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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Finance ; Inlcusive Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Resilience
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) examines Liberia's development trajectory through the lens of the country's vulnerability to climate change. It identifies Liberia's development risks and opportunities, models various scenarios of climate impact and intervention, and proposes ways to strengthen resilience and finance climate actions that support Liberia's development aspirations of inclusive growth and poverty reduction
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Data Development and Gender ; Economic Growth ; Employment and Unemployment ; Human Development and Gender ; Labor Market Policy and Programs ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development and Poverty ; Social Protection Delivery Systems ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The following analytical report summarizes the technical notes and presentations prepared by the World Bank and the Workforce Development Center under the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of Population of Kazakhstan (MLSPP). These works aimed to support the MLSPP in the preparation of the Concept Plan of Labor Market Development for 2024-2029. The teams analyzed existing barriers and the potential for the creation of quality jobs in Kazakhstan because employment is essential for economic growth, which contributes to reducing poverty. Despite slower economic growth and some institutional challenges, Kazakhstan, nevertheless, has been successful at reducing the poverty rate. The major factor contributing to Kazakhstan's growth has been productivity, regardless of the period. A much lower contribution stems from labor market factors and employment rates. Therefore, the teams focused on how to boost firm productivity to increase the number and accessibility of better jobs, as well as how to develop skills and provide good education to the different groups of the population and prepare people for new and old jobs. Based on the material delivered by the World Bank, the WDC and other local expert groups, the MLSPP was able to draft the Concept Plan of Labor Market Development for 2024-2029, which the Government of Kazakhstan approved on November 28, 2023
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Education ; Education For All ; Employment ; Employment and Unemployment ; Human Capital ; Poverty ; Poverty Reduction ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Social Protections and Labor ; UMI Countries
    Abstract: This Human Capital Review aims to provide analytical foundations in the support of policies that improve human capital outcomes for the following four UMI countries in Central America: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama, and the Dominican Republic. The objective of this report is to identify the key constraints to human capital growth and understand how education and labor market policies can foster a resilient recovery, promote inclusive growth, and contribute to poverty reduction in these countries. The review also estimates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on human capital outcomes using a multi-sectoral approach. The analysis compares human capital outcomes in the decade before the COVID-19 pandemic (2010-2019) against trends during the pandemic (2020-2021). Lastly, the report focuses on these four countries, which are the only UMI in Central America to take advantage of new data collected during the pandemic, which allowed to quantify some of the impacts of COVID-19 and understand some of their long-term implications for human development outcomes
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Forced Displacement ; Host Communities ; Inequality ; Living Standards ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Cohesion ; Social Conflict Prevention
    Abstract: This report presents new evidence from 26 background studies on forced displacement and social cohesion to expand the current knowledge base on how to prevent social conflict and promote social cohesion in forced displacement contexts. The background studies are geographically and methodologically diverse. They examine social cohesion in a variety of low-, middle-, and high-income countries across Africa, Asia, Central, and South America, and Europe. Building on this new evidence, the report provides lessons on how development investments and policies can reduce inequalities, alleviate social tensions, and promote social cohesion between and within displaced populations and host communities. Overall, the findings demonstrate that, while displacement can exacerbate existing inequalities and create new inequalities and the potential for conflict, especially in areas with strained services and limited economic opportunities, inclusive policies and development investments can effectively mitigate the negative effects of displacement and promote social cohesion
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Environmental Shocks ; Fiscal System ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty and Equity ; Poverty Reduction ; Urban Areas
    Abstract: This report relies on several data sources. The main source providing the poverty, inequality and labor figures herein is the 2019/20 Household Budget Survey (Inquerito sobre Orcamento Familiar, IOF2019/2020) conducted by the National Statistical Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, INE) starting in November 2019 and spanning 13 months. The survey's sample was drawn from the 2017 Census and allows for poverty figures to be representative at national and provincial as well as rural and urban levels. The fieldwork included data collection from 13,297 households interviewed across four quarters as in previous surveys, to account for seasonality effects like the impact on households' consumption of relatively more abundant post-harvest periods. The starting point for the analysis is chapter 1, which synthesizes progress in reducing poverty between 2014-15 and 2019-20. This chapter also looks at the regional distribution of poverty, the impact of the pandemic, multidimensional poverty, the profile of the poor, changes in the responsiveness of poverty to growth, discusses trends in non-monetary dimensions of wellbeing, and simulates future poverty trends. Chapter 2 examines the distribution of growth and inequality reduction over the period, the pandemic's impact, discusses the growth-poverty-inequality relationship, assesses the spatial dimensions of poverty, and estimates the Human Opportunity Index for Mozambique. Chapter 3 focuses on labor markets and provides insights into labor force participation, unemployment, underemployment, employment sectors, child labor, and labor market demand conditions. Chapter 4 presents a fiscal incidence analysis and information on transfers. Chapter 5 examines the relevance of environmental shocks, assesses the impact of weather events on agricultural production and night-time light radiance in urban areas. It also models poverty and distributional impacts of climate change shocks and presents findings on climate change literacy in Mozambique. Finally, chapter 6 discusses a variety of policy implications
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Covid-19 ; Financial Crisis Management and Restructuring ; ICT Applications ; Insurance and Risk Mitigation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Regional Trade ; Sequential Shocks
    Abstract: Since the onset of COVID-19 in 2020, Togo's economy has shown signs of resilience in the face of shocks but efforts to reduce poverty were frustrated and fiscal space depleted. Togo was able to avoid a recession in 2020, with real GDP growth recorded at 2 percent, before rebounding rapidly to 6.0 percent in 2021, thanks in part to a strong counter-cyclical fiscal policy response. Challenges intensified again in 2022 as Russia's invasion of Ukraine contributed to a sharp uptick in energy, fertilizer, and food prices, while global demand decelerated, and financing conditions tightened. However, growth remained robust at 5.8 percent in 2022 as a significant increase in public spending helped counterbalance the adverse impact of weakening export revenues, rising inflation, and decelerating consumer spending. Low-income households were affected by high food price inflation in 2021-22, but the effect on poverty was offset by sustained economic growth and the benefits accruing to poor households dependent on agricultural income. Global headwinds, high domestic inflation, and growing insecurity in the northern Savanes region have prompted the Government to significantly ramp up emergency spending, leading the budget deficit to a three-decade high of 8.3 percent of GDP, from 4.7 percent in 2022
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Aspiring Upper Middle-Income Goals ; Meeting Poverty Reduction Goals ; Poverty and Policy ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction ; Poverty Reduction Strategy ; Poverty Reduction Targets ; PPP Poverty Line ; Pro-Poor Growth
    Abstract: Indonesia can build on its impressive track-record of poverty reduction to tackle more ambitious poverty reduction targets. Indonesia has made impressive gains in reducing poverty, with previously lagging regions catching up, and the Government's goal to eliminate extreme poverty by 2024 practically met. As an aspiring upper middle-income country, however, Indonesia may want to widen its focus beyond extreme poverty by moving from the USD 1.90 2011 PPP poverty line to higher lines for middle-income countries. The focus should also include economically insecure households susceptible to falling back into poverty. Is Indonesia's current effort ready for this challenge Human capital outcomes are disappointing and worrying geographic disparities remain. Low productivity still prevents households from becoming economically secure. Shocks, including from climate change, continue to threaten reversal in poverty gains. In this report the authors identify several major pathways to tackle these challenges in a comprehensive and sustainable manner
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: r02
    Keywords: Development Effectiveness ; Gender ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; IEG Implementation ; Poverty Impact Evaluation ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Progress Towards Outcomes ; World Bank Self-Assessment ; World Bank Strategy
    Abstract: The Management Action Record (MAR) provides Management's annual self-assessment of World Bank Group (WBG)-wide progress in implementing recommendations from the Independent Evaluation Group's (IEG) major evaluations to deliver outcomes in key priority areas. The MAR is an important vehicle for monitoring the uptake of IEG evaluations; it aims to ensure that recommendations lead to targeted actions that help shape the WBG's strategic directions, improve its development effectiveness, and ultimately help countries achieve their development goals. This year's MAR report provides updates on 59 recommendations from 22 IEG evaluations issued between FY19 and FY22, covering a diverse range of areas of strategic importance to the WBG. Building on progress achieved over the previous reporting cycles since the 2020 MAR Reform, this year's MAR process featured enhanced candor in the self-assessment, a broader evidence base, and a widening of the teams involved in providing feedback to IEG for richer reporting. During this year's MAR update cycle, Management continued its more intensive engagement approach, with more touchpoints, to enhance the MAR's learning focus and build understanding between evaluators and technical staff. This has included the facilitation of dozens of evaluation-specific working meetings with IEG, involving over 130 participants from across the WBG, with representation from all relevant WB Global Practices, IFC, and MIGA regional and industry teams
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Employment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Sector and Social Assistance ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; PER ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Spending ; Social Assistance ; Western Balkans
    Abstract: Kosovo has gained a creditable reputation for prudent macro-fiscal management; yet necessary structural reforms and related fiscal pressures lie ahead. The country's track record includes consistently high output growth rates, prudent fiscal deficits supported by fiscal rules, and one of the lowest public debt levels among peers. The Government was able to successfully weather the COVID-19 crisis and mitigate the impact of the ongoing inflationary crisis caused by the Russian invasion of Ukraine thanks to its healthy fiscal accounts and stable financial sectors. At the same time, however, the overlapping external shocks have highlighted the inherent volatility that mirrors Kosovo's structural limitations - especially in health, energy, and education - and accentuates gaps in both human and physical capital. The objective of this Public Expenditure Review (PER) is to help the government identify means for improving the structure and quality of public services, enhance the equity of government spending, and take a holistic view of policies that will affect financing needs over time. To do so, the PER has analyzed fiscal issues that have not been explicitly detailed in, or are in the process of being incorporated into, the medium-term expenditure framework and the economic reform program. The most notable issues include the urgently needed energy investments, the ramifications of the new law on public salaries on the budget, the sustainability of the untargeted social protection system, and possible pathways of the cost of pensions in light of expected changes to eligibility criteria, and the health spending and health financing conundrum. The PER also looks back at past World Bank PER recommendations and their implementation record, in the attempt to shine a light on measures that remain valid and could still be implemented
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Governance ; Climate Resilience ; Economic Diversification ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Sector and Social Assistance ; Health Costs ; Natural Capital ; Poverty Reduction ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Republic Of Congo ; Sustainable Growth
    Abstract: The Republic of Congo (RoC) CCDR is a new World Bank core diagnostic report that integrate climate change and development considerations. It is intended to help the country prioritize the most impactful actions that can boost adaptation and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while delivering on broader development goals. The CCDR builds on data and rigorous research and identify main pathways to reduce climate vulnerabilities and GHG emissions, including the costs and challenges as well as benefits and opportunities from doing so. The report highlights that RoC could reduce poverty in rural areas by 40% and in urban areas by 20% by 2050 by implementing more ambitious reforms to promote economic diversification and climate resilience. It also concludes that business as usual is not an option. Economic losses could reach up to 17% of GDP by 2050 if reforms to diversify the economy and attract more climate investments are not taken. Climate impacts could also increase total health costs from USD 92 million in 2010 to USD 260 million by 2050. The report identifies four priorities to promote sustainable growth in the country: (i) stronger and greener infrastructure and services in electricity, transport, water, and sanitation can deliver transformative results; (ii) More climate-ready education, health systems and social services can save lives and bring critical resources to the poorest; (iii) More investments in natural capital including climate smart agriculture and greater forest management along will help create jobs while reducing carbon emissions; (iv) better climate governance to leverage carbon markets. The forest contributes to USD 260 million in timber exports and store over 44 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions. Protecting and valorizing the forest is critical to turn the country's natural capital into wealth. The report emphasizes that the private sector has a critical role to play in mobilizing financing for an ambitious set of reforms and investments in the context of tight fiscal space. This will require raising awareness on risks and opportunities from climate change, and innovative solutions and financial sector reforms
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2118
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Economic Growth ; Monetary Poverty ; Non-Monetary Poverty ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Assistance
    Abstract: In recent decades, economic growth in the Dominican Republic (DR) has been steady. However, growth has not occurred in such a way as to make the benefits widely and evenly available. In fact, although the DR economy grew faster than that of other LAC countries before the Covid-19 pandemic, its poverty rates and social outcomes remain broadly similar to them. This report seeks to explain this conundrum, as well as to expand the knowledge base to improve the effectiveness of ongoing poverty reduction policies in the DR. The Poverty Assessment draws primarily on new analytical work conducted in the DR, structured around four background notes on: (i) trends in monetary poverty and inequality, as well as the key drivers of those changes; (ii) nonmonetary poverty and its spatial dimensions; (iii) social assistance programs and their role in mitigating poverty; and (iv) climate change and its interaction with poverty. By helping to reduce the evidence gap in each of these areas, our analysis hopes to inform government policies and the national dialogue on poverty reduction. In addition, the note integrates existing analytical work and evidence produced inside and outside the Bank, including from its operations in the country
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Banking Sector ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Space ; Growth ; Income Inequality ; Inequality ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Reforms
    Abstract: Global economic activity registered resilient growth in early 2023 but is losing momentum. Advanced economies growth slowed less-than-anticipated inearly 2023 as tight labor markets drove wages up, preventing a sharp decline in consumption. However, global growth slowed slightly in Q2 2023, with services growth cooling gradually and manufacturing remaining soft. Global inflation has moderated in recent months, largely reflecting favorable base effects from commodity prices falling below their 2022 peaks, along with abating supply chain pressures. Global trade in services strengthened in 1H 2023 thanks to the easing of mobility restrictions but trade in goods slowed due to weakening global industrial production
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Equity and Development ; Female Economic Participation ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Governance ; Gender Disparity ; Gender Inequality ; Human Rights ; Institutional Barriers To Economic Empowerment ; Poverty Reduction ; Women and Girls Opportunity
    Abstract: This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note provides in-depth insights into the status of women and girls' economic opportunities in Madagascar and proposes several strategic lines of action to enhance women's economic empowerment. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: education, health, and agency
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Conflict ; COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Food Insecurity ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Yemen's economy has been transformed by eight years of violent conflict. War has shattered the country's already fragile economic equilibrium, touching upon virtually every aspect of life. The compounded shocks of the COVID-19 pandemic and rising global prices have only deepened the economic and humanitarian disaster precipitated by the war. Since the start of the conflict, economic analyses have tended to focus on the deterioration of macroeconomic indicators, the sharp rise in poverty and food insecurity, and the destruction of infrastructure and the capital stock, but relatively little attention has been paid to the current structure of the economy or what prospects can be envisaged for the country. Also, it is important to situate this analysis within the political economy dynamics of the country which majorly affect the economic development challenges of the country. Data constraints and the unique characteristics of Yemen's recent experience limit the effectiveness of traditional growth-analysis methodologies. This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) uses novel data-collection methods and analytical techniques, triangulating its findings with traditional approaches and direct data collection to close the economic knowledge gap. Information sources include extensive key-informant interviews, household phone surveys, and remotely sensed geospatial data based on satellite imagery, including nighttime illumination data. This CEM also combines an in-depth political economy analysis with economic development investigation
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2119
    Keywords: Climate Change Impacts ; Debt Indicators ; Economic Growth ; Education ; Environment ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; GHG ; Inflation ; Life Expectancy At Birth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Europe and Central Asia region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: r02
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Action Engagement ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Finance ; Climate Resilient Investment ; Country Climate Analytical Work ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Impact Evaluation ; Poverty Reduction ; Private Sector Climate Action ; Renewable Energy ; World Bank Group Effectiveness
    Abstract: The private sector has a critical role to play in addressing climate change by investing in low-carbon technologies, developing new technologies, and building climate resilience into its investments and operations. Private sector financing will also be critical for meeting the needs for global finance flows, but climate finance from the private sector has been very low. One reason for this is that most countries lack a conducive enabling environment for the private sector to engage in climate action. This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group's efforts to improve the enabling environment for private sector climate action (EEPSCA). The evaluation defines the private sector enabling environment for climate action as the set of policies (laws and regulations), incentives, standards, information, and institutions that encourage or facilitate the private sector to invest or behave in ways that reduce greenhouse gas emissions or adapt to the current or anticipated impacts of climate change. The private sector includes large, medium, and small firms; domestic and international financiers; and smallholder farmers or other producers. The evaluation assesses the relevance and effectiveness of Bank Group support to EEPSCA and aims to identify lessons applicable to the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation to inform implementation of the Bank Group Climate Change Action Plan 2021 and subsequent Bank Group climate activities. The evaluation also aims to inform discussions on the evolution road map, which considers further increasing the prominence of the role the Bank Group plays on global public goods, such as climate change
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Benefits ; Human Capital ; Integration ; International Economics and Trade ; International Migration ; Job Markets ; Labor Markets ; Migration ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Protections and Labor ; Welfare
    Abstract: The global economic recovery remains fragile, creating choppy seas for the recovering Pacific. While global conditions have gradually improved since the pandemic and spillovers from Russia's invasion of Ukraine, progress on reducing inflation in major economies has proven more challenging than expected. Given that all Pacific countries are net importers, this has resulted in persistently high imported inflation. The speed of monetary policy tightening by major central banks has slowed, but easing is unlikely in the near term. Aggregate demand in major trading partners of the Pacific (particularly Australia and New Zealand) remains lackluster. This could limit demand for travel and tourism services and other income sources such as remittance and commodity exports. Despite uncertainties in the global economic recovery, Pacific economies are expected to see ongoing expansion in 2023 and 2024. Fiji led the Pacific's post-COVID-19 recovery with open borders and a strong rebound in 2022 and is now on track to reach its pre-pandemic output level in 2023. Ongoing recovery expectations in the Pacific are broadly in line with March 2023 World Bank projections except for Tuvalu and Palau, where growth has been revised down given weaker than expected outcomes in construction and tourism. In 2023, Pacific growth is expected to reach 3.9 percent and then moderate to 3.3 percent in 2024 as the initial post-COVID-19 rebound dissipates and the region moves towards its long-term trend growth of 2.6 percent. Nonetheless, uncertainty remains high and depends on whether a soft landing can be achieved among key trading partners as they battle ongoing inflation. Inflation remained stubborn across the Pacific at an average of over 6.7 percent in 2022, a substantial increase from the 1.5 percent average during 2019-2021. This has increased the risk of vulnerable populations falling into poverty. In line with global trends, Pacific inflation is expected to decline to an average of 6.0 percent in 2023 and gradually subside thereafter
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Foreign Labor Markets ; International Access ; Labor Markets ; Labor Migration ; Legal Framework ; NCA Countries ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This note aims to close the knowledge gap about the effectiveness and capacity of labor migration sending systems in NCA countries. The report assesses whether NCA countries have the fundamental elements of an effective labor migration sending system, identifies the missing elements, and offers recommendations for strengthening the systems over time. Filling such a knowledge gap is critical to inform policies that maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of economic migration. Programs and policies that help expand legal pathways for regular migration will not only promote mutually beneficial migration, but could be a step, albeit small, towards dissuading individuals from pursuing risky migration patterns. Indeed, evidence from Mexico indicates that investing in legal labor pathways can reduce irregular migration (Clemens and Gough, 2018). In this context, this note summarizes the main findings from three institutional diagnostics of the labor migration sending systems in NCA countries, with a view to deepening the understanding of the supply side of labor flows. To this end, and building on previous World Bank experience globally, a diagnostic tool was developed to identify what steps the NCA governments have taken to recognize and respond to foreign demand for workers. The tool examines if appropriate structures, systems, processes, and resources exist to prepare and deliver adequate labor supply arrangements in the context of bilateral agreements (BLAs) or Temporary Work Agreements (TWAs) with other countries. The diagnostic tool is organized around four main pillars to regulate, facilitate, fortify, and further access of labor migrants to international labor markets
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2119
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Education ; Environment ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; GHG ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Current Economic Indicators ; Equity Committment ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Policy ; GDP Growth By Sector ; Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Recent Economic Developments
    Abstract: Global growth is projected to slow significantly in 2023 as continued monetary tightening constrains the credit supply. Tanzania's economy has performed relatively well despite a challenging external environment. The government recognizes that a dynamic private sector fueled both by domestic and international investment is crucial to increase productivity, accelerate job creation, and support more inclusive and resilient growth. Tanzania has several macroeconomic advantages that could support a successful transition to middle-income status. Tanzania's most urgent reform priorities include measures to improve efficiency and effectiveness of expenditure programs and boost tax-revenue mobilization. The government should assess and regulate budget transfers to state-owned enterprises to ensure their sustainability. An analysis of the implementation capacity of ministries with low expenditure execution rates could inform efforts to improve procurement systems and strengthen monitoring and evaluation. The government should adjust VAT, corporate income tax, and excise tax rates to increase revenue mobilization, and excise taxes on tobacco should be reevaluated to balance revenue and public health objectives. Strengthening taxation on wealthier households is vital to improve the equity of the tax system. Reinforcing the tax administration's auditing capacity will be necessary to boost collection efficiency and enhance distributional equity, and registration thresholds should also be adjusted to broaden the tax base. The Commitment to Equity (CEQ) methodology could be used to assess the impact of proposed fiscal policy changes on household income, poverty, and inequality
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Empowerment ; Equity and Development ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender Equality ; Poverty Reduction ; WGE ; Women and Girls ; World Bank Projects
    Abstract: Gender equality has long been central to the World Bank's twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. More recently, women's and girls' empowerment (WGE) has become a priority in the Africa region in the context of the region's demographic transition. There has been a proliferation of World Bank projects with development objectives that include "empowerment", yet there remains a lack of consensus around its definition and operationalization. This note lays out a pragmatic Operational Approach to enhancing women's and girls' empowerment in World Bank projects. It is not intended to provide a new definition of empowerment or to present a new framework. Instead, the objective of the note is to translate widely accepted empowerment concepts into an operational approach to WGE that Bank Task Team Leaders (TTLs) can use in their project and ASA work. The approach includes: (i) a systematic way to analyze constraints to achieving WGE in the context of lending or analytical products; (ii) a list of potential intervention areas within the three empowerment pillars that can be integrated into World Bank projects; and (iii) guidance on how to incorporate the operational approach to WGE into project design
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Armed Conflict ; Children and Education ; Civil War ; Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Displacement ; Food Security ; Food Unaffordability ; Health and Poverty ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Humanitarian Response ; Limited Health Care ; Living Costs ; Living Standards ; Poverty Reduction ; Reduced Food Intake ; Repeated Shocks
    Abstract: This report highlights respondents' lived experiences during Yemen's conflict as experts of their own experiences. This report aims to present the voices of Yemenis who have now spent eight years living through a civil war, economic crisis, and close to famine. This report is among the few authentically capturing Yemeni voices on a range of day-to-day issues from different governorates across the country. But arguably the small sample size limits ability to generalize findings. However, generalizing findings was not the intention of the report. For each theme, 'Voices from Yemen' presents a multi-stakeholder perspective to mitigate bias towards a single stakeholder group or geographical area. Moreover, the report's findings are in line with those in quantitative reports, such as 'Surviving in the Times of War' or the 'World Bank Phone Survey' report on food security. 'Voices from Yemen' presents a comprehensive picture of suffering derived from human stories behind the statistics. The conflict has made Yemeni lives unaffordable, uncertain, vulnerable, and often unbearable. The power of people's speech and the intensity of their stories narrate their grave vulnerabilities and the sense of helplessness and suffering the conflict has caused
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Financial Sector ; Fiscal Policy ; Growth and Poverty ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction ; Rice Economy
    Abstract: In the last two years, Liberia's economic performance has improved. Inflation remained in single digits despite high global food and fuel prices and a relaxation in monetary and fiscal policies. Liberia's poverty rate is projected to have declined slightly in the last two years as GDP growth rebounds and inflation moderates. On the external side, Liberia's current account balance improved in 2022, thanks to the continued increase in mining export earnings. The increase in gold export in 2022 offset the increase in imports. Liberia's medium-term economic outlook is positive, but uncertainties remain. Even as it has been trying to recover from a decade of weak economic and social performance, Liberia's overall productivity and economic efficiency remain low, especially in vital sectors of the economy, including agriculture. Demographic trends, economic growth, and a strong preference for rice are the main drivers of demand. Yet, Liberia produces only one-third of its rice needs due to several constraints, including limited access to technology, inefficient farming practices, low public and private investments, and a fragmented value chain, among other factors that have kept productivity low. Amid low production, the increase in imported rice prices continues to fuel food insecurity, poverty, and vulnerabilities in Liberia. Domestic production would need to triple to satisfy local demand, but increasing production would require significant investments in the rice sector, as well as policy actions. This report provides some broad directions for policies
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Decarbonization ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Inclusive Economic Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Net Zero Emissions ; Poverty Reduction ; Poverty, Environment and Development ; Resilience
    Abstract: This report explores how climate action, in line with Uzbekistan's goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2060, interacts with the country's growth and development path. It further suggests priority actions to reduce carbon emissions and build resilience while supporting inclusive economic growth and poverty reduction
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2201
    Keywords: Access of Poor To Social Services ; Access To Finance ; Access To Services ; Digital Divide ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; G20 ; Inclusive Cities ; Information and Communication Technologies ; National Urban Development Policies and Strategies ; Poverty Reduction ; Roles of Stakeholders ; Sustainability and Resilience ; Urban Development
    Abstract: In both G20 and non-G20 countries alike, cities have a crucial role to play in the achievement of national development goals. Already, cities generate more than 80 percent of global GDP and, with a share of the global population that is projected to reach nearly 70 percent by 2050, up from the current share of around 57 percent, the global importance of cities will only grow further in the decades ahead. However, whether the cities of tomorrow can fulfil their potential as drivers of national economic development will depend, to a large extent, on how inclusive they are - that is to say, the extent to which they are able to provide all their residents with quality access to services, markets, and spaces. This is because not only is inclusion in and of itself important, but because more inclusive cities are also both more prosperous and more resilient cities. At the same time, many policies that contribute to inclusive urban development carry important co-benefits for both climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as vice versa. In this context, this report addresses four important questions: (a) What is an inclusive city (b) How inclusive are cities in G20 member and guest countries, as well as in other countries, globally today (c) What instruments should policymakers draw-on to make the cities of tomorrow more inclusive or, to put it more succinctly, what can policymakers do to make their cities more inclusive And, finally, (d) What are the roles of different stakeholders - city leaders and their associated local governments; national governments, including their ministries of finance; the private sector; civil society organizations; and others - in the effective wielding of these instruments or, to put it more bluntly, who needs to do what
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: Access To Services ; Food ; Infrastructure ; Monetary and Non-Monetary ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This report -- the Central African Republic's (CAR's) first ever poverty assessment -- draws on unparalleled microdata to propose practical strategies for lifting Central Africans out of poverty. Against the backdrop of a wide range of development challenges -- including persistent low growth, conflict and displacement, andthe increasing threats posed by climate change --CAR urgently needs policies for reducing poverty. This report draws primarily on the 2021 Enquete Harmonisee sur le Conditions de Vie des Menages (EHCVM), the first household survey suitable for poverty measurement conducted in CAR in more than a decade, to try and guidesuch policies. The report provides CAR's headline poverty and inequality statistics, using the EHCVM's unique sampling strategy to cover internally displaced persons (IDPs). The analysis goes beyond considerations of monetary poverty alone, assessing the extent of non-monetary deprivation in CAR, examining constraints onhuman capital development, and exploring the role that livelihoods -- especially in agriculture -- can play in lifting people out of poverty. Using geospatial data, the results are also linked to indicators of physical access to schools and health facilities as well as key elements of basic infrastructure. This Executive Summary highlights the poverty assessment's key findings and outlines the policies that can kickstart CAR's pathway towards poverty reduction
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Accommodation and Tourism Industry ; Covid-19 Economic Recovery ; Economic Outlook ; Environment ; GDP Growth ; Industry ; Job Market Diversification ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Recent Economic Developments ; Tourism and Ecotourism ; Tourism and Jobs
    Abstract: Economic activity in Uganda is accelerating despite commodity-price inflation, global monetary tightening, international supply-chain bottlenecks, and a local Ebola outbreak. Real GDP growth is estimated to reach 5.7 percent in FY22/23, albeit still below the pre-COVID-19 projection of 6.5 percent. Growth has been supported by a robust post-pandemic recovery in the services sector, bolstered by the rapid growth of information and communications technology. Real estate and construction also performed well, while agriculture suffered from droughts in some regions and heavy rains in others, as well as rising input costs. The recovery of income and employment bolstered demand, while private investment overcame tight domestic and global financial conditions to sustain increases in new exports and manufacturing orders into the third quarter of FY22/23. As growth accelerated, Uganda's per capita income increased to about USD 930 for FY21/22, edging closer to the lower-middle-income threshold
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Drought ; Economic Recovery ; Emigration ; Inflation ; Migration ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Migration will likely become increasingly important for Tunisia in terms of both inflows and outflows, given the demographic transition in both Tunisia and Europe. As such Tunisia can work (also with partner countries) to maximize the benefits of migration. As a country of mainly emigration, Tunisia could help strengthen the match of its emigrants with the demand abroad, including through enhanced cooperation with destination countries. Such cooperation should include focusing international assistance towards development objectives in Tunisia. Based on available evidence, increasing household incomes will contribute to reducing the propensity to consider emigrating through irregular channels. As its importance as a destination country (hence migrants who want to settle in Tunisia) is likely to increase, Tunisia can also enhance the economic benefits from immigrants by facilitating migrants' regular status and streamlining the recognition of their qualifications, which has been identified as one of the key aspects for the successful implementation of bilateral mobility agreements involving skill partnerships
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Keywords: Economic Opportunity for Women ; Endowment ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Poverty ; Gender Gap ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Human Rights ; Poverty Reduction ; Women's Agency
    Abstract: Achieving inclusive growth and maximizing poverty reduction in the Dominican Republic requires closing existing gender gaps: from early childhood to working age, and further still into old age. Using a lifecycle approach, this gender Assessment attempts to uncover, better understand, and deliver some policy recommendations for the main challenges in this area, with a focus on the three main dimensions of endowments, economic opportunity, and agency
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Agricultural Growth and Rural Development ; Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; GDP ; High Poverty Rate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Private Sector ; Rural Development ; Rural Economy ; Slow Growth
    Abstract: This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) argues for a significant shift in policy to enable a virtuous cycle of sustained and inclusive economic growth, outlined infive building blocks. Chapter 1 identifies policy priorities to restore the macroeconomic fundamentals for growth through fiscal reform, debt sustainability, external rebalancing, and monetary stability. The following three chapters address three core structural constraints to growth and propose key reforms to accelerate agricultural commercialization and improve rural labor markets (Chapter 2), enable the private sector to drive productivity growth (Chapter 3), and catalyze exports and foreign investment (Chapter 4). Acknowledging that implementing key growth-enhancing policies--be they macroeconomic or structural--are the result of complex political economy and governance arrangements, Chapter 5 focuses on how past Malawian successes can inform future sectoral policies, reforms, and strategies to achieve the goals outlined in the Malawi 2063
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Equity and Development ; Gender ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Poverty ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: The Poverty and Gender Assessment examines the structural challenges to securing a robust and inclusive recovery from the pandemic and sustained progress in poverty reduction and gender equality in The Gambia. It leverages a diverse set of data sources to understand the nature of poverty and household welfare, and highlights constraints to and opportunities for poverty reduction. The report discusses the recent increase in poverty in The Gambia due to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the important progress registered prior to the pandemic in improving key non-monetary indicators of welfare such as school attendance, maternal and child health, and access to water and electricity. Finally, it presents evidence on the link between education and jobs for men and women, gender disparities in labor market outcomes, and the challenges faced by the agricultural sector during a period of increased climate volatility
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  • 32
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agriculture Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Economic Development ; Environment ; Forests ; Investments ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Eco-Environmental Expenditures ; Public Expenditures ; Water ; Water Resources
    Abstract: In recent decades, the Chinese government has placed great importance on developing agriculture and rural areas, adopting policies, and increasing public expenditures targeting these. China's agricultural policies and support mechanisms have evolved, responding to emerging challenges and reflecting shifts in broader national policy and strategic efforts. These interventions had a modest impact on grain production and provided a more significant boost to rural incomes yet gave rise to significant market distortions and unintended consequences. The composition and patterns of public expenditures for agriculture reflect this dynamic evolution and changing priorities concerning the development of China's agriculture and rural areas. This report analyses in some depth the changing scale and structure of pertinent public expenditures and briefly synthesizes the available evidence regarding the efficacy of certain expenditures (and the policies to which they are connected). Among the major observations made in the report regarding agriculture-related public expenditures are the following: first, the central and local governments have allocated considerable resources over the past two decades to support agricultural and rural development. Second, the composition of public expenditure classified as agriculture, forestry, and water conservancy (AFW) has changed dramatically in recent years. Third, the public expenditure involving direct support for agriculture peaked in 2015 and has since declined, while public expenditure on general support services has increased and diversified. Fourth, public eco-environmental expenditures have increased considerably and taken on a wide range of different forms. Finally, spatial differences in public expenditures supporting AFW and green agricultural development are worth noting and require additional attention, given the increasing dominance of local governments in delivering agricultural programs and investments
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Credit To Private Sector ; Global Commodity Market Shock ; International Economics and Trade ; Pandemic ; Poverty Reduction ; Promoting Vaccination ; Robust Growth
    Abstract: Kenya's rebound from the pandemic continued in 2022. Driven by broad-based increases in services and industry, real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased by 6.0 percent Year-on-Year (y/y) in the first half (H1) of 2022. However, the agriculture sector contracted by 1.5 percent during thesame period, and with the sector contributing almost one fifth of GDP, its poor performance pulled back GDP growth by 0.3 percentage points. Notwithstanding the strong y/y creases, GDP has seen a marked sequential slowdown since the 2021 third quarter (Q3) as base effect dissipatedand business confidence weakened because of the global commodity market shock, a long regional drought and domestic political uncertainty in the run up to the August 2022 general elections. Business confidence however picked up in the wake of a smooth transition of power following a largely peaceful presidential election. Kenya's growth prospects remain bright; however, emerging shocks are challenging the broad-based rebound. Thebaseline assumes robust growth of credit to private sector, contained COVID-19 infections, and high commodity prices favorable for Kenyan exports to boost Kenya's growth in the medium term. However, the ongoing shocks, including the long drought in arid and semi-arid areas, rising inflation, and tighter global financial conditions, create challenges for Kenya to sustain its recovery
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Debt Arrears ; Debt-To-Gdp ; Economic Recovery ; GDP ; Gross Domestic Product ; High Oil Prices ; International Economics and Trade ; Poverty Reduction ; Sustainability
    Abstract: Gabon's economic recovery has been intensifying, with oil and other commodities projected to drive GDP growth to 2.7 percent in 2022, up from 1.5 percent in 2021. The fiscal stance improved in 2021 amid contained spending and is expected to turn into a surplus in 2022. While debt-to-GDP remains sustainable amidst gradual economic recovery and high oil prices, debt arrears remain high. The uptick in oil prices compensated for the decline in production and led to a trade surplus in 2021, which is expected to remain high in 2022. Food insecurity could be exacerbated by the ongoing war in Ukraine as Gabon is highly vulnerable to shocks in the agricultural sector. The government has adopted plans to increase agricultural production. Despite the government's efforts to increase agricultural production, Gabon's agricultural trade remains hampered by structural bottlenecks related to weak supporting infrastructure, the high number of intermediaries, and price uncertainty. Informal payments and obstacles for imports into Gabon, including petty harassment, add to already high import duties and can contribute to informality, unpredictability, and delays in border crossing and transport network. Reducing petty harassment would support trade in agriculture, reduce the overall cost of living for the population, and foster economic growth in Gabon
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  • 35
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: AFCFTA ; African Continental Free Trade Area ; Non-Tariff Barriers ; Poverty Reduction ; Trade Facilitation
    Abstract: The Ugandan economy will need to grow rapidly, sustainably, and broadly (i.e., in a shared manner), to reach middle-income status, lift its population out of poverty, and generate enough jobs for one of the fastest growing populations in the world. To do so, the country needs to unlock its growth potential by allocating productive factors to their most efficient uses. However, like many least developing countries, Uganda suffers from a small domestic market and distortions, which leads to misallocation of resources. As a result, international trade will play a critical role in solving some of the current challenges faced by the Ugandan economy and ultimately boosting economic growth and development. For Uganda, greater integration into global value chains will be crucial to create jobs outside of subsistence agriculture and the informal economy. Sustained growth in trade will also increase consumer welfare by expanding options and lowering prices of consumer goods. Regional trade agreements can help Uganda diversify its range of markets and products, mitigating the risk of external shocks by lessening dependence on any single trading partner. Greater intra-African trade also offers opportunities to add more value to export commodities and to leverage the potential of agribusiness to promote inclusive growth. The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) offers opportunities for Uganda to deepen its access to regional markets and exploit the growth potential of the region. Expanding regional and continental trade offers significant benefits for Uganda, including potential economies of scale, new export opportunities, access to higher levels of the value chain, and forums to improve trade facilitation. However, non-tariff barriers continue to limit trade, including the discriminatory use of technical regulations, non-harmonized sanitary and phytosanitary requirements, and complex rules of origin. Security challenges such as the closure of the border between Rwanda and Uganda in 2019 has also constrained regional integration. To benefit fully from the AfCFTA, Uganda and her neighbors will need to overcome hurdles that have long weakened the effectiveness of existing regional arrangements by facilitating better trade through improved logistics, infrastructure, addressing non-tariff barriers and avoiding the politically motivated trade barriers like border closures
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Domestic Economic Sectors ; Global Economic Headwinds ; Inflation ; International Economics and Trade ; Poor Households ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: While recovering from Coronavirus (COVID-19),Cambodia's economy is now facing global economic headwinds. The current account improved in the first half of 2022 as the trade deficit narrowed. Rising global energy, fertilizer and food prices prompted a surge in inflation. Rising inflation is particularly harmful to poor households. To mitigate impacts of the food and oil price shock, the authorities are planning to introduce additional social assistance measures, while extending the existing COVID19 cash transfer program until end-2022. Promoting the domestic economic sectors, focusing on the travel, tourism, and hospitality industries should help partly offset the deterioration of external demand conditions. And successful facilitation of coherent private sector leadership of the sector should help create a "crowding-in" effect, anchored to comprehensive long-term plans, catalyzed by public seed funding. It is equally important to address supply chain constraints, which include high logistics and transportation costs to boost export
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Economy Growth ; Exports ; Fiscal Revenues ; International Economics and Trade ; Natural Resources ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Over-reliance on natural resources has held back diversification of Gabon's economy, as growth, exports, and fiscal revenues are still largely dependent on extractives. Despite Gabon's abundant natural resources, growth has been slow to reduce poverty. In the context of dual shocks from low oil prices and the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, government authorities committed to fiscal consolidation, structural reforms, and economic diversification as part of the Accelerated Transformation Plan (PAT). In addition, at their exceptional summit in August 2021, the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) heads of state provided a strong political endorsement for structural reforms, with emphasis on improved management of public funds and governance, business environment reforms, and regional integration of human capital. This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) is framed along the new reforms supported by the CEMAC heads of state to achieve faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth. In this CEM, the green economy is viewed as an opportunity for Gabon to position itself as a champion. Economic transformation is necessary to find a better, sustainable model for job creation: reinforcing labor supply through better skills and job-search training, and creating economic opportunities in a more conducive environment for investment and trade. This CEM aims at supporting policy makers in their reform efforts. Their goal is to help Gabon, a small economy of 2.3 million people, break free from its resource-dependent growth model and create the conditions to move people into jobs in promising green sectors
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Educational Attainment ; Employment ; Employment and Unemployment ; Household Income ; Living Standards ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Migration ; Poverty ; Poverty Reduction ; Remittances ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The district of Cox's Bazar, in southeastern Bangladesh, is an instructive context to understand how long-standing and newer growth opportunities and constraints manifest at the local level, remote from Bangladesh's major growth poles of Dhaka and Chittagong. Potentially exacerbating Cox's Bazar's pre-existing development challenges, the district is hosting a large influx of displaced Myanmar nationals (Rohingya). More than 884,000 people have crossed into Bangladesh from Myanmar, the vast majority since August 2017, more than doubling the population living in the Cox's Bazar upazilas of Teknaf and Ukhia, which had higher poverty rates than the rest of the district prior to the arrival of Rohingya
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access of Poor to Social Services ; Access To Education ; Access to Finance ; Access to Markets ; Education ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Inequality ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is the most unequal region in the world. While there has been some progress in recent years, inequality has remained almost stagnant in the most unequal countries. Using an innovative framework, this report provides a systematic and comprehensive analysis of inequality in the region. The main conclusions are as follows: first, inherited circumstances over which an individual has little or no control (i.e., inequality of opportunity) drive overall inequality, and their contribution has increased in recent years. This is an important concern particularly because this type of inequality is not the result of people's efforts. Second, lack of access to jobs and means of production (education, skills, land, among others) by disadvantaged populations slows progress towards a more equitable income distribution. In a context where jobs are scarce, having post-secondary or tertiary education is key to both accessing jobs, and obtaining better wages once employed. Third, fiscal policy helps reduce inequality through the use of targeted transfers, social spending, and progressive taxation, but results are below expectation given the level of spending. Fourth, vulnerability to climate risks and economic shocks makes any gains towards a more equal society fragile. Looking ahead, accelerating inequality reduction will require concerted action in three policy areas: (a) expanding coverage and quality of education, health, and basic services across subregions and disadvantaged populations to reduce inequality of opportunity; (b) strengthening access to and availability of private sector jobs. It is important to accompany structural reforms with measures that facilitate entrepreneurship and skills acquisition of disadvantaged populations, and to improve land distribution and productivity in rural areas; and (c) investing in adaptive social protection systems to increase resilience to climate risks and economic vulnerability, while enhancing targeting of safety net programs for more efficient use of fiscal resources
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Climate Shocks ; Employment and Unemployment ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Labor Markets ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This poverty assessment lays out the broad development challenges that Nigeria faces, which constrain the country's poverty reduction. The discussion provides the backdrop for the detailed analysis presented in later parts of the report. First, the introductory section links Nigeria's macroeconomic performance with its prospects for poverty reduction, emphasizing that the country may be struggling to stimulate inclusive growth: that is, growth that would benefit Nigerians across the welfare distribution. Second, the section examines the proliferating climate and conflict shocks that Nigeria faces, which further complicate poverty reduction. Third, the section describes how the "double shock" of COVID-19 has affected Nigeria, through both health and economic impacts and discusses the recent acceleration in inflation. Finally, this introduction considers Nigeria's data landscape, explaining how new microdata offer vital insights into the country's pathways out of poverty
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction ; Rural Development ; Rural Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Mozambique's economy has experienced strong growth over the last two decades, with GDP expanding at an annual average rate of 7.2 percent. However, this growth has been unequally shared and rural areas still lag far behind urban centers in both monetary and non-monetary dimensions of wellbeing. As most poor households live in rural areas, increasing rural incomes is essential to reducing poverty and ensuring the benefits of growth are distributed more equally. Income growth opportunities for rural poor households in Mozambique in the next 5-10 years are predominantly in the agricultural sector. Smallholder farming is the chief activity for most rural households, with income from non-farm sources and migration playing a lesser role and often constrained to specific regions. However, low levels of agricultural productivity, low participation in input and output markets, and high vulnerability to seasonality factors and shocks inhibits the capacity of rural households to increase their incomes. This report proceeds as follows: After setting out the framework and methods in more detail in section two, the following section provides some context by detailing the income, assets, and market engagements of rural households in Mozambique, focusing on a characterization of the livelihoods of the rural bottom 40 percent. Section four discusses the opportunities for growth across the main three sources of rural income (farm, non-farm, and migration). Section five then presents the main barriers to taking advantage of these opportunities, detailing the evidence behind this prioritization for the three most binding set of constraints. From this list of priority constraints, policy actions and investments to address the top three groups of binding constraints are discussed
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Energy ; Energy Demand ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Inequality ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) examines the current constraints and policy priorities for Kosovo to achieve the Twin Goals of eradicating poverty and accelerating shared prosperity. This report follows on the first SCD, completed in 2017, which highlighted fiscal policy, competitiveness, inclusion, and environmental sustainability as priorities for sustainable poverty reduction and shared prosperity. Today, many challenges identified in the 2017 SCD continue to hamper Kosovo's progress and several structural weaknesses could worsen due to the pandemic, climate change, and the energy transition. In this sense, this SCD is conducted as an 'update,' as it largely maintains the conceptual framework in the previous SCD, describes how the structural conditions identified in it have evolved, and proposes a revised set of development priorities for the next five years. Today, many challenges identified in the 2017 SCD continue to hamper Kosovo's progress and several structural weaknesses could worsen due to the pandemic, climate change, and the energy transition. In this sense, this SCD is conducted as an 'update,' as it largely maintains the conceptual framework in the previous SCD, describes how the structural conditions identified in it have evolved, and proposes a revised set of development priorities for the next five years
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Food Security ; Inequality ; Poverty ; Poverty Reduction ; Services and Transfers To Poor ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: In contrast with the rest of Latin America and the Caribbean, Brazil's poverty rate is estimated to have decreased between 2019 and 2020 to 13.1 percent. Auxilio Emergencial (AE), a large emergency cash transfer program launched in April 2020, is believed to be the main driver of that decrease, because it more than offset economic losses caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, food insecurity (FI) estimates showed an opposite trend: Severe and moderate FI went up in 2020. This apparent paradox can be mostly explained by the way in which poverty and FI are measured: Measurements of poverty are based on annualized income estimates, while those of FI are based on the occurrence of an event, whereby the sudden, uncompensated loss of a job or reduction of benefits (such as AE) can turn into the loss of a household's ability to feed itself in the short term. In 2021, both poverty and FI may have increased. Simulations suggest that poverty increased in 2021 to 18.7 percent. Meanwhile, about 18 percent of households reported running out of food in the past 30 days owing to a lack of resources, twice the pre-pandemic rate. Overall and food inflation, a sluggish labor market recovery with falling real wages, and the significant scaling down of the AE program are all factors in this trend. The war in Ukraine has pushed inflationary expectations upward. Given the projected 0.7 percent gross domestic product (GDP) growth for 2022, labor incomes are not expected to boost households' consumption levels significantly. Coupled with the complete elimination of AE, poverty and FI may further deteriorate in 2022
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change and Health ; Education ; Educational Sciences ; Environment ; Gender ; Inequality ; Poverty Reduction ; Science and Technology Development ; Science of Climate Change
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Access to Finance ; Equity and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Poverty Reduction ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics
    Abstract: This report is based on a study of the costs of retail payments in Kosovo, using a methodology (A Practical Guide for Measuring Retail Payment Costs) developed by the World Bank's Payment System Development Group (PSDG), part of the Finance, Competitiveness, and Innovation Global Practice. The study is based on survey data, with questionnaires administered to a sample of households and businesses on the demand side, as well as to 9 commercial banks operating in Kosovo; the Central Bank of Kosovo (in its role as currency issuer and as the operator of the Automated Clearing House); 4 money transfer operators; and the Post Office on the supply side. The study aims to establish a sound economic baseline for the national retail payments system regarding the costs of different payment instruments to better guide system development and enable high-impact changes. Efficiency gains resulting from migration to lower-cost retail payment instruments and more efficient use of those instruments could have significant benefits for economic development and growth as the transaction costs of exchanging goods and services are reduced. Lower costs of retail payments can also fundamentally extend the access of electronic payment services to lower-income households and further improve the efficiency of the national payments system as access to modern payment instruments is broadened
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  • 46
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Keywords: Agribusiness ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Agriculture and Farming Systems ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Equity and Development ; Food Security ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This Synthesis report summarizes the main constraints and opportunities that Georgia faces in amplifying the contribution of the agriculture sector to the country's economic growth and diversification, employment creation, poverty reduction, food security and nutrition, and climate resilience and mitigation. Successful achievement of these multiple objectives, however, requires an integrated set of multi-sectoral policies. Synergistic public and private investments in agriculture, water, and land can lead to increased production and productivity by transitioning from low returns from agriculture to high-value crop production
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Disaster Management ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the second of five planned rounds of mobilephone surveys, as well as the results of a companion survey funded by UNICEF. Thefirst World Bank High Frequency Phone Survey (HFPS) in Solomon Islands on thesocioeconomic implications of the coronavirus pandemic found wide rangingimpacts that deserve to be monitored as long as the pandemic continues
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access of Poor To Social Services ; Education ; Income ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Nationalities and Ethnic Groups ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development ; Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement
    Abstract: The Development Response to Displacement Impacts Project (DRDIP) is a World Bank-supported regional program in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Uganda, Djibouti, and Kenya), which aims to improve access to social services, expand economic opportunities, and enhance environmental management for host and forcibly displaced communities. It was initiated in 2016 for a five-year period with hundred million US dollars total funding for Ethiopia provided by the government of Ethiopia and the World Bank. For Phase II, DRDIP aims to improve and strengthen the nonfarm livelihood interventions, focusing on women and youth. This study assesses the activities implemented under DRDIP's nonfarm livelihood subcomponent and provides an analysis of the nonfarm economy in Ethiopia's refugee-hosting areas to shape future DRDIP interventions. Promising nonfarm livelihood options for refugee and host communities, particularly women and youth, are identified. The study findings offer actionable recommendations with clearly identified entry points for increasing the effectiveness and impact of DRDIP's nonfarm livelihood activities on the targeted refugees and host communities
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Health Care Services Industry ; Industry ; Inequality ; Poverty Reduction ; Sustainable Development Goals
    Abstract: This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) updates the analytical work of the 2017 SCD in the light of new evidence. In 2017, the World Bank Group (WBG) published the first SCD for the Lao PDR, which comprehensively assessed the binding constraints to economic growth, inclusion, and sustainability. This SCD uses recent evidence to describe developments since 2017, revisit the previous pathways and priorities for achieving the twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity, and update knowledge and data gaps. It identifies the most pressing development challenges supported by new data and analytical work and emerging opportunities.Recent evidence suggests that poverty has been reduced but income inequality is increasing. The economy continued to grow strongly between 2017 and 2019 at an average of 6.2 percent per year, albeit at a slower pace than in the preceding three years. Economic growth declined dramatically to 0.5 percent in 2020 owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. The national poverty rate fell from 24.6 percent in 2012 to 18.3 percent in 2018. The standard of living has also improved, with notable gains in access to basic services, education, and health outcomes. However, poverty remains high compared to regional peers and is concentrated among subsistence farmers and minority ethno-linguistic groups. Inequality continues to rise as rapid growth has been jobless. The Gini index increased from 36.0 to 38.8 between 2012 and 2018, and the shared prosperity premium was negative (consumption per capita among the bottom 40 percent grew by 1.9 percent per year compared to 3.3 percent for the total population)
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Equity ; Equity and Development ; Household Income ; Human Capital ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: In 2020, Brazil was about to face socioeconomic disruptions of historical proportions. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has broken several undesirable Brazilian records. First, the pandemic wreaked an enormous direct human toll, sickening millions and causing the death of 195,441 Brazilians in 2020 and 619,056 in 2021. Second, the Brazilian economy experienced its worst contraction in recorded history, with real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth in 2020 at -4.7 percent (compared to the previous record of -4.4 percent in 2015). Third, COVID-related closures and other measures led to a massive, unprecedented exit of workers, with an estimated 10 million people leaving the labor force between the third quarter of 2019 and the third quarter of 2020. Employment opportunities were scarce for those who remained in the labor force, with the unemployment rate standing at 14.6 percent in the third quarter of 2020. Many individuals at the bottom of the income distribution work in precarious jobs and lack a resilient source of income, forcing them to rely on public transfers during the pandemic. The significant progress in Brazilian households' welfare in the 2000-2010 decade responded mainly to labor market dynamics. Between December 2003 and December 2014, formal employment grew on average 5 percent annually, outpacing annual GDP growth of 3.5 percent (Campos and Souen 2017). Increases in the minimum wage (Cord, Genoni, and Rodriguez-Castelan 2015) and a surge in skills (including more highly skilled labor among the vulnerable) contributed positively to the increase in welfare. Still, a significant share of Brazilian workers has remained informal or not protected by the National Social Security System (INSS). When economic shocks hit Brazil, the labor market outcomes of low-income individuals are the first to be affected. Thus, income effects for the poorest are strongly correlated with the rollout of social protection cash transfers. The Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) decreased its coverage in the years following the 2014 crisis when Brazil's poverty rate was increasing. Meanwhile, the widespread coverage of the Auxilio Emergencial program in 2020 contributed to the decrease of national poverty rates. Other income groups can weather economic shocks much better. People in middle of the income distribution maintain their steady pensions, and the richest Brazilian recover quickly thanks to savings, wealth, and accumulated assets that help them to adapt
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  • 51
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; Energy Sector ; Gender ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Urbanization
    Abstract: The arrival of a new government provides an opportunity to reinvigorate the reform agenda to deliver inclusive growth for the Somali people. Since the establishment of the Provisional Constitution in 2012, Somalia has made commendable progress on many fronts. Macroeconomic stability has been maintained, high levels of indebtedness are being addressed through the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, several sector laws and institutions have been established, and a poverty reduction strategy paper has been developed - the ninth National Development Plan (NDP9). However, much remains to be done and the time has come to mark the next milestone in Somalia's development trajectory through advancing reforms anchored in the HIPC process. The objective of the collection of policy notes is to provide sector-specific policy advice for the leadership of the new government, drawing on the expertise of the World Bank Group. This overview chapter synthesizes the advice across the sector policy notes and is organized in four sections. The first section outlines the current context. The second section presents the framework for organizing the policy notes. The third section summarizes the advice, and the fourth section concludes
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  • 52
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Economic Forecasting ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlook periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Latin America and the Caribbean region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita - and where available - other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, Key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 53
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Inequality ; Poverty ; Poverty and Policy ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Impact Evaluation ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: In the past three decades, the Philippines has made remarkable progress in reducing poverty. Driven by high growth rates and structural transformation, the poverty rate fell by two-thirds, from 49.2 percent in 1985 to 16.7 percent in 2018. By 2018, the middle class had expanded to nearly 12 million people and the economically secure population had risen to 44 million. This report is intended to inform public debate and policymaking on inequality in the Philippines. It synthesizes core findings from background analyses of the patterns of inequality and poverty and provides policy pointers. The analysis uses a wealth of data from a variety of sources (detailed in Appendix A). In what follows, section two discusses the poverty and inequality impacts of COVID-19. Section three analyzes what has been driving poverty and inequality over the past three decades. Section four discusses the structural causes of current inequality; and section five examines how they affect recovery patterns. The last section discusses how policy can promote equality and inclusive recovery
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