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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 40347
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; Economic Value of Forests ; Environment ; Forest Biodiversity ; Forests and Climate Change ; Global Environmental Committment ; Public Sector Development ; Sustainable Development Goals ; Windfire Risk Management
    Abstract: Lebanon's forest landscapes are unique in the Mediterranean region and, over the centuries, have provided multiple socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental benefits. However, societal changes have had a significant impact on these landscapes, putting them at risk of further degradation. Lifestyle changes and restrictions on access to forests and woodlands have contributed to the abandonment of traditional community use, management, and protection of forests. This neglect has left forests vulnerable to arson, vandalism, and natural disasters. This Lebanon Forest Note articulates opportunities for supporting the protection and sustainable management of Lebanon's forest landscapes. It considers the increasing pressure on natural resources due to anthropogenic activities/stresses, as well as their increased vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters, especially forest fires. The note presents a forward-looking business case for Lebanon to protects its forest ecosystem services, while increasing the socioeconomic benefits for Lebanon's sustainable development goals and global environmental commitments
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2181
    Keywords: Economic Management ; Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance ; Governance ; Macroeconomic Management ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; National Governance ; Public Sector Development ; Score Analysis ; Sector Management and Institutions ; Social Inclusion and Equity ; Structural Policies ; Trends
    Abstract: The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) for Africa is an annual diagnostic tool for Sub-Saharan African countries that are eligible for financing from the International Development Association (IDA), the part of the World Bank that helps the world's poorest countries. The CPIA Africa 2023 report provides an assessment of the quality of policies and institutions in all 39 IDA-eligible countries in Sub-Saharan Africa for calendar year 2022. The average overall CPIA score for Sub-Saharan Africa remained unchanged at 3.1 in 2022. Economic and social resilience continues to be tested in all countries in Sub-Saharan Africa amid tight global credit markets, as institutional capacity for restoring stability and delivering sustained growth remains a challenge. Such resilience is also fundamental to responding to global climate change and the expected market shifts as the world economy transitions to green energy. The recovery of economic activity in the region following the slowdown caused by COVID-19 has been multispeed, with wide variation across countries. Global events that diverted attention away from longer-term development priorities marked 2022. Inflation was the predominant form in which international pressures translated to domestic economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in stress on social policies and government budgets, on account of divergent responses by governments and private sector competition. In some countries, this has led to significant stress on debt sustainability, highlighting the importance of debt management, budgetary oversight, and financial soundness. An opportunity for regrouping on policy reforms arose in the second half of 2022, as gas prices declined after a mild European winter and China lifted health-related restrictions. Despite global economic challenges, more countries in Sub-Saharan Africa saw improvements in their overall CPIA scores compared to the previous year. In Western and Central Africa (AFW), the overall score increased for eight countries-Benin, Cabo Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, the Republic of Congo, and Togo. The overall score increased for four countries in Eastern and Southern Africa (AFE)-Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, and Zambia. In contrast, the overall score decreased for eight countries-Chad, the Comoros, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Sao Tome and Principe, and Sudan. The countries with improved scores made notable advancements in the economic management, policies for social inclusion, and governance clusters. Conversely, the countries with declining scores faced economic management and governance challenges. For the most part, the countries that received downgrades were positioned toward the lower end of the scale, while the upgraded countries generally had overall scores above 3, indicating a growing divergence in scores across the region in 2022
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Decntralization ; Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Investment ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The latest Taking Stock report shows that Vietnam's economic growth slowed from 8% in 2022 to 3.7% in the first half of 2023. It forecasts a moderate growth of 4.7% in 2023, gradually accelerating to 5.5% in 2024 and 6.0% in 2025. However, the economy faces external and domestic headwinds. Vietnam has ample fiscal space and a proactive fiscal policy supporting short-term demand, removing barriers to the implementation of public investment, and addressing infrastructure constraints can help the economy achieve these targets and promote long-term growth. The report's special chapter studies Vietnam's public investment management and how it can contribute to the goal of becoming a high income economy. To harness the power of public investment, the report recommends that Vietnam sustain its level of investment, improve the quality of the proposed project, and address deficiencies in public investment management and inter-governmental fiscal institutions
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Climate Development ; Economic Growth ; EMDES ; Energy Transition ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Space ; Inclusive Recovery ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Sustainability ; Transformation
    Abstract: This report makes the case for a big investment push for EMDEs' sustainable recovery and development, assesses the magnitude and composition of such investment, presents actions needed for an energy transition, looks at the role that innovations and state capacity can play in facilitating GRID, and proposes actions that governments, the private sector, MDBs, the IMF, and donors can undertake to mobilize financing at the large scale needed. The report summarizes the insights derived from the meetings of the High-Level Advisory Group (HLAG) on Sustainable and Inclusive Recovery and Growth, jointly led by Mari Pangestu, Ceyla Pazarbasioglu, and Nicholas Stern, and composed of experts from research institutions, the private sector, and governments, as well as senior World Bank Group and IMF staff members. The work of the HLAG, and thus this report, focuses on EMDEs and delves in greater depth into climate investment and financing, particularly for energy transition, as it is a less researched area. While doing so, it recognizes that policy and investment decisions in high-income countries, which accounted for only 16 percent of the global population in 2019 and yet for 32 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions (World Bank 2023a, 2023b), will be critical to whether the Paris Agreement goals can be reached. It also recognizes that these countries must play a key role in contributing financially to EMDEs' transition to low-carbon economies
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Rwanda country climate and development report
    Keywords: Umweltschaden ; Sozioökonomischer Wandel ; Klimaänderung ; Naturkatastrophe ; Auswirkung ; Wirtschaft ; Anpassung ; Strategie ; Klimaschutz ; Organisation ; Entwicklungsmodell ; Sektorale Strukturpolitik ; Öffentliche Investition ; Privatwirtschaft ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Finance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Ruanda ; Climate-smart Development ; Economic Impact ; Climate Resilience ; Low-carbon ; Natural Hazards ; Paris Agreement ; Policies And Capacities
    Abstract: The Rwanda CCDR highlights key interventions that are needed in Rwanda to strengthen climate resilience in the context of country's development priorities and its commitments under the Paris Agreement. The CCDR finds that Rwanda's unconditional adaptation and mitigation commitments (i.e., the actions the country plans to implement through 2030 using existing and planned domestic and external financial resources) would substantially dampen the shocks to GDP resulting from increased weather variability. Unconditional NDC investments would boost industrial output and employment during project implementation compared to their baseline levels. The CCDR also finds that conditional actions boost the capital stock above the baseline by more than 4% on average in the late-2020s and by 1% towards mid-century. The additional climate investments in agriculture, energy, and infrastructure simulated in the CCDR could also accelerate the pace of structural transformation. Considering the current global and national fiscal context, finding the right balance between development and climate action will be instrumental for Rwanda to sustain its impressive growth rates and deliver its national development plan Vision 2050. The CCDR offers recommendations organized by priority areas, where sector-specific interventions and projects are presented
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Carbon Taxes ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience
    Abstract: Integrating climate and development is a pillar of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Climate Change Action Plan 2021-25. To advance its implementation, the WBG has launched the Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR). This new, core diagnostic tool analyzes how a country's development goals can be achieved in the context of adapting to, and mitigating against, climate change. As such, the Pakistan CCDR provides analysis and policy recommendations on how to harmonize the country's efforts to achieve further economic growth and lower poverty rates, on the one hand, with the pursuit of a climate-resilient, low-carbon, and equitable development path, on the other. In light of the devastating 2022 heatwaves and floods and the country's vulnerability profile, the CCDR puts a strong emphasis on the need for building long-term resilience. Further, it explores pathways for Pakistan to achieve deep decarbonization by 2050, and eventually reach net-zero emissions by 2070 without undermining its development ambitions. It also provides assessment on technical, financial and institutional and governance frameworks needed for these climate transitions. Most importantly, it attempts to capture the centrality of people in climate policies by assessing how climate risks affect lives and livelihoods, and ways in which governments can build resilience and address poverty, distributional and job impact of climate change and climate actions. Lastly, it sheds lights on ways for Pakistan to galvanize cooperation between public and private sectors and support from international communities
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: In Jordan, natural resource scarcity and import dependence mean pronounced climate change impacts are inevitable and adapting to climate change is a pressing development priority. A new World Bank diagnostic tool, The Country Climate and Development Report explores the linkages between climate and development and identifies priority actions to build resilience and reduce carbon emissions, while supporting economic growth and reducing poverty. The report indicates that Jordan's trajectory in meeting its climate and development goals will be largely determined by policy and investment choices in five strategic sectors - water, energy, agriculture, transport and urban development. The transformation of those sectors towards a resilient and low carbon path would need to be closely coordinated along two nexuses to maximize co-benefits and to reduce potentially negative socio-economic impacts: the water-energy-food security nexus, in a context of extreme water scarcity and pressing adaptation needs, and the urban-transport-energy nexus, which is at the core of the shift towards a low-carbon growth path. Jordan will need to use a combination of avenues to leverage financing for priority climate action. Selected policy reforms to improve the management of public investment in key sectors, attract and leverage private sector financing, incentivize end-users and change behaviors, and ensure greater engagement of the financial sector will all be essential for the achievement of Jordan's climate priorities. Equally important will be the identification of additional financing for priority investments, without which the country's climate commitments may remain out of reach
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Climate change poses major risks for development in the Philippines. Climate shocks, whether in the form of extreme weather events or slow-onset trends, will hamper economic activities, damage infrastructure, and induce deep social disruptions. Adaptation to the risks of climate change, including both extreme events and slow-onset problems, is thus critical for the Philippines. Policy inaction would impose substantial economic and human costs, especially for the poor. Adaptation cannot eliminate the costs of climate change, but it can substantially reduce them. Many adaptation responses also contribute to mitigation; conversely, many mitigation measures generate local co-benefits, such as reduced air pollution. Although the Philippines is a relatively low emitter of greenhouse gas (GHG), it can contribute to global mitigation efforts through an energy transition, including a shift away from coal. The investment costs of such adaptation measures and an energy transition are substantial but not out of reach. The Philippines Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) comprehensively analyzes how climate change will affect the country's ability to meet its development goals and pursue green, resilient, and inclusive development. The CCDR helps identify opportunities for climate action by both the public and private sectors and prioritizes the most urgent development challenges impacted by climate change in the Philippines
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Business in Development ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; National Governance ; Private Sector Development ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Lesotho witnessed poverty reduction prior to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the subsequent shocks, but the pace was slow, and poverty remained widespread. The World Bank Group (WBG)'s partnership with Lesotho is fully aligned with the country's development vision articulated in the second National Strategic Development (NSDP II) and key findings of its 2021 Mid-Term Review. The overall objective of the proposed CPF FY2023-2027 is to support Lesotho in building a sustainable and resilient economy in a post-COVID environment by promoting a private sector driven, export-oriented economy for job creation supported by an enabling, efficient and effective public sector. The CPF consists of three high-level outcomes (HLOs) -increased employment in the private sector, improved human capital outcomes and improved climate resilience with seven objectives under the HLOs. There are two foundational themes (governance and government capacity, and macroeconomic and fiscal sustainability) and three approaches (gender, digitalization, and lagging-region approach) that cut across the CPF. The CPF is scheduled to be finalized with the new government by early 2023
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Public Spending ; Recommendations
    Abstract: The Nigeria Public Finance Review is part of a programmatic effort of fiscal analytics that the World Bank is conducting with the Nigerian government. Ongoing analyses is shared as presentations and technical notes in a continuous dialogue. The emphasis is on establishing a baseline understanding of key fiscal management challenges, and on highlighting reform options to support the government's agenda to strengthen revenue and expenditure policies and programs to tackle Nigeria's key development challenges
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Economic and Financial Reform ; IMF ; IMF-Supported Programs ; International Monetary Fund ; Private Sector Development ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) authorities had been trying to set in motion a process to address the root cause of the region's vulnerability - a largely undiversified economic basis overly dependent on oil. The CEMAC Commission had put in place a large-scale strategy of CEMAC economic and financial reform (PREF). This plan defines a set of reforms, organized around five pillars, to create the basis for more diversified, inclusive, private sector - led growth and enhanced governance of the public sector. Initial measures focused on engaging in closer financial relationships with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other development partners. As the first generation of IMF-supported programs are ending, and most CEMAC countries have benefited from the IMF's sizable emergency financing to cope with the social and economic fallout of the COVID-19 crisis, the next step is to identify key reforms that will underpin second-generation programs to boost progress on the PREF and focus on addressing growth bottlenecks. This note responds to this need. It highlights a set of priority reforms at the national and regional levels that can guide the second generation of IMF programs and support the objective of putting CEMAC on a more sustained and inclusive path
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The five countries of Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger (the G5) in the Sahel region of Africa are among the least developed countries in the world. The now regular and growing climate shocks are causing large losses in outputs, reducing human capital accumulation, and leading to potentially devastating ecological and economic tipping points in the region. This World Bank country climate development report (CCDR) has examined the most critical actions and policy changes needed to accelerate the region's economic recovery, sustainable and inclusive development, and adaptation to the impacts of climate change. This report has three main messages. First, the opportunities for a resilient and lower-carbon development of the G5 countries are significant. They can reverse environmental degradation and maximize the benefits of climate action for the poor. Second, rapid, resilient, and inclusive growth is both the best form of adaptation to climate change and the best strategy for meeting development goals in an effective, sustainable, and productive manner. Third, the costs of inaction are far greater than the costs of action. Early and targeted action on policies and programs presented in this report can move the G5 Sahel countries towards a greener, more resilient, prosperous, and inclusive future
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy-Environment Review
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Integrating climate and development is a pillar of the World Bank Group's Climate Change Action Plan 2021-25. To advance its implementation, the Bank Group has launched a new, core diagnostic tool: the Country Climate and Development Report, a new, core diagnostic tool that analyzes how a country's development goals can be achieved in the context of adapting to and mitigating against climate change. These reports will reflect the country's climate commitments and identify ways to support their implementation through public and private sector solutions. They will capture the centrality of people in policies on climate change adaptation and mitigation, assessing how climate risks affect people, and ways in which governments can build resilience and address poverty, distributional and job impact of climate change and climate action. The Turkiye Country Climate and Development Report explores how climate action, in line with the country's mitigation goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2053 as well as its adaptation and resilience needs, interact with its growth and development path and contribute to achieving the country's development objectives, help seize opportunities offered by green technologies, protect the economy against longer-term risks such as large-scale disasters or carbon lock-in as the world transitions towards zero-carbon technologies, and support a just and inclusive transition for all
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Mobility and Transport Connectivity
    Keywords: Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Infrastructure Investment ; Private Participation in Infrastructure ; Public Sector Development ; Public-Private Partnerships ; Roads ; Roads and Highways ; Transport
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate non-traditional means to raise additional private financing for the upgrade and maintenance of developing countries' road networks. To achieve this goal, it combines an in-depth review of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries' road funds' (RF) performance and road public private partnerships (PPPs) to evaluate the potential for RFs to fund road PPPs when specific conditions are met. This report presents to explore how, in few selected cases, SSA RFs can be reformed to substantially increase the amount of public and private monies flowing towards the maintenance and or upgrade of the core road networks of SSA countries
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Carbon Taxes ; Energy ; Energy Markets ; Enterprise Development and Reform ; Environment ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector Development ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: In the post-pandemic world, EU member states will need to embrace two simultaneous challenges. These will include recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic and embracing the ambitions of the European Green Deal, which maps out broad policies aimed at achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 and reducing emissions by 55 percent by 2030. Compared to the emissions reduction achieved during 1990-2018 by the EU27 countries, the 2018-30 target is 50 percent more ambitious and is to be achieved in a third of the time. Meanwhile, the emissions reduction planned during 2030-50 will be even steeper. The transition in some EU countries will be particularly challenging, given their high energy intensity, significant dependence on fossil fuels for power generation and an increasing and environmentally unfriendly transport fleet. In addition, households will need to be supported in the transition, to avoid a substantial share of the population being adversely affected
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Infrastructure ; Infrastructure Investment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Sector Development ; Public-Private Partnerships
    Abstract: The time for action to build a better future and green recovery has never been stronger as we navigate the uncertainty of a world attempting to manage its way out of a triple crisis: debt sustainability, climate change, and pandemic. The fiscal constraints of governments across the globe open the door to new opportunities and challenges to crowd in private sector solutions, innovation, and finance to create new solutions and pathways to meet Paris Agreement goals on climate change. Participation of the private sector in climate-smart investments and infrastructure is critical and public-private partnerships (PPPs) are among the key solutions. PPPs are critical because the public sector alone will not be able to fill in the infrastructure gap without mobilizing private sector expertise, innovative thinking, investment capacity, and finance. PPPs can be a challenge though, because climate change creates uncertainty and it is hard to play with uncertain moving pieces within the framework of PPPs, which require a certain degree of predictability to attract investment and finance. This toolkit aims to address this precise challenge by embedding a climate lens and approach into upstream PPP advisory work and structuring. If structured correctly, PPPs can increase climate resilience offering innovative solutions to address both mitigation and adaptation challenges. PPPs are able to provide well-informed and well-balanced risk allocation between partners offering long-term visibility and stability for the duration of a contract (often 25 or 30 years, sometimes even more), compensating climate change uncertainty through contractual predictability
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Pollution ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Like most countries in the world, Vietnam is increasingly seeing its development affected by climate change. With a coastline of 3,260 kilometers that includes major cities and production sites, Vietnam is highly exposed to sea-level rise. Climate change impacts on the Vietnamese economy and national welfare are already significant-about 3.2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020-and they are expected to escalate rapidly even if greater efforts are made to mitigate future climate change around the world. Vietnam has historically had very low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but over the past two decades, it has seen some of the fastest emissions growth rates in the world. From 2000 to 2015, as GDP per capita increased from USD 390 to USD 2,000, per capita emissions more than quadrupled. Vietnam's GHG emissions are associated with toxic air pollution in many of its cities today, with implications for health and labor productivity. At the UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November 2021 (COP26), the Prime Minister made several commitments, including an ambitious target of reducing emissions to net zero by 2050. Vietnam's increased attention to climate change and the environment reflects the growing economic costs of resource depletion and climate impacts, which have already started to harm trade and investment- two key drivers of the nation's robust growth and job creation in recent decades. Vietnam now faces critical questions about how to respond to climate change: How intensively should it work to adapt to previous and predicted damages caused by climate change, given the uncertainty of global mitigation efforts? How much will it cost to reduce GHG emissions? How can the private sector be mobilized to help achieve Vietnam's climate goals? Are there trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation investments? Are there trade-offs between economic growth, poverty reduction, and climate action, and how can they be managed? Which sectors and regions should be prioritized? What are the distributional implications of a low-carbon, climate-resilient growth path? The Vietnam Country and Climate Development Report (CCDR) investigates these questions. One of the first in a series of country-level diagnostics produced by the World Bank Group (WBG) under its 2021-2025 Climate Change Action Plan, the CCDR examines the adaptation and mitigation challenges faced by Vietnam. It pays special attention to policy trade-offs and provides recommendations to help policy makers prioritize among a range of options, recognizing uncertainties about future climate change impacts and the availability of technology and financing
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The countries of the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) - Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia, and South Africa are exposed to climatic shocks, especially drought, that pose a continual threat to lives and livelihoods across the subregion. The pandemic has compounded these existing vulnerabilities. Climatic shocks such as these tend to affect the poorest most, exacerbating inequalities and increasing poverty. Food insecurity, which is chronic in the subregion and both a root cause of vulnerability to drought and an outcome of it also increased as a result of impacts from the pandemic. Social safety net programs can help poor and vulnerable households manage the risks they face from shocks, helping to mitigate the impacts on poverty and food insecurity, but their effectiveness can be constrained in several ways. The mobilization of social protection in response to COVID-19 and the challenges that have emerged to that mobilization have strengthened the case for investments in preparedness ahead of future shocks. Adaptive social protection refers to an agenda for preparing social protection systems to improve their response to shocks and to build the resilience of poor and vulnerable households. This report takes stock of ASP in four of the five SACU countries and provides targeted recommendations for each country's development
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Argentina Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) explores opportunities and identifies trade-offs for aligning Argentina's growth and poverty reduction policies with its commitments on, and its ability to withstand, climate change. It assesses how the country can: reduce its vulnerability to climate shocks through targeted public and private investments and adequation of social protection. The report also shows how Argentina can seize the benefits of a global decarbonization path to sustain a more robust economic growth through further development of Argentina's potential for renewable energy, energy efficiency actions, the lithium value chain, as well as climate-smart agriculture (and land use) options. Given Argentina's context, this CCDR focuses on win-win policies and investments, which have large co-benefits or can contribute to raising the country's growth while helping to adapt the economy, also considering how human capital actions can accompany a just transition
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The World Bank and FAO teamed up with the Government of Tanzania to produce the country's first agricultural public expenditure review (PER) since the launch of the country's second agriculture sector development program (ASDP II). After outlining the role and performance of the sector (crop, livestock, fisheries, and forestry) in Tanzania and its main policy frameworks, this report uses historical data from 2017 to 2022 to review the level and composition of public expenditure. It then analyzes its allocative efficiency, effectiveness and alignment with the Government's strategic sectoral goals as defined in Tanzania Vision 2025 and the ASDP II. To do so, it combines a price incentive analysis on key value chains, thematic deep dives on strategic areas for the government (irrigation, agricultural knowledge system, seed system, climate change adaptation), and a coherence analysis. The report unveils that agricultural public budget mostly targets public goods in Tanzania, but at a level too critically low for these to materialize and support sustainable productivity growth and job creation. Detailed actionable recommendations are proposed for the government to improve spending on the agricultural sector to leverage further its growth potential
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Peru Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides analysis and recommendations on integrating the country's efforts to achieve economic development with the pursuit of emission reduction and climate resilience. The CCDR explores opportunities and trade-offs for aligning Peru's development path with its recent commitments on climate change. Peru is highly vulnerable to climate change and needs urgent adaptation action. Peru can benefit from decarbonization policies, thanks to its mining, forestry and agriculture, and renewable energy resources. Peru has many opportunities to develop and implement comprehensive climate policies that also increase productivity and reduce poverty. A low-carbon, resilient development for Peru would require substantial institutional reforms, in addition to public and private investments
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Natural Resources ; Natural Resources Management ; Public Sector Development ; Tourism and Ecotourism
    Abstract: Madagascar remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The country has endured stubbornly high poverty rates and limited economic growth for decades. Madagascar sustained modest Gross domestic product (GDP) growth between 2013 and 2019, but by 2020, with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the country's export revenue and private investment plummeted, triggering a GDP contraction of 7.2 percent. That economic deterioration resulted in an all-time high poverty rate of 80.7 percent in 2021. While the island nation struggles with economic poverty, Madagascar is rich in natural resources. With dense forests surrounded by almost 5,000 km of coastline, multiple economic sectors have the potential to grow and contribute to poverty reduction. Tapping into and investing in the development of Madagascar's natural resources offers the country a path toward sustainable economic development. To do so will require careful management to ensure these resources are not degraded or destroyed in the process. The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) report assesses three areas that are key to promoting Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Development in Madagascar: sustainable landscape management, the Blue Economy, and nature-based tourism. Additionally, the CEA highlights the persistent and emerging environmental challenges confronting the country, from air pollution to waste management, and the need to manage these to ensure sustainable development
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Debt ; Disease Control and Prevention ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Debt ; Public Sector Development ; Unemployment
    Abstract: The Economic Monitor examines four possible factors behind Tunisia's slow recovery. First, the drop in mobility related to the pandemic may have been more harmful in Tunisia. However, mobility in Tunisia has dropped to a similar extent as other countries and it has now returned to pre-pandemic levels following the acceleration in the vaccination campaign since July. If anything, the mobility drop in Tunisia has resulted in a lower reduction in economic activity than in comparator countries as Algeria and Egypt. Second, it could be that the level of public support to the ailing firms and households may have been particularly low. However, at 2.3 percent of GDP, the Covid-19 stimulus package in 2020 was in the same ballpark as other comparators in the region. Third, the structure of the Tunisian economy, particularly its reliance on tourism, may have exposed it to the negative demand shock more than other countries. Indeed hotels, cafe and restaurant and transport are the sectors which have contracted the most since the start of the pandemic. The losses of these sectors explain a significant portion of the negative effects of the crisis in Tunisia, although they do not fully account for such slow recovery
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Environment ; Health Care Services Industry ; Natural Disasters ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: This report provides a selected analysis of Vanuatu's economy and public finances, emphasizing the lens of disaster resilience. It draws upon the analysis and tools from two core World Bank diagnostic products, the Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) and Public Expenditure Review (PER) while bringing the depth and breadth of the analysis to scale with country context and key constraints. In terms of the economic analysis, the report first examines the country's recent economic performance, followed by an analysis of the agriculture sector, labor mobility, and the tourism sector. In terms of public expenditure analysis, the report first discusses overall fiscal trends and prospects, after which the overarching Public Financial Management (PFM) framework is analyzed. The report concludes with an analysis of public spending in the education and health sectors
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  • 25
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Conflict of Interest ; Corporate Data and Reporting ; Equity ; Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector Development ; Public Sector Development ; Transparency
    Abstract: The world spent USD 11 trillion on public procurement in 2018, amounting to 12 percent of global GDP (Bosio and others 2022). Given these substantial volumes, public procurement can contribute to several objectives: savings, integrity, economic growth, inclusiveness, and sustainability. Procurement Data Analytics (PDA) can contribute to the achievement of these objectives. It refers to the use of data to generate actionable insights and evidence to monitor outcomes, inform the policy dialogue, guide reform efforts, and assess the impact of reforms and strategies in public procurement. Despite a growing academic literature and impact evaluations on public procurement, the existing body of evidence is still scarce and limited to a few countries. This impedes drawing generalizable lessons on optimal policies and strategies to achieve the multi-layered objectives of the public procurement function, therefore highlighting the need for a larger adoption of data analytics tools in this area. With the increasing adoption of electronic government procurement (eGP) systems and the corresponding digitization of transaction records, public procurement has enormous untapped potential for the application of data analytics tools. This paper highlights the successful approaches and good practices of previous PDA work and provide useful resources to World Bank teams with country engagements relating to public procurement. Possibly interesting to a broader audience, an analytical framework is also discussed to guide the application of data analytics tools in public procurement, data sources, the open government agenda, and data standards
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Legal Framework ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: This legal analysis provides an assessment of Ghana's key legal and regulatory frameworks for the priorities highlighted in Ghana's Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and Ghana's climate agenda more generally. The assessment includes an analysis of gaps or inconsistencies between the Government's stated climate plans and commitments and existing national policy and legislation, with a view to evaluating the ability of existing legal frameworks to support Ghana's delivery of its climate commitments and policy goals. The analysis focuses on four key sectors: water; agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU); energy; and transport. In addition, the legal analysis research team identified broader elements of the legal enabling environment in Ghana that are essential to the effective implementation of Ghana's NDC and the achievement of Ghana's climate policy goals; these elements include the country's constitution, law-making and rulemaking processes, administrative and judicial enforcement mechanisms, environmental and social impact assessment laws and regulations, and the legal frameworks to mobilize public and private finance. The analysis proposes general and sector-specific recommendations to better align existing national policy and legislation with the Government's national and international climate change commitments. The purpose, scope, and analytical framework for this legal analysis are presented in Chapter 1 and Annex I
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Decentralization ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Law and Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Tax Law ; Taxation and Subsidies
    Abstract: The problems in Croatia's fiscal decentralization system have long been recognized. The fragmented territorial-administrative structure, fiscal decentralization efforts with insufficient fiscal autonomy, inconsistent public service standards, unbalanced sources of revenue, and doubts about the introduction of real estate taxes are just some of the concerns. However, there is often no consensus on the possible ways to address them. Compounding the problem is the fact that the recent and still ongoing tax reform, due to its tax relief element, has created the need to compensate subnational governments for the losses of revenues. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the significance of these issues as the lockdown measures have had a strong negative impact on the existing revenue sources, such as personal income taxes (PITs), of many local and regional government units (LRGUs). At the same time, it may be that the current crisis has created the preconditions and opportunity needed for the government to finally implement reforms in support of fiscal decentralization and more effective financing of subnational governments, reforms that have long been postponed due to political reasons and a lack of popular support. These reforms include addressing the fragmentation of local governments, providing a clearer and more appropriate assignment of functional responsibilities, improving the fiscal equalization system by including the fiscal expenditure needs component, and introducing a working property tax. All of these ideas have long been debated, but there are many reasons to believe that the time is right for at least some of them to be implemented. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the major challenges and options for reform in several critical areas of Croatia's fiscal decentralization system, including: (i) the vertical structure of government, (ii) expenditure responsibilities, (iii) taxation and revenue autonomy, (iv) intergovernmental transfers, (v) borrowing and debt, and (vi) asset management
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Access of Poor To Social Services ; Anticorruption ; Business Environment ; Energy Security ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Governance ; Labor Market ; National Governance ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Sector Development ; Public Sector Management and Reform ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Water Resource Management
    Abstract: Moldova's policy priorities and key actions going forward: Strengthening the capacity and governance of public administration; Strengthening the judiciary and the fight against corruption; Supporting a resilient recovery while safeguarding fiscal sustainability; Building fiscal resilience at the subnational level with land administration and property registration and valuation; Enhancing labor markets and addressing COVID-19 challenges; Achieving a sustainable social protection system; Improving the efficiency and resilience of health service delivery; Strengthening environment protection and disaster risk management; Water resource management; Increasing resilience and competitiveness of agriculture; Enhancing the business environment and market competition; Fostering SMEs and strengthening FDI linkages; Enhancing financial sector stability and governance; Strengthening education outcomes and skills; Expanding inclusive digital development opportunities; Multimodal transport and logistics; and Addressing energy security and sustainability
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Armed Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Infrastructure Economics ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Post Conflict Reconstruction ; Public Sector Development ; Social Inclusion ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Vulnerable Groups
    Abstract: The Russian Federation's invasion of Ukraine, which began February 24, 2022, has caused significant civilian casualties and damage to infrastructure and has taken a severe human, social, and economic toll. As a result of the war, which still continues after more than six months, dwellings and public infrastructure have been demolished or damaged, public services and economic activity have been impeded, and significant numbers of Ukrainians have been displaced from their homes. This Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA) is part of an ongoing effort, undertaken jointly by the government of Ukraine, the World Bank, and the European Commission and supported by other partners, to take stock of Ukraine's damage and losses from the war - but just as importantly to assess the scale of economic and social needs for Ukraine's survival during the war and its prospering afterward
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Financial Sector ; Floods ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience
    Abstract: Climate change poses a serious threat to Morocco's economic growth and human potential but with the right investments and policies in place, a more sustainable future is possible. A new World Bank diagnostic tool, The Country Climate and Development Report explores the linkages between climate and development and identifies priority actions to build resilience and reduce carbon emissions, while supporting economic growth and reducing poverty. The Morocco climate report identifies three priority areas - tackling water scarcity and droughts; enhancing resilience to floods; and decarbonizing the economy. The report also looks at the cross-cutting issues of financing, governance, and equity. The underlying message in the report is that if Morocco invests in climate action now and takes the appropriate policy measures, the benefits will be immense. Ambitious climate actions will help to revitalize rural areas, create new jobs and position the Kingdom as a green industrial hub, while also helping Morocco to reach its broader development goals. The report identifies key pathways to decarbonize the economy, reducing reliance on fossil fuels and massively deploying solar and wind power. The report estimates that total investment needed to put Morocco firmly on a resilient and low carbon pathway by the 2050s would be around USD 78 billion in present dollar value. The good news is that these investments could be gradual and that with the appropriate policies in place, the private sector could shoulder much of the cost
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  • 31
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Accountability ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Open Government ; Public Sector Development ; Transparency
    Abstract: The world needs more urgent and ambitious action to address climate change. Seventy-one countries have pledged to reach net-zero emissions by midcentury. Nevertheless, achieving decarbonization and adapting to climate change will require fundamental changes in the production of goods and services by firms and the consumption patterns and behavior of citizens. Climate change poses difficult challenges for policy makers, and three particular challenges make the open government principles of transparency, participation, and accountability especially important. First, countries often face the political challenge of credibly committing to climate action over the long term, in that they must commit to action over multiple electoral cycles if the private sector, households, communities, and public entities are to adopt new technologies and change behavior. Second, climate change requires coordination between government and nongovernment actors, as there will be winners and losers along the way and governments will need to work toward consensus to balance the outcomes. Third, governments have to translate promises into climate action. The principles of open government can be especially useful in tackling all three challenges by harnessing and ensuring citizen trust in government and in the legitimacy of climate-directed policy decisions. This note will show how the use of open government principles and mechanisms can make a notable contribution to climate change action. It provides examples of such measures as well as an inventory of existing good practices and tools, which can serve as a source of inspiration for policy makers and citizens alike
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: Climate change is already affecting people's lives and livelihoods in Angola, as well as the Angolan economy. The country is experiencing increasingly severe and frequent climate hazards, including the South's worst prolonged droughts in decades. Climate change impacts also come with a heavy price tag: climate-related disasters (floods, storms, droughts) cost Angola nearly US1.2 billion dollars between 2005 and 2017, and on average droughts alone affect about a million Angolans every year. Impacts of climate variability on Angola's water resources are expected to be particularly severe and will affect food and energy production, as well as hydropower, on which Angola relies for most of its electricity. The future does not look much brighter: climate models predict a rise in temperatures, with most of Angola becoming 1-1.5 degree Celsius warmer in 2020-2040 relative to the 1981-2010 period, with a 1.4-degree Celsius increase in the annual average temperature already recorded. The imperative to adapt and transition to a proactive model for climate risk management is urgent. Against this backdrop, and the equally urgent priority to diversify away from a highly oil-based economy, the Angola Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides options for the country to adapt to a fast-warming and decarbonizing world and adopt measures for more diversified and climate-resilient development that will underpin sustainable and inclusive growth. Angola has significant renewable capital, including agricultural land, forests, water resources, and, above all, its people, who can facilitate this process. But climate change also threatens these renewable assets, and necessary investments in climate resilience will be critical to realize their potential. This report identifies five pathways to achieve a vision of a future Angolan economy that is both diversified and climate-resilient, with opportunities for all. Tailored to the national context, these approaches were identified in dialogue with the Government of Angola and build on national development priorities. Angola is rich in natural capital, not only oil, gas, and diamonds, but also abundant water resources, renewable energy potential, and fertile arable land. Therefore, to shift away from an economy driven by oil and gas extraction and toward a sustainable and diversified economy based on renewable natural capital, this CCDR recommends investing in and building the resilience of key sectors, notably 1) water resources, 2) agriculture and fisheries, and 3) renewable energy. Delivering the vision of a climate-resilient and diversified economy also entails 4) enabling green and resilient cities with economic opportunities for all Angolans; and leveraging Angola's young population by 5) boosting human capital, through expanded, climate-resilient access to basic services and by fostering a culture of climate preparedness
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Kyoto Protocol ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Carbon markets under the Paris Agreement are expected to differ substantially from those that emerged under the Kyoto Protocol. Unlike the top-down approach of markets created by the Kyoto Protocol, such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), international carbon markets under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement are expected to have bottom-up linkages that could create an opportunity for new and innovative approaches. While the Kyoto Protocol only required Annex I (or developed) countries to meet specific climate targets, the Paris Agreement created a new paradigm for all countries, both developed and developing, to voluntarily adopt individual targets, articulated in their nationally determined contributions (NDCs). This means that a greater level of preparation is needed to ensure that traded assets are aligned with NDCs and accompanied by robust accounting. Ghana is one of early movers in the space. The Government has signed bilateral cooperation agreements with the Government of Switzerland and with the Swedish Energy Agency to develop projects under Article 6 and is preparing institutional arrangements and country processes for transacting Article 6 units
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  • 34
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Biodiversity ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Insurance ; Insurance and Risk Mitigation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Risk Management
    Abstract: Biodiversity loss will be an increasingly important source of risk and opportunity for the insurance sector. The significant degradation of ecosystems has the potential to materially impact global finance, economies, and societies alike. Understanding the physical and transition risks associated with biodiversity loss and working to mitigate the damage to biodiversity will be a key aspect of meeting the targets set by the Paris Agreement. Insurance companies will be impacted by biodiversity risks in several ways: as underwriters, as investors, and as corporate citizens. Insurers will be impacted both by changes in climate and biodiversity and by transition risks affecting the risks they insure or the investments they make. Insurance can promote investment in biodiversity in three ways: (i) asset protection, (ii) liability reduction, and (iii) facilitation of capital inflow from the financial markets. Ideally, efforts to protect biodiversity will include a combination of instruments, not only insurance. Insurers, as investors, can contribute directly to the preservation of biodiversity by channeling capital towards biodiversity-positive investments, but the opportunities to do so are still limited. The G20 Sustainable Finance Roadmap (G20 SFWG, 2021) highlighted the need to integrate nature and biodiversity in future work on sustainable finance. The financial materiality of underestimating or inaccurately pricing biodiversity-related risks could pose a threat to the solvency of the insurance industry and lead to an increase in exclusions of uninsurable risks. Risk management can be enhanced by combining the results of both catastrophe and climate risk models, but more needs to be done to incorporate biodiversity risk. Combining ecological action with financial protection can make good economic and financial sense and help overcome the pricing issues associated with risks such as wildfire
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Air Pollution ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Forests ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) identifies ways that Nepal can achieve its overall development objectives while fostering its strategic ambition to transition to a greener, more resilient, and inclusive development pathway. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 captures the current situation in the country with respect to climate impacts and risks, emission sources, and opportunities for integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation. Chapter 2 describes the government's response, through sectoral and economywide commitments, laws, and regulations. Chapter 3 assesses the impacts of climate change on the macroeconomy and road transport systems, given their critical role to connectivity. It also analyzes the links between climate change and air pollution, poverty, health, social inclusion, and community resilience. Chapter 4 presents pathways to transition to resilience, looking at integrated management of landscape systems comprising water, agriculture, and forests as well as strengthening climate and disaster risk management governance. Chapter 5 analyzes pathways to transition to decarbonization, primarily the potential for hydropower expansion domestically and in the region. It also looks at transport and urban opportunities to reduce emissions while enhancing resilience and adaptation co-benefits. Chapter 6 discusses how to scale up financing for resilience, hydropower, and other opportunities, given the limitations of the country's fiscal space. Chapter 7 presents a prioritization framework for the most transformational climate action with seven 'policy packages'-one for each priority transition and each key enabler-that contain specific recommendations for how to move from analysis to action
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Iraq country climate and development report
    Keywords: Umweltschaden ; Klimaänderung ; Auswirkung ; Wirtschaft ; Energiewirtschaft ; Kohlendioxid ; Emissionsverringerung ; Wasserreserve ; Landwirtschaft ; Klimaschutz ; Anpassung ; Strategie ; Entwicklungsmodell ; Resilienz ; Finanzierung ; Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development ; Irak ; Green Growth ; Low-carbon ; Energy Transition
    Abstract: The Iraq Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) is a core WBG analytical product. The report focuses on specific analytical components that are critical to addressing Iraq's most pressing development needs and climate challenges simultaneously. The Iraq CCDR advocates for energy transition as a lever to address Iraq's deep energy sector's inefficiencies and cope with the vulnerabilities of the water-agriculture-poverty nexus. The Iraq CCDR presents a set of prioritized and sequenced policy recommendations, which aim to accelerate Iraq's green, resilient and inclusive development
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Accountability Study
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Accountability ; Consumer Protection ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Literacy ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Public Sector Development ; Transparency
    Abstract: While the importance of financial capability has been studied empirically, questions remain about program effectiveness, whether and how effectively these skills can be taught to consumers, and if financial education programs lead to sustained behavioral changes that improve one's financial wellness and inclusion. When studied analytically, the results of financial education have been mixed. The objective of this report is to help guide financial sector authorities to build a more effective approach to financial education. The report synthesizes available resources and complements existing knowledge about financial education. It also explores the appropriate role for financial sector authorities within financial education and outlines a practical approach for financial sector authorities who choose to develop financial education agendas or strategies. Lastly, the report provides an overview of the best tools and practices to improve the effectiveness of financial education initiatives
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Procurement Study
    Keywords: Competition ; Competition Policy ; Governance ; National Governance ; Private Sector Development ; Public Procurement ; Public Sector Development ; Transparency
    Abstract: Procurement of commonly used items is a challenge for government agencies. If the items are repeatedly purchased in one-off fashion, so that the total volume is significant, there may be potential problems like loss of economy of scale, loss of efficiency, lower competition, and no long-term partnership with suppliers. Framework agreements (FAs) have emerged as a potential solution for the issues. Many countries (particularly in Americas and Europe) have used FAs successfully, though the use of FAs by countries outside these regions is still very low. Hence there is tremendous potential for scaling-up the use of FAs in developing countries. This study uses public procurement data from Brazil and Colombia, two major users of FAs. The subsequent chapters will describe the data used for the analysis, the methodology, and the findings. The country contexts, designs of FAs, available data and research questions vary across Brazil and Colombia, and therefore the empirical findings are not comparable between these two countries. For each country case, the analysis provides insights on the benefits and costs of using FAs and useful lessons that can be informative for other countries that are considering adopting or strengthening the use of FAs with similar design. Chapter one gives introduction. Chapters two and three cover data analytics from Brazil and Colombia respectively. Additionally, following annexures are part of this report: annexure-A: a brief introduction to regression analysis; annexure-B: supporting data and information - Brazil; and annexure-C: supporting data and information - Colombia
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Public Sector Development ; Roads ; Roads and Highways ; Rural Development ; Rural Roads and Transport ; Transport
    Abstract: The report provides a detailed assessment of the road sector in Argentina, evaluating the expenditure of public resources in this context and informing possible improvements to the current situation. Given that the information available is limited, the report will mainly focus on the roads classified under the National Network, and will provide recommendations for the provincial and municipal roads when possible. The report starts with an introduction which serves to identify the context of the country and the main issues. This introduction describes the recent volatile financial periods in Argentina, with a macroeconomic context that has experimented several shocks in the recent decades and is currently impacted by the severe depreciation of the national currency and high inflation. This has led to higher transport costs, which are hampering potential growth, commercial exchanges and access to services. In addition, territorial inequalities in the country cause visible differences between regions, also in terms of the road network connectivity and logistics performance. Besides these factors, the road network is also affected by an increasingly more hazardous climate, as extreme natural episodes causing disruptions have been observed more frequently and intensely in Argentina in recent times. To face all these constraints, the Government of Argentina presented an ambitious National Plan over the period 2016-2019, with important public investments in road transport, but with a highly limited private participation due to the macroeconomic context and the lack of enabling policies
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Accountability ; Governance ; National Governance ; Public Sector Development ; Public Sector Management and Reform ; Strategic Planning ; Transparency
    Abstract: This note presents the main trends in strategic planning across public sector administrations in seven countries: Australia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Malaysia, South Korea, and Colombia. It was prepared in response to the Indian Government's interest in understanding the emerging trends in the evolution of strategic planning in a range of countries and effectively adapting this function across public administration at the national and subnational levels
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Investment Review
    Keywords: Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: At the 2019 Finance and Economic Ministers Meeting (FEMM), policy makers called for improved transparency of the Pacific trust funds' management practices and investment results as a way to foster its improved management going forward. FEMM tasked the World Bank to undertake the study. Whereas significant progress has been made in establishing international best practices for sovereign or large public funds or both, trust funds in the Pacific are unique in making direct application of those practices challenging. Furthermore, the comparative analysis of the management practices and relevant performance metrics of Pacific trust funds are still lacking. FEMM's objective for disclosing comparative analysis of Pacific funds investment results is to further stimulate collaborative discussion on how to continue to strengthen Pacific funds' management and to inform the design and implementation of relevant reforms. In response to the FEMM request, this note will address the current vacuum of comparable information about Pacific funds' investment management practices building on: (a) the World Bank engagements with the funds over the past five years; and (b) relevant information provided by those funds specifically for this analysis. This comparative study is meant to inform policy and decisionmakers governing the funds on the effect of their investment governance decisions on performance of the funds over the medium to long term
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Procurement Assessment
    Keywords: Public Procurement ; Public Sector Development ; Public Sector Management and Reform ; Social Development ; Social Policy
    Abstract: Efficient procurement procedures save time and money, opening up much needed fiscal space, yet modern public procurement can also serve as a tool for achieving broader socioeconomic policy change. Government purchasing decisions, including more strategic use of technology, can be used to maximize value for money as defined by a concept of "value" that goes beyond fiscal savings to include broader policy goals such as environmental sustainability, support for small enterprises, or protection of vulnerable groups in society. This report outlines the key challenges and opportunities in moving toward modern procurement systems around the world and makes the case for a global procurement partnership to strengthen development effectiveness through better understanding and implementation of procurement reforms
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Mining, Oil and Gas
    Keywords: Energy ; Industry ; Mining Sector ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Mining dominates the Mongolian economy, already accounting for some 80 percent of exports and contributing a quarter of gross domestic product (GDP). In July 2020, the newly elected government reaffirmed its commitment to bring into production more of Mongolia's mineral deposits and to process minerals locally instead of exporting them. Its objectives are to boost government revenues, retain more value in-country, and create conditions for more diversified economic growth in the future. Further commercial development of Mongolia's mineral resources, for which substantial financing will be required, faces several challenges. The challenges and opportunities identified confront the government as it seeks to advance mining sector "megaprojects." Careful consideration of the role that the government plays as owner of mineral resources is central to more optimal development of the mining sector and the government's approach to mobilizing finance. As recommended in the World Bank's Policy Notes(July 2020), the government may need to develop a more effective strategy to allocate scarce public funds and mobilize fresh private capital to support development of the mining sector. The purpose of this analysis is to prompt an open debate based on policy evidence derived from robust analysis of options and trade-offs that can lead to an actionable reform agenda
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Public Sector Development
    Abstract: This report applies the new World Bank integrated State-Owned Enterprises Framework (iSOEF) methodology to assess The Gambia's SOE sector and its current reform trends. The report provides one of the first comprehensive applications of the World Bank's new iSOEF methodology in Africa by providing first a landscape of SOEs in The Gambia, and then addressing key aspects for assessing SOEs, namely: 'Effects on Markets'; 'Fiscal Impact'; and 'Corporate Governance and Accountability Mechanisms'. Leveraging the World Bank's expertise across its Equitable Growth, Finance, and Institutions (EFI) Vice Presidency, this multidimensional assessment looks at the interrelationships of the challenges and opportunities faced by the Gambia's SOEs to propose holistic and sequenced recommendations to strengthen their governance and performance. The primary audience of the iSOEF is the Government of The Gambia, in particular the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MOFEA) and other relevant stakeholders
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Employment and Unemployment ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Labor Markets ; Public Sector Development ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide a framework for conducting public sector employment and compensation assessments that can help develop evidence-based reforms. Such a framework is necessary given growing debt distress and the need for greater expenditure efficiency in many of the World Bank's client countries, and also due to the urgency for addressing global challenges like pandemics, climate change, building human capital, and reducing inequality, all of which require a strong role for the public sector
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Corporate Governance and Corruption ; Corruption ; Ethics ; Private Sector Development ; Public Sector Development ; Transparency
    Abstract: This Survey on Ethics and Corruption in the Federal Public Service was held online from April 28 to May 28, 2021, in partnership with the Office of the Federal Comptroller General (CGU), the Ministry of the Economy, and the National School of Public Administration (ENAP). All civil servants were represented in the sample, totaling 22,130 respondents. The sample covered all federative units and ministries. Most civil servants report having witnessed some sort of unethical practice during their time in the public sector. Of all respondents, 58.7 percent stated that they witnessed some unethical practice during their career in public service. The most frequent practices were using one's position to help friends or family and bending the rules under pressure from one's superiors. Over the past three years, around one third of all civil servants (33.4 percent) witnessed some unethical practice, according to their reports. Corruption in the public service is multifaceted, thus requiring granular information about its nature, prevalence, and vulnerable actors. In view of its scope, thematic scope, and representativeness, the data generated by the study could become a valuable source for the development of knowledge about corruption in the federal public service. We hope that this Survey on Ethics and Corruption in the Federal Public Service becomes a tool to complement current and future efforts to fight corruption
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Debt Management Performance Assessment
    Keywords: Debt Management ; External Debt ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Policy ; Macroeconomic Management ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) is the World Bank's diagnostic tool for assessing performance using a comprehensive set of indicators that span the full range of government debt management (DM) functions. Launched in 2007, revised in 2015, the indicators have become an internationally recognized standard in the government DM field and can be applied in all developing countries. The DeMPA offers a sound diagnostic framework that allows a country's DM processes and institutions to be evaluated against sound international practice, identifying core strengths and weaknesses, and thereby helping strengthen capacity and institutions so that countries can manage their government debt effectively and sustainably. It will assist countries that want to undertake debt management reforms, helping to monitor progress with achieving government DM objectives consistent with international sound practice. The DeMPA is modeled on the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) indicators, however, it uses a more comprehensive set of indicators, spanning the full range of government debt management (DM) functions, to provide a detailed assessment of government DM. The DeMPA methodology consists of two parts: i) a description of the methodology and ii) an evaluation tool that summarizes key questions that should be assessed in the context of a DeMPA evaluation
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Education ; Inequality ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Sector Development ; Public Sector Management and Reform ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This World Bank Group Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) 2021 Update presents a diagnostic of Bangladesh's growth and poverty reduction since the previous diagnostic in 2015. It identifies emerging opportunities and challenges for the next decade as the country recovers from the COVID-19 pandemic, graduates from least-developed-country (LDC) status, and aspires to become an upper middle-income country (UMIC) by 2031. This SCD Update identifies four frontier challenges that, if tackled properly, can enable the country to accelerate its transition. This SCD Update identifies eight priorities to tackle these four frontier challenges
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Public Sector Reform ; Public Service Delivery
    Abstract: The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) has made a strong commitment to strengthening public service delivery through three interrelated public sector reform initiatives: Public Financial Management Reform Program (PFMRP), National Program for Public Administration Reform (NPAR), and Decentralization and Deconcentration (D and D) reforms. D and D reforms began at the commune and sangkat (CS) level, the lowest tier of sub-national administrations (SNAs), with the direct election of CS councils in 2002. This study reviews the recent changes in Cambodia's intergovernmental fiscal architecture. It starts with the description of the overall sub-national system, then delves into the challenges of managing different aspects of the reform, such as assigning expenditure responsibilities and financing sources. It also assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the public financial management systems at the sub-national levels. The emphasis is at the district and municipality (DM) level, where more service delivery functions and resources are expected to be transferred. The research is based on an extensive review of government documents and regulatory framework, quantitative data analysis, and fieldwork conducted in March 2020. Drawing on its findings, the study offers policy recommendations on how the country's inter-governmental fiscal architecture can be improved over the short and long-term horizons
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Bureaucracy ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Job Creation ; Labor Market ; Political Economy ; Public Sector Development ; Public Sector Management and Reform ; Public Sector Reform
    Abstract: What is the appropriate level of employment in the public sector as a whole and for essential workers like public administrators, teachers, and doctors? Is the public sector wage bill affordable? Does the public sector pay competitive wages compared to the private sector to attract talent while not crowding out private sector jobs? Does the public sector pay equal wages to workers in similar jobs and with similar skills? Does the public sector promote gender equality in employment? And are public sector pay and employment practices contributing to higher public sector productivity, better service delivery, and improved governance? The Worldwide Bureaucracy Indicators (WWBI) were developed in response to growing calls to provide more empirical foundation to similar questions on the public workforce. This report sets out to introduce the Indicators estimated from microdata drawn from the labor force and household welfare surveys and augmented with administrative data for 202 economies covering the demographics of the private and public sector workforces, relative wages and premiums, and the public sector wage bill. The report details the methodology used to construct the WWBI, including a description of the data sources and estimations used for the different indicators, presents the main findings emerging from the dataset on core questions, and presents potential policy and research applications of the dataset
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  • 51
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Employment ; Employment and Unemployment ; Gender ; Human Capital ; Inequality ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Debt ; Public Investment ; Public Sector Development ; Social Protections and Labor ; Total Factor Productivity ; Transparency
    Abstract: Systematic Country Diagnostics (SCDs) analyze the most critical constraints and opportunities to ending extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. The first SCD for Egypt was published in 2015. A lot has happened since then, so this SCD Update takes advantage of a longer stretch of reforms and newer data up to 2019 to identify and again assess the set of priorities through which Egypt can most effectively and sustainably achieve the goals of poverty reduction and shared prosperity
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Access of Poor To Social Services ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Sector Development ; Services and Transfers to Poor ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Bangladesh's economy is growing at a healthy pace and macro conditions are strong. Progress in social outcomes in Bangladesh is inspiring other countries, but deep challenges persist as the pace of poverty reduction slows down. Bangladesh labor market is dominated by low-productivity and informality. Urbanization also has important consequences for social protection spending and design. Bangladesh is ranked as the most vulnerable country in the world to climate related shocks. Social protection in Bangladesh has been evolving since the 1970s, through innovation and experimentation. The core issue in Bangladesh, more than the overall resources devoted to social protection, seems to be around how well these resources are deployed. This public expenditure review focuses on four aspects of quality of spending, which together point to elements that could be reformed to increase the overall impact of the resources devoted to this sector. The first key question is whether these important resources are allocated in a manner that focuses on the issues they are meant to address (discussed in Chapter 2). The second set of questions relate to whether the program themselves are designed to be impactful, that whether they are reaching the intended beneficiaries in a manner that's adequate or commensurate with their needs (discussed in Chapter 3). A third set of issues relate to whether the processes used to prioritize, budget and finance these programs are efficient (discussed in chapter 4). Finally, the last elements essential to the overall effectiveness of the social protection expenditure is the efficiency in the delivery of the programs to their beneficiaries, from the central to the local level (discussed in chapter 5)
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