though it varies in nature from location to location and is dependent on various factors. The lack of comprehensive monitoring makes it difficult to determine the extent of plastic pollution from fishing vessels, namely fishing gear. The first step requires the development of measurement systems and national baseline assessments to identify gaps and interventions. These interventions may take various forms, from enabling the substitutability of gear materials, to valorizing waste materials and providing better waste management systems to incentivize behavioral change. While such interventions present significant challenges, there is a critical need to inform policy development and provide institutional and investment recommendations to minimize the stream of plastic waste from fishing and fishing-related activities
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  • 135
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Business Environment ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Growth and Prices ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Payments ; Poverty Projections ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Public Finances
    Abstract: Private sector participation in the Tajik economy is relatively large, but dynamism is very low. Analysis with micro-level data points to multiple weaknesses: low entry rate, low productivity, limited integration to trade, low incidence of innovation, and limited capabilities. Also revealing is that private firms struggle to grow as they age. All these aspects reflect a business environment that does not reward the more efficient firms or those with the highest growth potential. The Covid-19 effects brought additional challenges to this low-level equilibrium scenario with shocks in sales and financial distress. The silver line aspect stems from the increasing use of digital technologies. Still, the apparent digital divide regarding firm size poses questions on the real implications for future productivity performance. Against this backdrop, and to tackle the long-term weaknesses of the private sector in Tajikistan, it is crucial to remove barriers that prevent the reallocation of resources towards more productive firms so that the private sector becomes more efficient and able to generate more and better jobs. In this case, and to prioritize measures that maximize effects on aggregate demand in the short-medium-run, it is crucial to give precedence to structural policies that remove impediments to firm entry and expansion of the private sector. Three sets of barriers deserve particular attention: (i) barriers to competition, (ii) barriers to foreign direct investment, and (iii) trade barriers. These barriers must be tackled together because they all reinforce each other regarding firms' competitiveness
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  • 136
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Competition ; Economic Growth ; ICT Applications ; Inclusion ; Increased Productivity ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Linkages ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Services Sector ; Technology ; Trade
    Abstract: Kenya's economy has been growing solidly but maintaining and increasing growth will depend on increasing private investment and productivity. Between 2010 and 2019, Kenya maintained a steady annual growth rate of 5 percent and the economy was able to rebound relatively rapidly from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, productivity growth did not make much of a contribution to output growth, and growth has been lower than that of some other, fast-growing middle-income countries. This points to the potential for Kenya to increase growth via productivity gains, by expanding the role of the private sector and, especially, accelerating private investment. Doing this has become more urgent as the Government's fiscal space to invest has shrunk, making it crucial also for the sustainability of growth to identify new opportunities for the private sector to contribute. This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) focuses on the question of how seizing opportunities in Kenya's services sector can contribute more effectively to long-term economic growth. This report argues that growing the services sector should not be seen as an alternative to industrialization, but rather as an enabler of economy-wide growth, including in manufacturing, and in agriculture too. It focuses on five channels through which services contribute to jobs, economic transformation and inclusion: (i) the need to SHIFT the services sector to higher value-added activities; (ii) how to LINK services better to other economic activities to grow its enabling role; (iii) how to BOOST the productivity of the sector through technology and increasing competition; (iv) how to TRADE more services through removing regulatory barriers to trade and investment; and finally (v) how to SECURE people's economic livelihoods better, especially those working in lower-skilled and economically more vulnerable services subsectors. Growing the contribution of services will require a program of structural reforms and complementary efforts
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  • 137
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Environmental Shocks ; Fiscal System ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty and Equity ; Poverty Reduction ; Urban Areas
    Abstract: This report relies on several data sources. The main source providing the poverty, inequality and labor figures herein is the 2019/20 Household Budget Survey (Inquerito sobre Orcamento Familiar, IOF2019/2020) conducted by the National Statistical Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, INE) starting in November 2019 and spanning 13 months. The survey's sample was drawn from the 2017 Census and allows for poverty figures to be representative at national and provincial as well as rural and urban levels. The fieldwork included data collection from 13,297 households interviewed across four quarters as in previous surveys, to account for seasonality effects like the impact on households' consumption of relatively more abundant post-harvest periods. The starting point for the analysis is chapter 1, which synthesizes progress in reducing poverty between 2014-15 and 2019-20. This chapter also looks at the regional distribution of poverty, the impact of the pandemic, multidimensional poverty, the profile of the poor, changes in the responsiveness of poverty to growth, discusses trends in non-monetary dimensions of wellbeing, and simulates future poverty trends. Chapter 2 examines the distribution of growth and inequality reduction over the period, the pandemic's impact, discusses the growth-poverty-inequality relationship, assesses the spatial dimensions of poverty, and estimates the Human Opportunity Index for Mozambique. Chapter 3 focuses on labor markets and provides insights into labor force participation, unemployment, underemployment, employment sectors, child labor, and labor market demand conditions. Chapter 4 presents a fiscal incidence analysis and information on transfers. Chapter 5 examines the relevance of environmental shocks, assesses the impact of weather events on agricultural production and night-time light radiance in urban areas. It also models poverty and distributional impacts of climate change shocks and presents findings on climate change literacy in Mozambique. Finally, chapter 6 discusses a variety of policy implications
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  • 138
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Empowerment ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender Equity ; Gender Gaps ; Women and Girls
    Abstract: As gender equity becomes more central to social and economic development, practitioners are increasingly focused on women and girls' empowerment as a sustainable way to enhance well-being and close gender gaps. The operational approach to women and girls' empowerment can guide practitioners in systematically translating the concept of empowerment into project designs. While World Bank projects are fairly effective at providing women and girls with the resources they need to reach their desired achievements, interventions that affect agency and context are much more scarce. This literature review is intended to provide a curated set of examples of interventions that aim to affect the context and agency factors impeding women's and girls' empowerment. The paper starts from the assumption that practitioners are increasingly convinced of the importance of addressing the three pillars of empowerment, but they are unfamiliar with evidence-based context and agency interventions. Information about effective initiatives is dispersed, often leaving task teams to start from zero rather than drawing on prior experience. This paper sorts through the literature and presents some of the most effective examples of agency and context interventions in developing countries
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  • 139
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Education ; Education Reform and Management ; Evolving Skills ; Labor Markets ; Low-Income Countries ; Middle-Income Countries ; Social Protections and Labor ; Technical and Vocational Education and Training ; TVET
    Abstract: Reform of formal technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is urgently needed in most low- and middle-income countries. Demographic trends, coupled with higher rates of students completing lower levels of education, can lead to an exponential increase in the number of secondary TVET students in the next 20 years, particularly in low-income countries (LICs). However, there are significant risks attached to expanding a system that is often considered a second-tier educational track and to which challenged learners are often directed. Because of a broken link between TVET systems and labor markets in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs, together: L/MICs), TVET cannot deliver on its promise. The urgency is compounded by megatrends associated with globalization, technological progress, demographic transformation, and climate change, which affect both skills demand and the distribution of economic opportunities. This report offers guidance to policymakers designing and implementing TVET reforms, emphasizing core principles and practical considerations for L/MICs. There is much to be learned from recent L/MIC reform experiences like those in Bangladesh, El Salvador, and Mongolia, about identifying effective reform strategies and the likely impact of megatrends on future demand for TVET. The report focuses on secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary formal TVET, defined as TVET obtained within the formal education system that leads to diplomas, degrees, or other formal certifications. This overview, summarizing the main messages from the report, has three parts. The first, the TVET Promise, looks at the potential of TVET systems to deliver access to equitable, quality, and relevant training and contribute to employment and productivity. The second, the TVET Challenge, articulates the main limitations in practice for L/MIC TVET systems. The third, the Way Forward to Better TVET, proposes three interrelated transformations (three E's) and six policy priorities to help TVET deliver on its promise in L/MICs
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  • 140
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: CDD Livelihood Projects ; Economic Growth ; Ecosystem Approach ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Kdrdip ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Women ; Women's Economic Empowerment
    Abstract: This paper aims to answer two important questions: how traditional CDD livelihood projects can adjust or adopt practices to strengthen women's economic empowerment outcomes, and how government and other development actors can employ an ecosystem approach to develop coordinated and sustainable local economic development on a larger scale. To answer these questions, the paper draws on a mixed-methods study of the Kenya Development Response to Displacement Impacts Project (KDRDIP), a traditional CDD livelihood program, along with an analysis of other WEE programs in the region and worldwide. The paper offers useful recommendations and insights for practitioners and policymakers
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  • 141
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Economic Cost ; Environmental Disasters and Degradation ; Environmental Economics and Policies ; Environmental Protection ; Marine Plastic Waste ; Plastic Pollution ; Pollution Mitigation ; Public Health Risks
    Abstract: Rapidly growing, unregulated plastic litter has created a multitude of environmental and economic problems worldwide. With an estimated lifetime of centuries, plastic waste has become a major stressor in marine ecosystems. In West Africa, the use of plastic products has proliferated with urbanization, and their unregulated disposal has created a host of terrestrial and marine-related environmental problems. This study aims to help decision-makers better understand the economics of marine plastic-waste generation and its cleanup, with a focus on West African coastal countries. To aid the policy process to reduce marine plastic pollution, it addresses the following key questions: - What is the economic cost to society of marine plastic waste? - How does this cost compare with the pollution mitigation cost, using various incentive-based, command-and control approaches for pollution prevention and the cost of plastic waste removal through cleaning, recycling, and safe disposal? - Would general economic measures (for example, tariffs on imported polyethylene) significantly reduce pollution from single-use plastics? - Are there trade-offs between plastic pollution prevention and any other social objectives related to policymaking? How should cost-effective cleanups be implemented?
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  • 142
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Sector/Thematic Studies
    Keywords: Decentralized Identifier ; DID ; Digital Identity ; Digital Technology ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Private Sector ; Public Sector ; Security and Privacy ; Self-Sovereign Identity
    Abstract: An identification card that proves a person's identity is essential in modern society. It allows individuals to access various online and in-person public services by verifying their identity. Through an identity (ID) card, government services such as civil complaints, taxation, health care, insurance, and pension can be smoothly provided. In some cases, the ID card may contain additional information, such as home address or eligibility for certain services, which can be used to verify your identity and eligibility for certain benefits. ID cards are crucial for accessing public - and private - services where the individuals need to verify the information. However, most IDs are issued and controlled by external authorities and information is shared and revoked upon the request. A decentralized identifier (DID) is a new type of globally unique persistent identifier that does not require centralized registration authorities. Repeatedly generated and registered cryptographically, DIDs enable a new model of decentralized digital identity, which is referred as self-sovereign identity or decentralized identity. This sometimes allows users to verify information rapidly without having to contact multiple issuing parties. This 4th issue in the Emerging Technology series briefly describes the DID and its potential for solving development challenges, alongside key highlights of Korea's experience and lessons learned in regard to the exploration and adoption of emerging technologies
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  • 143
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Blue Economy ; Ecosystems and Natural Habitats ; Environment ; Knowledge Gaps ; Marine and Coastal Resources ; Policies ; Spatial Planning
    Abstract: Cambodia's coastlines make up a vital component of Cambodia's national economy, contributing to the country's growth, employment, and food security. In addition, Cambodia's coastal areas provide critical ecosystem services (ES) that provide natural protection to coastal communities against adverse impacts of climate change. The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) is increasingly recognizing this importance and taking steps to harness the potential of the Blue Economy to ensure the sustainable use of marine and coastal resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, andjobs, while preserving the health of the ocean ecosystem. This report is intended to provide an analysis of, and subsequent recommendations for, Cambodia's sustainable Blue Economy development. Here we focus on three fundamental areas related to marine policy, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and coastal livelihoods including blue growth sectors. We consolidate existing knowledge and data related to Cambodia's marine and coastal resources and provide recommendations to support the development of a sustainable Blue Economy for Cambodia which can serve as an input for the RGC in the development of its own national blue economy plan or strategy
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  • 144
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Anti-Money Laundering ; Dollarization ; Financial Integrity ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Money Laundering ; Tax Invasion
    Abstract: The systemic failure of Lebanon's banking system and the collapse of the currency have resulted in a large, dollarized cash-based economy, worth an estimated USD 9.86 billion or 45.7 percent of GDP in 2022 (Special Focus: Gauging the Size of the Cash Economy in Lebanon). A pervasive and growing dollarized cash economy is a major impediment to Lebanon's economic recovery. It not only threatens to compromise the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy, but also heightens the risk of money laundering, increases informality, and prompts further tax evasion. Moreover, the increasing reliance on cash transactions also threatens to completely reverse the progress that Lebanon made pre-crisis towards enhancing its financial integrity by instituting robust anti-money laundering mechanisms in its commercial banking sector
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  • 145
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Economic Development ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Human Capital ; Inclusive Growth ; Macroeconomic Instability ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Productivity ; Volatility
    Abstract: The Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) focuses on long-term growth, outlining the challenges Papua New Guinea (PNG) faces to achieve sufficient economic growth to expand the incomes of its rapidly growing population as well as what is required for PNG to make the transition to a higher, more stable, and more inclusive growth path. PNG's modest headline economic growth has translated into limited per capita income growth in the past four decades. While the economy expanded by 3.2 percent on average during 1980-2021, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) recorded an average annual growth rate of only 0.9 percent. Moreover, the gap between PNG's per capita income level and those of its peer countries has widened. Despite being at a similar level of development in the 1970s and having enormous natural wealth, PNG's income level is diverging away from the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region. This calls for a renewed policy focus on boosting economic growth, by addressing PNG's excessive macroeconomic volatility, low productivity growth, and high reliance on natural capital as opposed to human and physical capital
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  • 146
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Circular Economy ; Construction ; Environment ; Environmental Economics and Policies ; Fisheries ; Packaging ; Plastic Pollution
    Abstract: The circular economy has become a priority in recent decades as policy makers seek to facilitate a transition from linear production systems to closed systems that reuse resources, reduce energy consumption and avoid the exploitation of nonrenewable resources. This regional gap analysis reveals several important trends. Key among them is a rapid rate of increase. Plastic consumption in the WACA region was estimated at 7.9 million tons in 2021; at current growth rates, this could increase to 12 million tons by 2026. The WACA region relies heavily on imported plastic-related goods from sources outside the region, such as Asia. Nigeria was found to be both the largest producer of plastic products and the biggest importer of plastic parts and products, in addition to being the WACA region's only producer of virgin plastic resin. Other notable major producers of plastics in the WACA region include Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire. The plastic landscape investigation included a spatial analysis of plastic waste generation across the WACA region. This revealed varying rates of national annual plastic generation. The spatial analysis work also led to the identification of 71 plastic waste generation hotspots across the WACA region, with a concentration in Nigeria. The plastic market analysis revealed that the three industry sectors (construction, plastic packaging, and fisheries) represented 78 percent of total plastic consumption in 2021. By 2026, the three sectors' business-as-usual plastic consumption is expected to reach 9.5 million tons, with per capita plastic waste growing from 12.5 kilograms (kg) to 17.3 kg. The largest plastics consumer of the three sectors is plastic packaging, followed by construction. The plastic packaging sector could focus on new, circular economy business models over the next five years. In this sector, plastic waste recovery and avoidance/reuse/recycling of between 2.2 and 4 million tons of plastic in a "pragmatic" 1 circular scenario would reduce CO 2 emissions between 41 and 53 percent (3.6-6.7 million tons CO 2 emissions). In the construction industry, in a pragmatic circular scenario plastic avoidance would reduce CO 2 emissions between 0.1 and 0.3 million tons, and plastic waste recovery would reduce CO 2 emissions between 0.1 and 0.2 million tons. Finally, in the fisheries sector, plastic avoidance under the pragmatic circular scenario would reduce CO 2 emissions between 0.03 and 0.05 million tons, and plastic waste recovery would reduce CO 2 emissions between 0.04 and 0.07 million tons. New circular business models can motivate these three sectors to reuse and extend the life span of plastic materials
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  • 147
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Circular Economy ; Environment ; Environmental Disasters and Degradation ; Marine Environment ; Plastic Pollutine
    Abstract: Plastic pollution is a worldwide environmental challenge. In coastal West Africa, about 80 percent of plastic waste is mismanaged, posing escalating challenges to people, the economy, and the coastal and marine environment. This Synthesis Paper was prepared to inform decision-makers from the region about the challenges of plastic pollution and to convey the urgent need for action
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  • 148
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Sector/Thematic Studies
    Keywords: Creativity and Scalability ; Disaster Relief ; Efficiency and Productivity ; Explicit Density Models ; Generative AI ; Implicit Density Models ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Infrastructure Development ; Machine Learning
    Abstract: Generative artificial intelligence (AI) has been developing rapidly and has attracted significant attention in recent years, with numerous advances and breakthroughs. The generative AI market is expected to grow from 1.5 billion dollars in 2021 to 6.5 billion dollars by 2026 - a compound annual growth rate of 34.9 percent. Acknowledging the growing importance of generative AI in research and practical applications, including its use to solve international development challenges, this report provides a comprehensive overview of generative AI, introduces the basics, explains its development over time, and examines its types and applications. After highlighting the benefits and capabilities of generative AI, the report explores how it can be applied in various industries such as health care, manufacturing, media, and entertainment and then discusses potential opportunities and limitations users must consider. Finally, it describes initiatives and strategies that the Korean government and private sector players have implemented to adopt and advance generative AI in Korea and the global marketplace. The fifth issue in the Emerging Technology series, generative AI is the result of a collaboration effort of the World Bank Group Information Technology Solutions Technology and the World Bank Korea Country Office. The series captures new technology and trends and shares knowledge to help solve international development challenges
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  • 149
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Consistency ; Equity ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Health Financing ; Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Impartiality ; UHC ; Universal Health Coverage
    Abstract: The report offers decision support on fair processes for policy choices relating to health financing for universal health coverage (UHC). It opens by making the case for why fair processes matter for health financing. It argues that procedural fairness contributes to fairer outcomes, strengthens the legitimacy of decision processes, builds trust in authorities, and promotes the sustainability of reforms on the path to UHC. The report then describes key health financing decisions with an impact on equity in service coverage and financial protection, where issues of procedural fairness are particularly important. Next, it offers principles and criteria for designing and assessing the processes around these health financing decisions and provides suggestions for how to make them fairer. Finally, the report examines country experiences with diverse instruments that can be used to operationalize principles and criteria for fair processes in health financing decision-making
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  • 150
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2190
    Keywords: Commercial Properties ; Gender ; Gender and Economics ; Law and Development ; Property Taxes ; Residential Properties ; Tax Law ; Women
    Abstract: This knowledge note provides new evidence on property ownership and taxation patterns across genders in Sao Paulo (Brazil), the largest city in the Americas, with 12 million inhabitants. We exploit microdata on all commercial and residential properties to document the share of total property and property wealth owned by women, the geographic distribution of female-owned properties, and the implications of this data for property taxes in the city
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  • 151
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2203
    Keywords: Disease Control and Prevention ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; NCDs ; Non-Communicable Diseases ; Prevention and Control ; Primary Health Care
    Abstract: This report aims to assess the current role and scope of private health care provision for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Republika Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federation of BiH). Over the last decade, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in the Republika Srpska and the Federal Ministry of Health have implemented municipal initiatives to reduce NCD risk factor exposure and formulate an action plan for NCD control. These efforts have been supported by development partners, including the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the World Bank, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The assessment recommends actions that the health authorities in Republika Srpska and the Federation of BiH can take to better engage private providers in tackling NCDs. In mixed health systems, improving NCD prevention and control requires effective partnerships between the public and private sector and establishing an effective regulatory and financialcontext to contribute to progress towards Universal Health Coverage
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  • 152
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Climate Change ; Decarbonization ; Development ; Environment ; Resilience
    Abstract: The Azerbaijan Country Climate and Development Report assesses how the country can reduce its vulnerability to climate shocks and the risks emerging from the global low-carbon transition while protecting the living standards of its people and reaping opportunities of a new climate economy. It argues that regardless of the pace of global mitigation efforts, decarbonization is in Azerbaijan's economic self-interest. It highlights that the country faces considerable risks from future physical climate impacts potentially disrupting its sectors like agriculture and others. Finally, the report shows that climate action is affordable if supported by the right set of policies - some of which are already envisaged by the country's 2022-2026 Socio-economic Development Strategy but not yet implemented like a phase-out of fossil fuels subsidies - aimed at catalyzing private sector investment in decarbonization and resilience."
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  • 153
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Air Pollution ; Air Quality and Clean Air ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Communities and Human Settlements ; Environment ; GHG ; Low-Carbon ; Natural Disasters ; Resilience ; Sustainable Cities
    Abstract: Sierra Leone is highly vulnerable to natural hazards whose impacts are exacerbated by unplanned rapid urbanization. The main victims of climate change risks and impacts in urban Sierra Leone are the urban poor who also bear the brunt of multiple crises such as Ebola and Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19). In response to these impacts, local councils are front and center in implementing climate action activities in Sierra Leone. Therefore, this report situates local councils at the center of climate action. By focusing at the urban and community level, it has three objectives: (i) Identify the risks and impacts of climate change, (ii) Explore what local councils are already doing, and (iii) Determine what they could do more of, or better
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