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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank Gender Thematic Policy Notes Series
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Economic Development ; Fragility, Conflict and Violence ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Development ; Gender and Employment ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Private Sector Development ; Social Development
    Abstract: Fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) significantly impact women and girls, exacerbating gender-based violence and limiting access to rights and services due to weakened institutions. Positive changes can emerge from crises, providing opportunities to reshape social norms and empower women. Achieving gender equality in these settings requires tailored approaches that consider local dynamics and involve influential non-state actors. The World Bank Group's experience suggests that partnerships, strengthened laws, and inclusive policies can enhance outcomes. Sustainable progress demands increased investment, innovation in data collection, and collaboration among governments, NGOs, and the private sector to address these complex challenges effectively
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Jamaica assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Jamaica perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Jamaica on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Jamaica; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Jamaica; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Jamaica; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Jamaica
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Mongolia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Mongolia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Mongolia on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Mongolia; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Mongolia; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Mongolia; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Mongolia
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Zimbabwe assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Zimbabwe perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Zimbabwe on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Zimbabwe; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Zimbabwe; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Zimbabwe; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Zimbabwe
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Ghana assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Ghana perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Ghana on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Ghana; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Ghana; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Ghana; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Ghana
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Serbia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Serbia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Serbia on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Serbia; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Serbia; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Serbia; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Serbia
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Guinea assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Guinea perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Guinea on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Guinea; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Guinea; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Guinea; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Guinea
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Kenya assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Kenya perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Kenya on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Kenya; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Kenya; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Kenya; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Kenya
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Uzbekistan assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Uzbekistan perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Uzbekistan on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Uzbekistan; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Uzbekistan; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Uzbekistan; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Uzbekistan
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Financial Aid ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Azerbaijan assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Azerbaijan perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Azerbaijan on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Azerbaijan; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Azerbaijan; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Azerbaijan; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Azerbaijan
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Turkiye assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Turkiye perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Turkiye on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Turkiye; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Turkiye; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Turkiye; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Turkiye
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in the Kyrgyz Republic assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in the Kyrgyz Republic perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in the Kyrgyz Republic on 1) their views regarding the general environment in the Kyrgyz Republic; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in the Kyrgyz Republic; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in the Kyrgyz Republic; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in the Kyrgyz Republic
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Mali assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Mali perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Mali on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Mali; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Mali; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Mali; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Mali
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Fiji assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Fiji perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Fiji on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Fiji; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Fiji; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Fiji; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Fiji
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Financial Aid ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Algeria assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Algeria perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Algeria on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Algeria; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Algeria; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Algeria; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Algeria
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Cabo Verde assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Cabo Verde perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Cabo Verde on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Cabo Verde; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Cabo Verde; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Cabo Verde; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Cabo Verde
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Aid Effectiveness ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; World Bank Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Sao Tome and Principe assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Sao Tome and Principe perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Sao Tome and Principe on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Sao Tome and Principe; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Sao Tome and Principe; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Sao Tome and Principe; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Sao Tome and Principe
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Montenegro assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Montenegro perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Montenegro on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Montenegro; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Montenegro; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Montenegro; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Montenegro
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Accessibility ; Child-Focused ; Curriculum and Instruction ; Disability ; Education ; Education Reform and Management ; Inclusive Education ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: This report presents a review of different approaches in service delivery being implemented in the regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA) to ensure the inclusion of children with disabilities in education. The review examines in what ways (and the extent to which) different approaches have been operationalized and contextualized to enable the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream education systems, focusing specifically on primary schooling
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Climate Impact on Girls ; Education ; Education For All ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Economics ; Gender Bias in Education ; Girls Life Choices ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development ; Systemic Gender Gaps ; Women and Girls Health ; Women's Agency ; Women's Economic Opportunity
    Abstract: This Overview presents the findings from the mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, illustrating the key gender gaps in the country and shedding light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. On the basis of the research findings, the Overview presents key gender gaps in Madagascar and proposes four strategic lines of policy recommendations to (i) assist girls and young women in completing school education, (ii) improve women's and girls' access to professional health care and prevent teenage pregnancy, (iii) enhance women's economic opportunities, and (iv) improve women's and girls' voice and agency through the elimination of all forms of gender-based violence. Four thematic notes accompany this Overview and present detailed findings in the four key dimensions: education, health, economic opportunities, and agency
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Domestic Violence ; Gender ; Gender and Rural Development ; Gender and Social Policy ; Gender Norms ; Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) ; Law and Development ; Prevalence of Gender-Based Violence ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development ; Social Norms ; Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) ; Women's Labor Force Participation
    Abstract: The economy of Chile, with a total population of approximately 19.493.185 by 2021, is undergoing an adjustment phase after a remarkable expansion in 2021, with real gross domestic product (GDP) growth dropping to 2.4 percent in 2022 due to normalized consumption and contractionary policies. This economic adjustment is predicted to continue during the first half of 2023, as consumption is expected to fall further amid weakened household liquidity and labor market. The Chilean economy is based on the exploitation of agricultural, fishing, forest, and mining resources. Chile has made several improvements in gender parity, but violence against women remains a significant problem in the country. As the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the problem of gender-based violence, women's labor force participation rate reduced by 10 percentage points as well as several other indicators have been affected negatively
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Armed Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Development Indicators ; Financial Market Monitor ; Human Welfare Indicators ; Macroeconomic Outlook ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Yemen Economic Monitor provides an update on key economic developments and policies over the past six months. It also presents findings from recent World Bank work on Yemen. The Monitor places these developments, policies, and findings in a longer-term and global context and assesses their implications for Yemen's outlook. Its coverage ranges from the macro economy to financial markets to human welfare and development indicators. It is intended for a wide audience, including policy makers, development partners, business leaders, financial market participants, and the community of analysts and professionals engaged in Yemen
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Cash Transfers ; COVID-19 ; Labor Market ; Pensions ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; Poverty ; Social Analysis ; Social Assessment ; Social Development ; Social Funds ; Social Protection System ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: A period of economic growth over the past decade led to a reduction in poverty and improvements in labor market outcomes in Montenegro. Substantial challenges remain, which have been aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, drawing attention to the role that social protection plays in reducing poverty and promoting human capital. This note presents a situational analysis of the social protection system in Montenegro. It assesses the extent to which the social protection system in Montenegro fulfils its purpose and proposes areas for reform in the short, medium, and long term. To this end, this note seeks to assess each category of social protection, namely: social assistance, social services, social insurance (specifically pensions) and labor market programs, in terms of program coverage, equity, sustainability and effectiveness
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Contraceptive Use ; Cutting ; Education ; Female Genital Mutilation ; Gender ; Gender and Health ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Poverty ; Gender-Based Violence ; Girls Education Status ; Maternal Health Access ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development ; Women's Access To Health Services ; Women's Agency ; Women's Economic Opportunity
    Abstract: Evidence shows that Guinean women and girls face important barriers across all dimensions of well-being that prevent them from having access to opportunities on an equal footing with men. The poor agency of women and girls, as reflected in the high prevalence of discriminatory legal and social norms, translates into gaps in health, education, employment, and entrepreneurship, ultimately undermining their capacity to fulfill their potential and imposing important societal costs. This report presents a summary of the key challenges facing Guinean women and girls relative to men and boys. The report has a particular focus on early family formation, a common phenomenon in the country with important implications for girls' and women's well-being and opportunities in life. On the basis of this diagnostic and a review of evidence of what works, the report proposes some strategic lines of action to address the existing constraints and effectively empower Guinean women
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Civil Service Reform Roadmap ; Conflict and Development ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Balance ; Fiscal Risk ; Government Revenue Composition ; Macro-Fiscal Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Post Conflict Reconstruction ; Public Expenditure Review ; Public Wage Bill ; Social Development ; Social Risk Management
    Abstract: Honduras remains one of the poorest and most unequal countries in the Western Hemisphere. Structural exposure to external shocks and natural hazards go hand in hand with high levels of crime, political instability, and a weak institutional and business environment. These problems have undermined the country's competitiveness and economic diversification, propelled emigration, and slowed progress toward raising incomes, reducing poverty, and tackling exclusion. Vulnerability to external shocks, natural hazards, and fiscal risks constitute important development challenges. The compound effect of the pandemic and two hurricanes in 2020 underscored the fragility of economic and poverty gains, and Honduras's exposure to potential reversals. Substantial fiscal risks coupled with insufficient risk management and inefficient and rigid public spending constrain the country's capacity to respond efficiently and effectively to shocks. The crucial challenge faced by Honduran policy makers is to reinforce fiscal resilience to achieve, to protect, and to sustain income and poverty gains. This Public Expenditure Review (PER) considers key fiscal challenges faced by policy makers to strengthen fiscal resilience and sustainability: significant fiscal risks and the high public wage bill
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: Environment ; Gender ; Gender and Environment ; Inclusive Development ; Materials Management ; Plastic Pollution Reduction ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions ; Vulnerable Women Inclusion ; Waste Disposal and Utilization ; Waste Management
    Abstract: This report focuses on the role of key stakeholders (policy makers, waste management practitioners, civil society, informal workers' organizations, and the private sector) in contributing to pollution reduction in South Asia while also enhancing livelihood prospects for informal waste workers-the most vulnerable of whom tend to be women. The report also demonstrates how reducing pollution and enhancing livelihood prospects are commercially sound strategies for companies and investors. Through examining the role of women in South Asia's plastic waste management systems and the challenges they face the report provides recommendations for collaborative action to improve and safeguard women's livelihoods in this sector More specifically, it examines the role of women in South Asia's plastic waste management systems and the challenges they face and provides recommendations for collaborative action to improve and safeguard women's livelihoods in this sector. Plastic pollution requires 'upstream' (waste prevention, such as reuse and repair) and 'downstream' (waste management, including recycling) solutions (Pew and SYSTEMIQ 2020). Upstream and downstream solutions fall under the broad definition of 'materials management'. The report focuses primarily on the 'downstream' aspect and key vulnerable actors, who face an imminent threat of displacement, but highlights the need to better understand and engage with vulnerable actors within upstream solutions as well
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Child Marriage ; Fertility Decision Making ; Forced Marriage ; GBV Prevention ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Law ; Gender-Based Violence (GBV) ; Human Rights ; Law and Development ; Limitations On Decision-Making ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note provides in-depth analysis of the limitations that Malagasy women and girls encounter in respect to their agency and proposes several strategic lines of action to improve women's and girls' voice and decision-making and to eliminate all forms of GBV. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: education, health, and economic opportunities
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access To Educaton ; Becoming Upper-Middle-Income ; Economics of Education ; Education ; Gender and Education ; Gender Inequity ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Girls Education Gap ; High Stunting Rate ; Human Capital Investment ; Skill Utilization ; Social Development
    Abstract: Pakistan can realize major economic growth and development by investing in its people and their human capital. But the reality is that Pakistan's human capital is low and has improved only marginally over the past three decades. Inequalities in human capital outcomes have persisted or widened over time between the rich and poor, men and women, and rural and urban areas and among the provinces. Human capital outcomes are low across the board, with even the most economically advantaged groups in Pakistan having lower human capital outcomes than less economically advantaged groups in peer countries. Pakistan's Human Capital Index (HCI) value of 0.41 is low in both absolute and relative terms. It is lower than the South Asia average of 0.48, with Bangladesh at 0.46 and Nepal at 0.49. Pakistan's human capital outcomes are more comparable to those in Sub-Saharan Africa, which has an average HCI value of 0.40. To enhance its human capital, Pakistan should adopt a life cycle approach to building, protecting, and deploying human capital, starting before birth, continuing through early childhood development, and schooling, culminating in increasingly productive employment. This calls for a long-term commitment, recognition of the multidimensional and cumulative nature of human capital investments, deliberate efforts from multiple stakeholders and sectors to build on intersectoral linkages, and a continuity of policies across political parties and governments. Many countries previously at Pakistan's level of development have managed to precisely do this, even with regional variations and gaps just as large. Pakistan has the tools to implement the recommendations in this report, provide stewardship for human capital investments, and enhance economic growth over the long term. Pakistan's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown that the country can manage complex challenges, despite its institutional constraints
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: GBV ; Gender and Health ; Gender and Law ; Gender Based Violence ; Gender Inequality ; Prevention and Response ; Sexual Abuse ; Sexual Exploitation ; Sexual Harassment ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions ; Women
    Abstract: Gender-based violence (GBV) represents a critical barrier to development globally. As the most extreme manifestation of gender inequality and the most prevalent form of violence worldwide, its impacts extend far beyond individual survivors, with implications for the productivity and well-being of families and communities, often across generations. This report reviews progress on GBV prevention and response in World Bank lending operations over the past decade finding that the institution offers unique entry points across all sectors in which it works to expand work on GBV. Critical investments in staff's technical capacity, purposeful high quality analytical work to inform project design and implementation, and partnerships at the global, national, and local levels have driven the exponential progress on this agenda. Drawing on the lessons learned from a comprehensive review of the portfolio, interviews with staff and consultations with practitioners, donors and researchers in this area of work, the report lays out a guiding vision for deepening the work on GBV prevention and response in the decade ahead
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Demographic Change ; Diversity ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Inclusivity ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Megatrends ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions ; Sustainable Growth ; Technological Change
    Abstract: In 2022, Brazil celebrated its 200th anniversary. What will Brazil celebrate at its 220th anniversary, in 2042? Following the recent elections there is a window of opportunity for reforms that will shape Brazil's development over the next decades. "The Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability" takes a long-term perspective on Brazil's development, exploring how prudent actions today can generate opportunities for a more prosperous, inclusive, and sustainable society over the next 20 years. The report aims to stimulate public debate about a virtuous cycle for 2042, illustrated by four alternative future scenarios. With the right reforms Brazil can become an economic powerhouse that offers opportunities for all. A more inclusive social contract can facilitate critical reforms
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access To Justice ; Barriers ; Discrimination ; Gender ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Social Policy ; Gender Identity ; Law and Development ; Law and Justice Institutions ; Legal Framework ; LGBTI ; Sexual Orientation ; Social Analysis ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI) people face significant social and legal vulnerabilities and disparities in accessing justice. LGBTI people are more vulnerable to bias, discrimination, harassment, and violence due to their real or perceived Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics (SOGIESC). Despite some legal protections, few LGBTI people report cases of violence and other bias-motivated incidents to the police, and even fewer complaints proceed to court. The barriers that LGBTI people experience in accessing justice are rooted in societal homophobia, transphobia, their own fear to report incidents, a disconnect between formal laws and their implementation, and a lack of skills and knowledge among personnel in key justice institutions to effectively respond to the needs of LGBTI people. In most countries, including in the Western Balkans, government responses to discrimination and violence against LGBTI people are inadequate, as highlighted by previous research undertaken by the World Bank. The lack of safe reporting structures and inaction when cases are reported dissuades LGBTI people from engaging with the justice system, which limits their ability to have their rights fully protected. This report is organized in four parts. Part A provides the rationale for the research and outlines the research methodology. Part B includes an examination of the Serbian legal framework, the experience of Serbian LGBTI people accessing justice mechanisms, circumstances where LGBTI people in Serbia face discrimination or exclusion from justice based on their Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI), and a broader examination of the structural barriers to Serbian LBGTI people accessing justice. Part C outlines a collection of policy actions to address the barriers to access, the agencies best suited to steward the reforms, and anticipated timelines. Finally, the stakeholders who were interviewed and the questionnaires and survey instruments used to collect information, experience, and practices from the different stakeholders are included in the Annex section
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Education ; Education For All ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Global Markets ; Green Growth ; Green Issues ; Illegal Deforestation ; Inclusion ; Productivity ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions ; Sustainable Development Financing
    Abstract: This package of Public Policy Notes is directed to Brazilian policy makers and society to present the World Bank Group's overview of key challenges facing the country at this juncture, and possible ways forward to address them. We present an agenda prioritized around four issues of core relevance to Brazil's recovery and its future resilience. First is the goal of financing development sustainably given the immediate challenge of situating the country's enormous growth, inclusion and climate action needs within a credible macroeconomic framework and efficient and effective fiscal policies. The second theme addressed in this note is building opportunities through productivity-led growth. With the growing reliance of Brazilians on social assistance policies, it is critical to keep sight of growth and jobs as the most important vehicles for the dignity and upward mobility of the poor. Third is increasing the capabilities and economic inclusion of the poor so that they are better able to capture the opportunities that come with growth. Thefourth theme we address in this note is meeting Brazil's potential as a as a leader in green and climate friendly development. This document is accompanied by a package of six policy presentations and an underlying set of more detailed policy reports that can be accesses here: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/brazil
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Development ; Financial Markets ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Philippines economic update (PEU) summarizes key economic and social developments, important policy changes, and the evolution of external conditions over the past six months. It also presents findings from recent World Bank analyses, situating them in the context of the country's long-term development trends and assessing their implications for the country's medium-term economic outlook. The update covers issues ranging from macroeconomic management and financial-market dynamics to the complex challenges of poverty reduction and social development. It is intended to serve the needs of a wide audience, including policymakers, business leaders, private firms and investors, and analysts and professionals engaged in the social and economic development of the Philippines
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  • 34
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Environment ; Environmental Economics and Policies ; Natural Resources Management ; Social Accountability ; Social Development
    Abstract: The purpose of this report is to raise awareness and initiate a discussion on the need for sovereign sustainability reporting. The proposed sovereign climate and nature reporting framework would assist sovereigns looking to attract investment by enabling them to produce comprehensive, regular, standardized, and, eventually, forward-looking disclosures of their climate- and nature related risks and opportunities. Sovereign reporting would help meet the needs of investors who are increasingly requesting such disclosures for all asset classes in their portfolios so that they can measure portfolio alignment with the Paris Agreement. This report discusses five fundamental questions regarding sovereign climate and nature reporting: (a) why is a sovereign reporting framework needed;(b) what is required to develop a reporting framework for sovereigns; (c) how is materiality important in driving a reporting framework for sovereigns; (d) what is the potential for unintended consequences; and (e) what are the recommended next steps to develop and implement a reporting framework for sovereigns Sovereign reporting needs its own approach and framework. A customized approach suited to the specifics of sovereign reporting is recommended. This could build on the core elements and underlying principles of existing corporate-focused frameworks such as the Taskforce for Climate-related Financial Disclosure (TCFD). Other frameworks such as context-based performance accounting and reporting frameworks and environmental economic approaches could also be drawn upon, such as the UN System for Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA) framework. Annex A to this report presents a draft example of a sovereign climate and nature risk and opportunities reporting framework as a starting point for discussion (noting that it is not intended as a fully developed template or blueprint)
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  • 35
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Gender ; Psychology ; Social Development
    Abstract: While a range of public programs in Mexico exist to incentivize communities to conserve and manage forest natural resources, a gender gap persists in the use of these initiatives. The experiment discussed in this report was commissioned by the climate investment funds' (CIF) evaluation and learning (E and L) initiative to understand how to improve outreach to and encourage women to engage in productive natural resource management (NRM) programs. Following an earlier behavioral diagnostic study, the World Bank and local partners conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the effectiveness of behaviorally informed additional outreach and engagement measures for NRM programs in Mexico. This report summarizes the findings of a field experiment commissioned by the CIF E and L initiative, with additional financing from the forest carbon partnership facility (FCPF). The experiment was designed to help identify promising strategies to improve outreach to women in order to encourage them to engage in productive natural resource management programs. This report presents the methodology used for the intervention and experimental design. It provides an analysis of the results at the locality and individual level. Finally, it provides conclusions and policy recommendations
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: Health and Sanitation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Inequality ; Poverty Reduction ; Risk Management ; Social Development ; Urban Housing and Land Settlements
    Abstract: Resilient Housing (RH) initiatives are a crucial means of improving access to safe and sanitary housing in urban areas of high vulnerability. These projects make residents safer, healthier, and more secure, and increase the economic inclusion of the world's poorest populations. They upgrade homes, improve neighborhoods, and change lives. Like all investment projects, RH initiatives carry with them some risks and may impact the lives of community members in the project area. The note briefly introduces RH initiatives, describes their unique approach to project design, and touches on the possible risks occasioned by RH projects. It then explores the many ways in which RH initiatives closely align with the objectives and technical requirements embedded in the World Bank's Environmental and Social Framework (ESF), which went into effect on October 1, 2018. The ESF lays out a comprehensive approach to identifying and managing environmental and social risks and minimizing potential impacts. The goals and requirements of RH initiatives and the ESF complement one another, and this note will describe how this mutually supportive relationship creates desirable outcomes that achieve the objectives of both, despite occasional trade-offs. Using recent operational experience as a guide to best practices, the note's final section provides recommendations for Task Team Leaders responsible for managing RH projects on how to apply the ESF to their projects to minimize risk and maximize project impact
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  • 37
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Employment and Unemployment ; Job Creation ; Labor Markets ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: A decade since the spark of the Arab Spring, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region continues to suffer from limited creation of more and better jobs. Youth face idleness and unemployment. For those who find jobs, informality awaits. Few women attempt to enter the world of work at all. Meanwhile, the available jobs are not those of the future. These labor market outcomes are being worsened by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Jobs Undone: Reshaping the Role of Governments toward Markets and Workers in the Middle East and North Africa explores ways to break these impasses, drawing on original research, survey data, wide-ranging literature, and young entrepreneurial voices from the region. The report finds that a prominent reason behind MENA's unmet jobs challenge is a lack of market contestability in the formal private sector. Few firms in the region enter the market, few grow, and those that exit are not necessarily less productive. Moreover, firms in the region invest little in physical capital, human capital, or research and development, and they tend to be politically connected. At the macro level, economic growth has been mediocre, labor productivity is not being driven by structural change, and the growth of the stock of capital per capita has declined. New evidence generated for this report shows that the lack of dynamism is due to the prevalence of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). They operate in sectors where there is little economic rationale for public activity and they enjoy favorable treatment-flouting the principles of competitive neutrality. Meanwhile, labor regulations add to market rigidity, while gendered laws restrict women's potential. To change this reality, the state must reshape its relationship toward markets, toward workers, and toward women. The region must create a level playing field between SOEs and the private sector, replace labor rigidities with appropriate social protection and labor market programs, and remove barriers to women's economic participation. Governments can also foster new sectors and occupations, gradually propelling market contestability and job creation. All reforms will have to rely on improved data capacity and transparency to create a new social contract between governments and the people of the region
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Impacts ; Environment ; Rural Development ; Rural Roads and Transport ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: Small island developing states (SIDS) are among the most exposed, vulnerable countries in the world to natural hazards and the impacts of climate change. SIDS are already experiencing significant economic and social losses from climate change impacts. Extreme weather events such as flooding and hurricanes significantly affect the transport sector, with damage from such events accounting for a large percentage of total infrastructure damage costs. The need for climate adaptation is recognized in SIDS' nationally determined contributions to the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The World Bank supports its clients in implementing nationally determined contribution objectives and actions. The World Bank's programmatic technical assistance, Resilient Transport in Small Island Developing States, implemented with the aim of enhancing the resilience of the transport sector in SIDS, was delivered in three phases. The objective of this report is to help practitioners integrate climate resilience considerations into transport asset management and thus enhance climate resilience in the transport sector of SIDS (Phases 2 and 3 of the technical assistance). The report starts by introducing the topic of natural hazards and climate change in SIDS and how they affect the transport sector. The report describes how governments can develop resilient transport asset management systems (TAMS) and then summarizes the activities implemented in four SIDS, Cape Verde in Africa, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean, and Solomon Islands and Vanuatu in the Pacific,and shares lessons learned to improve the approach and framework. Finally, the report introduces an online training course on resilient TAMS and the i-Knowledge platform
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Infrastructure Economics ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Social Analysis ; Social Development
    Abstract: This note offers an overview of challenges and lessons learned from the 2019 effort, then reviews each of the PIU's GMs, including the respective GM complaint uptake channels, overall GM architecture, registration and categorization processes, investigation and resolution mechanisms, related communication efforts, and grievance-related data. Efforts taken to strengthen the GMs since the 2019 technical assistance until late 2021 are highlighted, and areas for growth are explored. This note is intended for World Bank task teams and PIUs to show how a rapid diagnostic can lead to significant improvements in the design and implementation of GMs and a marked enhancement of social accountability in projects financed by multilateral development banks
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Climate Change Impacts ; Environment ; Hazard Risk Management ; Legal Framework ; Social Analysis ; Social Development ; Social Risk Management ; Urban Development
    Abstract: National systems for environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) are designed to improve the environmental and social performance of projects and support countries' sustainable development strategies. The objectives of this Literature Review are to identify trends, findings and gaps in global literature focused on national systems for ESIA. The Review analyzes global ESIA literature to inform the World Bank's response to Borrower country requests for assistance in strengthening national systems for ESIA, provide input to broader World Bank country strategies and identify priority areas for future World Bank engagement. The Review concludes with recommendations for how the World Bank Group can support Borrower countries, in partnership with civil society, proponents and the public, in efforts to strengthen national systems for ESIA. This review focuses on literature related to national systems for ESIA as opposed to individual ESIA reports. A national system for ESIA is defined by the Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) as: (i) the regulatory environment, (ii) the capacity of organizations within that environment and (iii) the quality of a set of core functions necessary for effective ESIA. In this way, national systems extend beyond a single ESIA report or process and encompass both the assessment of environmental and social impacts as well as the implementation of processes to manage and monitor these impacts. It visualizes how national systems for ESIA are rooted in goals and principles and involve a range of relevant actors and standards which are incorporated into the scope of this review
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Civil Society ; Employment and Unemployment ; Food Security ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Social Development ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report focuses on the socio-economic impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Solomon Islands. The fourth round of the high frequency phone survey (HFPS) interviewed 2,671 households in January-February 2022 on the socio-economic impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19), including employment and income, community trust and security and COVID-19 vaccination. The January-February 2022 round occurred at the onset of the first wave of COVID-19
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Inequality ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development
    Abstract: Mongolia made notable strides in reducing poverty from 2010 to 2014, but the pace of poverty reduction slowed significantly after the 2016 economic recession. The trend of declining inequality and inclusive growth seen in the first half of the decade changed course in the latter half. Greater urbanization and narrowing geographical disparities in poverty have meant that the poor have become increasingly concentrated in urban centers, especially Ulaanbaatar. Economic volatility and uncertainty together with restrictions on face-to-face services may have led to an increase in precautionary saving among households, particularly during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An additional issue related to the measurement of consumption in 2020 specifically is the survey-to-survey imputation approach that was used to estimate poverty and the consumption distribution due to changes in the household socio-economic survey (HSES) questionnaire. Finally, despite significant increases, social transfers have had only modest success in reducing poverty due to targeting inefficiencies. The 2020 HSES shows that impacts to employment in 2020 were not significant until the final quarter, with workers in urban areas and in the service sector more likely to be affected. While subsequent surveys will provide a clearer picture of the longer-term impacts of the pandemic, signs of potentially lasting and unequalizing effects have emerged after 2020
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: Gender ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: This report assesses recent progress in poverty reduction in Zanzibar. It is based on Zanzibar's last three household budget surveys and considers the period between 2009 and 2019, with a focus on the last four years of this decade: 2015-2019. Poverty - based on household consumption - fell by 9 percentage points over the decade before the COVID-19 pandemic: it dropped from 34.9 to 25.7 percent. However, the pace of poverty reduction was slow relative to population growth and as such, the number of poor dropped by only 27,000. The drop was fastest in urban areas and because poverty levels were already lower than in rural areas, the gap between rural and urban poverty widened, driven by differences between the islands of Unguja and Pemba. Simulations suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic increased urban poverty increased by 1.8 percentage points in 2020-21 while rural poverty dropped by 0.8 percentage points
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Argentina Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) explores opportunities and identifies trade-offs for aligning Argentina's growth and poverty reduction policies with its commitments on, and its ability to withstand, climate change. It assesses how the country can: reduce its vulnerability to climate shocks through targeted public and private investments and adequation of social protection. The report also shows how Argentina can seize the benefits of a global decarbonization path to sustain a more robust economic growth through further development of Argentina's potential for renewable energy, energy efficiency actions, the lithium value chain, as well as climate-smart agriculture (and land use) options. Given Argentina's context, this CCDR focuses on win-win policies and investments, which have large co-benefits or can contribute to raising the country's growth while helping to adapt the economy, also considering how human capital actions can accompany a just transition
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Peru Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides analysis and recommendations on integrating the country's efforts to achieve economic development with the pursuit of emission reduction and climate resilience. The CCDR explores opportunities and trade-offs for aligning Peru's development path with its recent commitments on climate change. Peru is highly vulnerable to climate change and needs urgent adaptation action. Peru can benefit from decarbonization policies, thanks to its mining, forestry and agriculture, and renewable energy resources. Peru has many opportunities to develop and implement comprehensive climate policies that also increase productivity and reduce poverty. A low-carbon, resilient development for Peru would require substantial institutional reforms, in addition to public and private investments
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Independent Evaluation Group Studies
    Keywords: Poverty Impact Evaluation ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Accountability ; Social Development
    Abstract: This document is Independent Evaluation Group's (IEG) validation of the report entitled "Enhancing evidence-based learning for outcomes through the Management Action Record: A World Bank Group Management Report on Implementation of IEG Recommendations". The Management Action Record (MAR) system supports accountability and learning in the follow-up of IEG evaluation recommendations by enabling meaningful tracking, self-assessment, and validation of Bank Group management's implementation of IEG recommendations. The validation document covers IEG's synthesis of progress toward achieving IEG evaluations' intended outcomes and its assessment of the approach and evidence in management's MAR report
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Education ; Education For All ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: Information and communication technology (ICT) tools can have a catalytic effect in advancing both educational access and learning outcomes for children with disabilities. Despite tremendous potential, a gap exists between technology advancements and their large-scale application in educating children with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries. This landscape review of ICTs for disability inclusive education by the Inclusive Education Initiative seeks to understand the current status and trends in the practice of educational technology (EdTech) and the use of ICT in improving the educational participation and outcomes of children with disabilities. The review explores what factors enable or restrict this improvement within the wider EdTech ecosystem
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Confidentiality ; COVID-19 ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Social Accountability ; Social Analysis ; Social Development ; Transparency
    Abstract: Launched in January 2015, the Takaful and Karama (T&K) program is among the Arab Republic of Egypt government's cornerstone social protection mitigation measures. It seeks to alleviate the adverse effects of the country's bold economic reforms aimed at addressing longstanding macroeconomic issues. Implemented by the Ministry of Social Solidarity (MoSS) and co-financed by the government and the World Bank, the T&K program is among Egypt's largest investments in human capital development. This case study summarizes the practices of the T&K program GRM to date, including lessons learned. The experiences and achievements of the T&K GRM in Karama's beneficiary assessment phase are specifically highlighted. Section two explores the GRM as part of a broader social accountability approach; section three summarizes the institutional arrangements for grievance resolution; section four discusses key results and trends regarding grievance handling; and section five concludes with a snapshot of achievements, lessons learned, areas of strength and in need of improvement, and the path forward
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  • 49
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Social Analysis ; Social Development
    Abstract: This case study examines the grievance redress mechanisms (GRMs) put in place for two World Bank financed projects in the Republic of Rwanda: the Feeder Roads Development Project (FRDP) and the Rwanda Urban Development Project (RUDP). Based on consultations and interviews with key informants, such as project-affected parties who submitted complaints to one of the project-level GRMs and members of grievance redress committees, as well as on desk research and data provided by social and safeguards officers of project implementation units and World Bank task teams, section 1 provides an overview of both projects; section 2 describes the social accountability framework in which they were implemented; section 3 explores the way grievances were taken up, investigated, and resolved; section 4 considers key grievance data; section 5 assesses the main strengths of the GRMs; section 6 investigates areas for improvement; and section 7 outlines a few conclusions and recommendations for practitioners
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  • 50
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Armed Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Disaster Management ; Post Conflict Reconstruction ; Social Development
    Abstract: The key objective of this report was to provide a high-level estimation of Ukraine's physical damages following the Russian invasion on February 24, 2022, to inform the World Bank's (WB) approach paper: relief, recovery, and resilient reconstruction-supporting Ukraine's immediate and medium-term economic needs. This report constituted the first step of a three-phase approach for the damage and needs estimation in Ukraine as a result of the Russian Invasion. The direct physical damage estimates in this report are based on available information and data collected and assessed up to March 31, 2022. This report incorporates already published capital stock and physical damage estimates and presents the associated uncertainties in the application of the Global RApid post-disaster Damage Estimation (GRADE) approach for this assessment
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  • 51
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Equity ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Sector and Social Assistance ; Labor Standards ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Charting a Course Towards Universal Social Protection: Resilience, Equity, and Opportunity for All, known as the Social Protection and Jobs Compass updates the World Bank strategy for social protection amid rapid change both within the sector and beyond. The Compass puts at its heart the vision of universal social protection. It recognizes that the progressive realization of universal social protection, which ensures access to social protection for all whenever and however they need it, is critical for effectively reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Access of Poor To Social Services ; Access To Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Gender ; Gender and Social Policy ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: Despite Ghana's growth in the last several decades, regional, demographic, and social inequalities have exacerbated marginalization and exclusion, leaving vulnerable groups exposed to exogeneous economic and social shocks. With Coronavirus (COVID-19) and the resultant economic slowdown, the poverty level is likely to rise in 2021 to 30.9 percent, compounding further inequalities and vulnerabilities and expanding pressure on public funds to respond. To assess the progression of these exclusion disparities, the World Bank has developed the Social Sustainability and Inclusion (SSI) profile. This SSI note is meant to deepen analysis and provide a snapshot of the social sustainability and inclusion landscape in Ghana
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  • 53
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Economic Forecasting ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Risk Management ; Social Development ; Social Risk Management
    Abstract: This technical note - prepared by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), Earth Institute at Columbia University and World Bank's Global Crisis Risk Platform (GCRP) - details methodological steps to analyze seasonal precipitation anomaly forecasts, and integrate outcomes into emerging risk information at country levels. As part of the Global Crisis Risk Platform's work on compound risk, a prototype classification system is presented for showcasing country-level seasonal risk information that is tailored to national decision-making environments. Three prototypes are detailed, each with increasing levels of complexity and input data. Prototype 1.0 presents a country level threat profile based only on precipitation anomalies from IRI seasonal forecast output, based on precipitation forecasts anomalies, or deviations from 'climate normal' conditions, over the next three months. Prototype 1.1 builds off 1.0, with integration of persistence in dry conditions by combining observed precipitation anomalies over recent months with forecast information. Finally, Prototype 1.2 includes criteria related to both population exposure and land use to enhance Prototype 1.1. For each prototype a justification for the methodology is presented, including a rationale for both the input data used and definition of thresholds. Acknowledging the influence of method selection and threshold definition has on outputs, the methodology systematically assesses sensitivity of these critical variables by noting how Prototype outputs change over time, using 12 consecutive forecasts from April 2020 to March 2021
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  • 54
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank