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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Broadband Infrastructure ; Digital Divide ; Digitalization ; ICT Legal and Regulatory Framework ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Internet ; Outdated Legal Frameworks
    Abstract: Equitable access to broadband services is imperative to narrow the digital divide and for more people to benefit from digitalization. Compared to other ASEAN countries, the Philippines' internet connectivity lags in affordability, speed, and access, creating an uneven landscape for digital participation. Limited internet access curbs digital potential for citizens and businesses, with peri-urban connectivity being critical to future growth. The country's poor broadband infrastructure is rooted in outdated policy frameworks that stifle investment in rural areas and foster a market with weak competition, both of which hinder broadband expansion. Binding constraints underlying the Philippines' poor broadband infrastructure are inter-related, requiring a comprehensive package of reforms to yield desired entry, investment, and sector performance outcomes. The open access in data transmission (OADT) bill is a promising, viable start, among several proposals in Congress. Policymakers can build on immediate reforms through the open access bill as an entry point to broader and medium- to longer-term digital connectivity agenda. The cost of inaction - loss of growth opportunity, people remaining unequipped for future jobs, and widening of the digital divide - is too high for the Philippines
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Co-Evolutionary Framework ; Diversification ; Economic Growth ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Principle Of Relatedness ; Technology-Based
    Abstract: This research examines the diversification process by conceptualizing a co-evolutionary framework linking production and technology. The study applies the framework to retrospectively explain Korea's successful diversification path and to Viet Nam to identify how the country could further diversify into complex and value-added products. The authors apply relatedness analysis leveraging patent and trade data and present four different types of diversification patterns, namely unrelated diversification, production-based diversification, technology-based diversification, and complex diversification. Developed countries including Korea shifted toward technology-based or complex diversification strategies as their economies developed. Using a simulated scenario approach, the report outlines potential future trajectories wherein Viet Nam attains technological capabilities. The result shows that Viet Nam can diversify into 233 products if it accumulates capabilities in the 12 identified technologies. The report concludes with policy lessons that could inform policy makers in Viet Nam as well as other developing economies. Namely, that the country would need to invest more intensively in technology and capabilities upgrading to diversify into new complex products and evolve its diversification strategy alongside its economic growth and capability building process
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Disaster Management ; Earth Observation ; Environment ; ICT Applications ; ICT Data and Statistics ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Natural Disasters ; Natural Hazards ; World Settlement Footprint (WSF)
    Abstract: Earth observation is a crucial source of accurate and up-to-date information of Earth's natural and manmade environments that are critical when planning for, responding to, and mitigating the effects of natural hazards. Satellites that regularly collect images of the entire globe combined--with machine learning algorithms to process them more efficiently--have the potential to provide timely, standardized, verifiable, and scalable information. This report focuses on the use of Earth observation to identify built-up areas exposed to natural hazards. It describes the World Settlement Footprint (WSF) suite of derived datasets, developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA), the Google Earth Engine team, and the World Bank. These gridded datasets capture the extent of built-up areas from 1985-2015 and again for 2019, estimated building heights, impervious surfaces, and estimated population. Earth observation derived information is particularly useful for standardized and recurring World Bank operations. The report looks at several World Bank operations, and the key insights provided through analysis incorporating the various WSF suite products
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Carbon Emissions ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Digitalization ; Energy Footprint ; Environment ; GHG ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; ICT Sector ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: Digitalization is increasing rapidly worldwide, requiring more energy, and resulting in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to International Telecommunication Union (ITU) two thirds of the world's population are now online. Estimates of the internet and communication technology (ICT) sector's share of global carbon emissions vary across the literature ranging from 1.5 to 4 percent. Based on the data and estimates in this report at least 1.7 percent of global emissions stem from the ICT sector. Meanwhile, one-third of the world's population, or 2.6 billion people, remain unconnected to the internet. The large majority, about 94 percent, live in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and less than 20 percent of LMICs have modern data infrastructure, such as co-location data centers and access to cloud computing. Connecting people in these countries will require more infrastructure and devices, which will further increase demand for scarce energy resources and drive emissions even higher if targeted interventions are not implemented. The objective of this report is two-fold. First, the report breaks down the energy and emissions profile of the sector and assesses the 30 highest emitting countries for telecommunications while providing global estimates for other ICT sector segments. The report uses a key framework for categorizing energy use and emissions, the greenhouse gas protocol corporate standard. Second, the report addresses the policy and regulatory implications inferred from this data and the examination of these issues through several country case studies
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: API ; Data Architecture ; Digital Infrastructure ; ESB ; GOVTECH ; ICT Applications ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Interoperability ; Open Source
    Abstract: Interoperability frameworks are a key enabler for GovTech, the World Bank's whole-of-government approach to public sector modernization, as they reduce system boundaries between government agencies by setting standards and guidelines across government systems to allow for seamless exchange of information and communication between systems. But governments may face several challenges when setting up and implementing interoperability frameworks, related to a mix of technical, semantic, legal, organizational, and cultural factors. This How-to Note provides advice on what interoperability in the public sector is, why it is needed and how it can be implemented with various examples and a whole-of-government approach to interoperability taking into account both digital and nondigital aspects is of the essence
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Connectivity ; Digital Transformation ; Education ; Education For the Knowledge Economy ; Government Information Network ; Higher Education ; Higher Education Reform ; ICT Applications ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Internet ; Social Protections and Labor ; Vocational and Technical Education
    Abstract: The Digital Transformation of Philippine Higher Education recommends a medium-term strategy for the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). Chapter 1 presents an overview of the Philippine higher education sector and analyzes the sectoral and country context for digital transformation of higher education. Chapter 2 discusses the foundations and pillars that support digital transformation as well as the building blocks of common and shared platforms and services for students and academic, research, and administrative stakeholders in higher education. Based on the findings in Chapter 1 and global good practices on digital transformation in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 recommends strategic goals and actions for CHED and HEIs as well as other higher education key players to digitally transform Philippine higher education
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Cloud Computing ; Data Classification ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Institutional Framework ; Security
    Abstract: Despite widespread awareness on the benefits of cloud computing, authorities in most of the World Bank's client countries have not explored the opportunity of adopting cloud computing solutions. Task teams are finding it difficult to provide relevant advice to the counterparts and address their concerns. Most authorities have identified risks of moving to cloud computing: Will their data be safe? Will they have sovereign control over access to data stored offshore? Will privacy be protected? These risks are real. Due to an inadequate assessment framework to identify and assess these risks, the typical response of most client governments is to develop a government's cloud (G-Cloud or GovCloud). This seems logical for more sensitive or mission critical data. However, this is not enough. Adopting a hybrid cloud model, which leverages the cloud services from the private sector to work in conjunction with the G-Cloud can offer immense opportunities to save costs, improve security, enhance performance, and strengthen resilience in a post COVID-19 world. However, client governments need guidance to change their policy response on cloud computing - from the risk-avoidance to the one of risk-management. This note provides guidance on institutional and procurement arrangements and risk mitigation methodology for acquiring and managing public cloud solutions using a whole-of-government approach
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Cloud Computing ; Data Classification Matrix ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; PII ; Public Sector ; Security
    Abstract: This data classification matrix and cloud assessment framework supports the policy goals articulated in the World Bank's Institutional and procurement practice note for cloud computing services in the public sector. The framework is intended to support World Bank client countries, practitioners, and multilateral and bilateral development partners to manage the risks of acquiring public cloud solutions. These suggestions are based on good practices identified in the practice note. The framework first offers a data classification scheme for government data and personally identifiable information (PII) of citizens that governments and their contractors handle based upon the confidentiality, integrity, and availability security objectives. The framework then suggests cloud security requirements corresponding to each proposed data classification level. These security requirements are based upon international standards and good practices identified in the practice note. The framework also offers a checklist for procuring agencies seeking to procure cloud services
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Competition ; Economic Growth ; ICT Applications ; Inclusion ; Increased Productivity ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Linkages ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Services Sector ; Technology ; Trade
    Abstract: Kenya's economy has been growing solidly but maintaining and increasing growth will depend on increasing private investment and productivity. Between 2010 and 2019, Kenya maintained a steady annual growth rate of 5 percent and the economy was able to rebound relatively rapidly from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, productivity growth did not make much of a contribution to output growth, and growth has been lower than that of some other, fast-growing middle-income countries. This points to the potential for Kenya to increase growth via productivity gains, by expanding the role of the private sector and, especially, accelerating private investment. Doing this has become more urgent as the Government's fiscal space to invest has shrunk, making it crucial also for the sustainability of growth to identify new opportunities for the private sector to contribute. This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) focuses on the question of how seizing opportunities in Kenya's services sector can contribute more effectively to long-term economic growth. This report argues that growing the services sector should not be seen as an alternative to industrialization, but rather as an enabler of economy-wide growth, including in manufacturing, and in agriculture too. It focuses on five channels through which services contribute to jobs, economic transformation and inclusion: (i) the need to SHIFT the services sector to higher value-added activities; (ii) how to LINK services better to other economic activities to grow its enabling role; (iii) how to BOOST the productivity of the sector through technology and increasing competition; (iv) how to TRADE more services through removing regulatory barriers to trade and investment; and finally (v) how to SECURE people's economic livelihoods better, especially those working in lower-skilled and economically more vulnerable services subsectors. Growing the contribution of services will require a program of structural reforms and complementary efforts
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Sector/Thematic Studies
    Keywords: Decentralized Identifier ; DID ; Digital Identity ; Digital Technology ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Private Sector ; Public Sector ; Security and Privacy ; Self-Sovereign Identity
    Abstract: An identification card that proves a person's identity is essential in modern society. It allows individuals to access various online and in-person public services by verifying their identity. Through an identity (ID) card, government services such as civil complaints, taxation, health care, insurance, and pension can be smoothly provided. In some cases, the ID card may contain additional information, such as home address or eligibility for certain services, which can be used to verify your identity and eligibility for certain benefits. ID cards are crucial for accessing public - and private - services where the individuals need to verify the information. However, most IDs are issued and controlled by external authorities and information is shared and revoked upon the request. A decentralized identifier (DID) is a new type of globally unique persistent identifier that does not require centralized registration authorities. Repeatedly generated and registered cryptographically, DIDs enable a new model of decentralized digital identity, which is referred as self-sovereign identity or decentralized identity. This sometimes allows users to verify information rapidly without having to contact multiple issuing parties. This 4th issue in the Emerging Technology series briefly describes the DID and its potential for solving development challenges, alongside key highlights of Korea's experience and lessons learned in regard to the exploration and adoption of emerging technologies
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Sector/Thematic Studies
    Keywords: Creativity and Scalability ; Disaster Relief ; Efficiency and Productivity ; Explicit Density Models ; Generative AI ; Implicit Density Models ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Infrastructure Development ; Machine Learning
    Abstract: Generative artificial intelligence (AI) has been developing rapidly and has attracted significant attention in recent years, with numerous advances and breakthroughs. The generative AI market is expected to grow from 1.5 billion dollars in 2021 to 6.5 billion dollars by 2026 - a compound annual growth rate of 34.9 percent. Acknowledging the growing importance of generative AI in research and practical applications, including its use to solve international development challenges, this report provides a comprehensive overview of generative AI, introduces the basics, explains its development over time, and examines its types and applications. After highlighting the benefits and capabilities of generative AI, the report explores how it can be applied in various industries such as health care, manufacturing, media, and entertainment and then discusses potential opportunities and limitations users must consider. Finally, it describes initiatives and strategies that the Korean government and private sector players have implemented to adopt and advance generative AI in Korea and the global marketplace. The fifth issue in the Emerging Technology series, generative AI is the result of a collaboration effort of the World Bank Group Information Technology Solutions Technology and the World Bank Korea Country Office. The series captures new technology and trends and shares knowledge to help solve international development challenges
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2206
    Keywords: Digital Government Strategy ; Digitization Policy ; E-Governance Transition ; E-Government ; Electronic Registries ; European Commission ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Sustainable Digital Transformation
    Abstract: This report, which is funded by the EU under the Support to Public Sector Management Reform Project in BiH, presents an assessment of e-services and key enablers that underpin an efficient and user-centric digital government in the RS, including recommendations for further development. The assessment was conducted at the request of and in close collaboration with the RS Ministry of Scientific and Technological Development, Higher Education and Information Society (MNRVOID). The report is meant to inform the RS Government's future reform plans in the area of digitization
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2204
    Keywords: Digital Economies ; Digital Sectors ; FCV ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Telecommunications
    Abstract: Currently, about ten percent of the global population lives in economies affected by Fragility, Conflict, and Violence (FCV). Climate change, rising inequality, demographic change, sovereign debt and other global trends render fragility increasingly more complex. In recent years, it has become widely recognized that the adoption of digital technologies "can" make a significant contribution to poverty reduction and socio-economic development in countries and regions around the globe, both FCV and non FCV alike, though it is far from sure that they "will". The purpose of this report is therefore to provide an analytical backbone to underpin financial commitments to growing digital economies in FCV countries. The report presents case studies of countries that are recovering from different levels and stages of conflict, with a view towards identifying needed actions to keep ICT sectors afloat in FCV economies. Specifically, the report provides case studies of the development of the telecom sector in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2185
    Keywords: Central Banks ; Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Risk Management ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Portfolio Management ; RAMP ; Reserve Advisory and Management Partnership ; Strategic Asset Allocation (SAA)
    Abstract: This survey report represents a collaborative effort between Reserve Advisory and Management Partnership (RAMP) and central banks worldwide to advance the understanding and practice of reserve management. The cooperation of all central banks involved is greatly appreciated, and we anticipate that the findings obtained from this survey will make a valuable contribution to the ongoing success and resilience of central bank reserve management
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Energy Efficiency ; Environment ; GHG Emission ; ICT Applications ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; ICT Sector ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: This report is based on a targeted review of Singapore's approach to climate change, focusing on how the country drives energy efficiency and reduces GHG emissions in the ICT sector, particularly in data centers. It aims to reflect the various measures undertaken by the Singapore Government, present lessons learned, keytakeaways and challenges that continue to lie ahead. The information in this version is current as of end November 2023. The purpose of this report is to provide the key lessons for broad, multistakeholder consideration and dialogue forwhat countries could consider as they approach "greening" the ICT sector. It is important to note that addressing all the issues raised in this report does not guarantee a perfect, or even workable, enabling environment to meet theglobal climate change challenge. This is because the effectiveness of these measures can be affected by exogenous factors and the unique national circumstances of each country
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Digital and Green Patents ; Environment ; ICT Applications ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Transition Technologies ; Twin Transition
    Abstract: The objective of this project is to map the East Asian metropolitan areas that are leading the digital and green transition (twin transition). The research will leverage patent data to identify green technologies and digital technologies in which East Asian metropolitan regions have managed to develop a relatively strong position, how such positions have changed over time, and to what extent both types of technologies tend to support or reinforce each other. The knowledge piece will provide high-end data visualizations and analytics to inform policymakers and stakeholders and better leverage knowledge in these different ecosystems
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 39458
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Digital Technologies ; E-Government ; Environment ; Governance ; Govtech ; Green Transition ; ICT Applications ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: Governments are increasingly seeking opportunities to leverage digital technologies to build a greener future. This guidance note provides useful advice to policy makers underlining adequate leadership and commitment are crucial to implement coordinated GovTech and Green policies. The climate change impacts of digitalization can provide the benefits of green digital service delivery, paperless administration, and the efficiency of integrated services for a reduction of the carbon footprint. The guidance note will focus on "greening Public Administration through GovTech" defined as GovTech policies, initiatives, and/or solutions that embrace environmental considerations by design, maximizing the green benefits and considering the potential negative impacts, for example through digitalization of government processes. This guidance note is centered around three main topics: (i) the green government process through digital solutions; (ii) greening digital service delivery; and (iii) identifying policy mechanisms to mainstream green digital approaches throughout government systems
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 39458
    Keywords: Capacity Building ; Climate Change Impacts ; Data ; Development ; Economic Growth ; Inflation ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Poverty Assessment ; Statistics
    Abstract: The digital revolution has changed the operating environment for statistics and has increased competition in the information space. The operating environment for NSOs has changed significantly in the past decades. Computing power once prohibitively expensive has become affordable even for low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Data that had to be collected manually are now ubiquitous because of digitalization and e-government initiatives, which have also created a constant flow of data from citizens and businesses to government agencies. The rollout of national ID programs, unique business entity identifiers, and national address registers have created the potential for integrating data from disparate databases. However, the vast new technical possibilities have been accompanied by intense competition in the information space. NSOs that were once the main, or in some cases the only, providers of socioeconomic information, are being challenged by new, nimbler, and more data savvy players who are not bound by the rigid definitions and standards of official statistics. The COVID-19 pandemic amplified this trend, with a proliferation of data sites providing near to real-time data on the impact of the pandemic on public health, livelihoods, labor markets, and the economy
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Digital Economy ; Digital Infrastructure ; ICT Legal and Regulatory Framework ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Policies ; Regulatory Watch Initiative
    Abstract: The Regulatory Watch Initiative (RWI) is designed as a supplementary tool to aid national administrations in contemplating, analyzing, and drafting policies, laws, and regulations. It can also provide insight on comparative measures to spur Digital Economy growth by informing decision-makers about gaps, trends, and best practices for developing a fully enabling environment and to support the adoption of digital infrastructure for integrated and balanced economic and social development
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 39458
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; FCS ; Fragility and Conflict ; Governance ; GOVTECH ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Insurance and Risk Mitigation ; Investment and Investment Climate ; Political Economy ; Reforms
    Abstract: This report takes stock of the development of GovTech solutions in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations (FCS), be they characterized by low institutional capacity and/or by active conflict and provides insights on challenges and opportunities for implementing GovTech reforms in such contexts. It is aimed at practitioners and policy makers working in FCS but will also be useful for practitioners working in Fragility, Conflict, and Violence (FCV) contexts, at-risk countries, or low-income countries as some similar challenges and opportunities can be present. Chapter 1 describes the methodology and provides basic definitions of FCV and GovTech as well as the rationale for the report. Chapter 2 provides an overview of GovTech in FCS, based on the analysis of GovTech Maturity Index (G_TMJ) data, and common challenges to GovTech in FCS. Chapter 3 analyzes the state of GovTech reforms per pillar in FCS and illustrates these with selected examples. Chapter 4 concludes with some recommendations for designing and implementing GovTech projects in these contexts based on the analysis
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Biodiversity ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Forest Institutions ; Forest Management ; Forests ; Fuels ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Land Degradation ; Landscape Restoration ; Legal Framework ; Non-Wood Forest Products ; NWFPs ; Protected Areas
    Abstract: This note synthesizes multiple reports produced under World Bank support to the Government of Armenia (GoA) in undertaking landscape restoration opportunities assessment and provides a detailed overview of opportunities and challenges in the forestry sector. Armenia is a forest-poor country; only 11.2 percent of the territory (334,100 hectares (ha) is forested, which is concentrated in three marzes: Tavush and Lori in the north and Syunik in the south. The predominant forest type is naturally grown broad-leaved mountain forest with a small area of pine forest. Estimates on the state of the forests, their extent, quality, health, and harvested volumes vary widely depending on the data sources and methodology used. Based on wood consumption data, harvesting volumes must be much higher than officially reported, while forest growth is lower than the current official estimates. These divergences, combined with limited silvicultural management and exacerbated by fires and uncontrolled grazing, mean that sustainable forest use is clearly far from guaranteed. The note has been developed through a consultative process and is expected to inform all relevant stakeholders on the status of the forest sector and opportunities to further improve it. The objective of this note is to strengthen the dialogue with Armenia on the forest sector considering the ongoing reforms and to explore how the country can reverse landscape degradation and increase its contribution to post-pandemic economic recovery
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2201
    Keywords: Access of Poor To Social Services ; Access To Finance ; Access To Services ; Digital Divide ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; G20 ; Inclusive Cities ; Information and Communication Technologies ; National Urban Development Policies and Strategies ; Poverty Reduction ; Roles of Stakeholders ; Sustainability and Resilience ; Urban Development
    Abstract: In both G20 and non-G20 countries alike, cities have a crucial role to play in the achievement of national development goals. Already, cities generate more than 80 percent of global GDP and, with a share of the global population that is projected to reach nearly 70 percent by 2050, up from the current share of around 57 percent, the global importance of cities will only grow further in the decades ahead. However, whether the cities of tomorrow can fulfil their potential as drivers of national economic development will depend, to a large extent, on how inclusive they are - that is to say, the extent to which they are able to provide all their residents with quality access to services, markets, and spaces. This is because not only is inclusion in and of itself important, but because more inclusive cities are also both more prosperous and more resilient cities. At the same time, many policies that contribute to inclusive urban development carry important co-benefits for both climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as vice versa. In this context, this report addresses four important questions: (a) What is an inclusive city (b) How inclusive are cities in G20 member and guest countries, as well as in other countries, globally today (c) What instruments should policymakers draw-on to make the cities of tomorrow more inclusive or, to put it more succinctly, what can policymakers do to make their cities more inclusive And, finally, (d) What are the roles of different stakeholders - city leaders and their associated local governments; national governments, including their ministries of finance; the private sector; civil society organizations; and others - in the effective wielding of these instruments or, to put it more bluntly, who needs to do what
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2113
    Keywords: Blended Learning ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Economic Growth ; Education ; Energy and Environment ; ICT ; Information and Communication Technologies ; K-12
    Abstract: This report proposes a preliminary guiding framework to define and deploy blended learning models at the K-12 level in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Drawing lessons from international examples and good practices, the proposed framework aims to provide key considerations for the strategic and effective use and integration of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in K-12 schools
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Data Analysis ; Data Collection ; Economic Growth ; Governance ; ICT Data and Statistics ; Index Construction ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Results Reporting ; Technology ; Validation
    Abstract: The 2021 GovTech Maturity Index (GTMI) report and underlying dataset provide opportunities to replicate the study, identify gaps in digital transformation by comparing the differences among economies and groups of economies, and track changes over time in a transparent way. The dataset will be updated every two years to reflect developments in the GovTech domain. This 2022 GTMI update report and the accompanying dataset and new data dashboard present the progress within the last two years, highlight some of the good practices, and identify existing gaps for possible improvements in countries at the technology frontier. As with the 2020 edition, economies are grouped, not ranked, to illustrate the state of GovTech focus areas globally. This overview report presents a summary of the approach, how the 2022 GTMI dataset update is different, improvements in the GTMI dataset contents and visualization tools and GTMI group calculations, and initial findings and key messages
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Sector/Thematic Studies
    Keywords: Avatar ; Decentralization ; Economic System ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Interoperability ; Metaverse ; Virtual World
    Abstract: The Metaverse, widely regarded as a successor to today's internet, is a concept embodying a unified digital world that is tightly connected to the physical world. In the Metaverse, people can interact without physical or geographic constraints and enjoy a compelling sense of social presence. This offers a positive impact on the real world in various areas. In addition, the Metaverse can serve as a globally unified economic system for digital content that enables entities in different countries to interact frictionlessly. The emerging technologies curation series aims to capture and share Korea's experience and lessons learned in regard to the exploration and adoption of emerging technologies such as blockchain, AI, edge-computing, IoT, 5G, and so forth. This third issue in the series briefly describes the Metaverse and its potential for solving development challenges, alongside key highlights of Korea's experience
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Amazon ; Digital Id Credentials ; Facebook ; Google Accounts ; ICT Data and Statistics ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Log-In ; Services on the Internet ; Websites
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is on federations that provide digital ID credentials and services recognized by governments for official purposes, in other words, accessing government services, and may also be accepted or required for certain services in the private sector that require higher levels of assurance-for example, the opening of a bank account. Other forms of digital ID and federation provided and used only by private sector entities-such as using Facebook, Amazon, or Google accounts to log-in to other websites or services on the internet via federation protocols-are not considered here
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Environmental and Financial Risks ; ICT Data and Statistics ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Potential Technical
    Abstract: This guide begins by establishing the minimum conditions that should be in place to consider a technology feasible. This will be done in chapter two, starting with the general local political context and analysis of the project's planning, and moving on to more specific technical conditions for each technology regarding energy vector availability and standards and regulations to consider. Once the general context has been established, chapter three presents a brief description of the technical aspects of each technology, which involves considerations on bus selection, fueling or charging infrastructure, energy consumption and modes of operation. After going through this chapter, the TTL should have a clear understanding of the more technical or physical implications of each technology and should have the tools to argue whether a technology would be feasible. A detailed description of all CTBs is presented in the Annex on bus technology and charging infrastructure. It is strongly recommended that the evaluator reads this annex before starting the evaluation. In chapter four, a methodology for comparing the environmental impact of each technology is presented. This includes assessing the potential reduction in GHG emissions of each vehicle technology, as well as local toxic emissions. In chapter five, the economic performance of the different technologies is assessed by estimating CAPEX and OPEX expenditures and calculating the levelized cost of ticket (LCOT) of the different technologies under varying financial scenarios and considerations. Using the results from the previous sections, Chapter six presents and evaluates the cost-benefit of implementing each technology. The guide concludes with chapter six, a results evaluation and a discussion of the potential technical, environmental, and financial risks the evaluator should consider for the different technologies
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Design ; ICT Data and Statistics ; Implementation and Delivery of Identification (ID) Systems ; Inclusive and Trusted Systems ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Strategic Communications
    Abstract: This guidance note unpacks how strategic communications can enhance the design, implementation, and delivery of identification (ID) systems that are inclusive and trusted. When leveraged holistically, strategic communications can help governments engage effectively with relevant actors throughout the lifecycle of an ID system, including stakeholders on the supply side of ID administration, such as government and private sector implementing entities, and those on the demand side, namely the people that an ID system is intended to serve. Effective communication with relevant actors sows the seeds for public awareness about an ID system, which ultimately helps boost engagement through increased access, both of which are fundamental to achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Target 16.9 on the provision of legal identity for all. This note builds on best practices for communications outlined in the ID4D Practitioner's Guide to offer governments and ID system practitioners a more in-depth perspective on how to craft an effective strategy and implementation framework. In doing so, the guide highlights essential components for a communications strategy; spotlights cross-country campaigns specific to ID systems and beyond to demonstrate the breadth of potential approaches; and provides practical tools, such as terms of references and a measurement framework, that can support practitioners as they transform ideas into action
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Competitiveness and Competition Policy ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Private Sector Development
    Abstract: The report presents the main structural characteristics of the sectors included in the Technology Adoption Survey (TAS) implemented in Poland and provides sectoral TAS results for general and sector-specific business functions, comparing Poland to a peer country, Korea. Nine sectors analyzed within TAS include agriculture, food processing, wearing apparel, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals, basic metals, wholesale and retail trade, financial services, and land transport. These form a selection of the most important economic industries in agriculture, manufacturing, and services. The same sectors were chosen in all countries where TAS was implemented because of their important contributions to the national economies as well as their diversity, which allowed us to identify the different natures of their technological needs and the barriers to technology adoption. Sectors in Poland differ in technology sophistication in both general business and sector-specific functions but, to a large extent, those differences are driven by the sectors' structural differences, such as the number of large firms, the share of exporters, and the number foreign-owned enterprises. Firms in different sectors face different economic conditions and are exposed to a different balance of regulatory, environmental, and geopolitical risks and challenges. Understanding those sectoral differences, especially as they affect the use of sector-specific technologies, is of utmost importance, because productivity improvements historically have been driven primarily by capital-intensive investment, which often involves sector-specific technologies. In the context of sector-specific technologies, it is worth noting that the level of sophistication differs between sectors. Comparing technology trends across sectors is beyond the scope of this report, however; rather, here we closely follow the methodology described in Bridging the Technological Divide: Technology Adoption by Firms in Developing Countries
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; ICT Economics ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Investment
    Abstract: Djibouti's economic activity has slowed since the beginning of 2022, after the rebound observed in 2021. Fiscal pressure has increased as a result of measures to mitigate the impact of the war in Ukraine, worsening drought, and a sharp increase in debt service in 2022. Rising international energy and food prices generated high year-on-year inflation. The external current account' deteriorated further in 2022. The banking sector has remained generally stable and sound, despite the many shocks facing the Djibouti economy. Djibouti's economy is expected to recover gradually over the medium term. There are several risks to Djibouti's mediumterm prospects: (i) a further deterioration in the fiscal situation resulting from a continued accumulation of public debt, a continued decline in revenues, and increased tax exemptions; (ii) potential shocks in the global transport and logistics value chains (particularly important for the activities of port-related public enterprises); (iii) the continuation or possible intensification of the Ethiopian crisis; and (iv) climatic shocks, including drought and floods. To strengthen its resilience to the multiple exogenous shocks it faces, Djibouti is implementing a strategy to diversify its port activities in order to capture more value added in international trade. This strategy includes the development of a ship repair yard, a new oil terminal and a new business district at the old portrait In addition, to address the impact of climate change, Djibouti is developing a national strategy for the promotion of a green economy whose activities will help generate additional income for the population through the development of ecotourism activities in addition to their beneficial impact on climate change. In this context, the development of networks and the use of digital technology offer Djibouti significant potential for creating economic and social opportunities
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Digital Divide ; Disease Control and Prevention ; Economic Growth ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy
    Abstract: Myanmar's economy continues to be severely tested by the ongoing impacts of the military coup and the surge in COVID-19 cases in 2021. While some real-time indicators have improved in recent months, they remain consistent with a much lower level of economic activity than prior to the February coup. Reported COVID-19 cases have fallen to low levels (and few reported cases of the Omicron variant as of early January 2022), while real time indicators of mobility, manufacturing activity, and exports are showing signs of recovering. On the other hand, indicators of conflict suggest that the security environment has deteriorated in many parts of Myanmar, including in states and regions which have historically been relatively peaceful. This has affected businesses' operations, logistics, confidence, and appetite to invest. After the sharp decline in incomes and employment observed across the economy, available indicators suggest domestic demand remains very weak. At the same time, supply-side constraints persist and some have worsened in recent months. Access to kyat liquidity, credit, and foreign currency remains severely constrained. A sharp exchange rate depreciation in September 2021 has raised import prices across the economy, including of fuel and other critical inputs to production, increasing transport costs. Electricity outages are a growing concern and internet disruptions continue to reduce the reliability of firms' and households' connectivity and ability to access information and connect with markets (see Part III: Digital Disruptions and Economic Impacts)
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Data Collection ; Health Management Information System ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Roads and Highways ; Transport
    Abstract: This report provides insights into the current situation and overall burden of trauma and RTCs in Malawi, shares what we have learned about how to effectively run a digital trauma registry in a low-resource setting, and highlights lessons learned from the implementation of the EMS pilot
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Digital Divide ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Private Sector Development ; Rural Development ; Securities Markets Policy and Regulation
    Abstract: This technical note is structured in the following manner. Section two provides an overview of the main barriers and frictions that SMEs face to access finance. Section three explores how digitization is an enabler for SME finance and how different fintech solutions address these barriers. The fintech solutions analyzed include digital credit, asset-based lending, and equity products. Also examined are innovative products such as digital payments, credit risk assessment using alternative data, tokenized assets, and electronic invoicing. Market enablers such as e-commerce and open banking, and the digitization of business processes, which contribute to addressing the barriers and frictions to SME access to finance, are also highlighted. Section four analyzes how the providers of these fintech solutions for SMEs impact traditional banks, financial institutions, and implications on the financial market structure. This section also discusses the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of digital financial products for SMEs. Section five then addresses some of the key risks and challenges involved in the adoption of digital financial products and key market enablers. Finally, section six presents policy and regulatory recommendations to address the different challenges
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Climate Shocks ; Employment and Unemployment ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Labor Markets ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This poverty assessment lays out the broad development challenges that Nigeria faces, which constrain the country's poverty reduction. The discussion provides the backdrop for the detailed analysis presented in later parts of the report. First, the introductory section links Nigeria's macroeconomic performance with its prospects for poverty reduction, emphasizing that the country may be struggling to stimulate inclusive growth: that is, growth that would benefit Nigerians across the welfare distribution. Second, the section examines the proliferating climate and conflict shocks that Nigeria faces, which further complicate poverty reduction. Third, the section describes how the "double shock" of COVID-19 has affected Nigeria, through both health and economic impacts and discusses the recent acceleration in inflation. Finally, this introduction considers Nigeria's data landscape, explaining how new microdata offer vital insights into the country's pathways out of poverty
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Infrastructure ; Science and Technology Development ; Technology Innovation
    Abstract: The report presents both the opportunities of and the bottlenecks for furthering the digital agenda. It emphasizes that the first step is to get the basics right. This includes enabling access to and adoption of high-quality affordable broadband, initiating a paradigm shift in building digital public platforms and accelerating digital financial services. Part of this includes integrating digital ID, digital payments, and data sharing platforms so they can become 'digital stacks' that allow service providers to build and innovate their own platforms and systems on top. Supporting digital businesses, fostering digital skills, and creating the necessary trust environment are also critical to the digital agenda. Further, a successful digital agenda at country levels would benefit from regional integration that entails cross-border connectivity, data infrastructure, and payment systems
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Banking Law ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; ICT Applications ; ICT Legal and Regulatory Framework ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Law and Development
    Abstract: Open banking has emerged strongly in the past few years as a system to give customers the right to share with parties they trust the information that banks have about them in a secure manner and also as a way to open up processes and services in banking. The main objectives pursued by regulatory frameworks that define open banking are generally encouraging innovation and fostering competition, resulting in new products and services at competitive prices to the benefit of consumers. With that in mind, and with the United Kingdom as a first mover, different regulatory approaches have been developed. Some of them are regulatory driven, while in other cases, with a hands-off approach, they have been led by industry. In between, we also find collaborative models in which both the public sector and private-party players are instrumental to the definition and adoption of open banking. Regulatory approaches also differ in the scope of data that is to be shared, the definition of the financial institutions that have to publish their application programming inter-faces and share data, the mandatory or voluntary nature of the framework, the definition of the type of license that third-party providers need to operate, and the definition or not of concrete standards, among other things. While there is no single right approach, there are common challenges that countries considering regulation certainly need to bear in mind in terms of the definition and interoperability of technical standards, security, governance, and consent and authentication mechanisms. Although open-banking regulatory frameworks have been operating for less than two years at most, early lessons can be drawn from the first movers and the debates that are taking place between regulators and market participants
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  • 37
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Investment Climate Assessment
    Keywords: Economics of Education ; Education ; Education Services Industry ; Educational Institutions and Facilities ; Higher Education ; Industry ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: Malaysia's higher education sector expanded rapidly in the late 1990s, with the number of institutions peaking in 2001 and the number of international students peaking in 2017. Following improvements in the quality of local universities and the establishment of branches of international campuses in Malaysia, the country has become a net receiver of foreign students. Enhanced trade in the higher education sector, and the expansion of the sector, bodes well for Malaysia's next phase of economic development. The objectives of this paper are to document the pattern of trade in higher education services in Malaysia and to analyze the main factors that constrain trade in this sector. First, the paper aims to document Malaysia's higher education landscape and the pattern of trade in each of the four modes of services trade. Second, it seeks to identify key policy challenges and constraints affecting this sector. The paper employs a combination of quantitative, qualitative, and institutional research methods. The paper finds that despite numerous liberalization measures, a number of remaining restrictions and limitations continue to impact trade in the sector. The paper finds that the most significant policy challenges likely relate to domestic constraints. To attract foreign students and faculty members and to enhance trade in the higher education sector, it is crucial to ease the visa and immigration processes and rules. Furthermore, measures to enhance the digitalization of administrative processes at the regulatory agencies and at Higher Education Institution (HEIs) can increase efficiency, with the potential to reduce the burden associated with excessive documentation requirements. It is also crucial that agencies and universities systematically collect more data to better inform policy reforms and guide universities in how to improve their programs
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  • 38
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Access to Finance ; E-Finance and E-Security ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The global economy is undergoing a rapid digital transformation that is changing many conventional notions about our behavior and preferences. This includes the way in which we, as consumers, as businesses, or in interactions with government, seek out goods and services and pay for them or how we receive money from others or transfer it to family or friends. As the payments industry undergoes radical changes due to digital transformation, users, providers of payment services, and regulators are adapting to the new dynamics at varying paces. This note discusses the most significant innovations in payments and their key impacts and implications on users, banks and other payment service providers, regulators, and the overall structure of the payments market. The note places special emphasis on how emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs) can reap the benefits of payment innovations in terms of costs, convenience, accessibility, and inclusion for individuals and firms, and allow them to leapfrog development of their payments markets and effectively support economic activity
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Investment Climate Assessment
    Keywords: E-Business ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Infrastructure Investment ; Private Sector Development ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The rapid expansion of digital technologies around the world has impacted many economic and social activities with increasingly reliable and fast Internet connectivity changing how people communicate, work, and live. Digital services have also played an important role in keeping the world connected and economies running during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is therefore crucial that countries implement proactive polices to become more digitalized and target the creation of an inclusive digital economy in order to foster sustainable and inclusive economic growth. Cross-border data transfer regulations also play an important role in supporting trade in digital services. The Malaysia digital economy report produced by the World Bank in 2018 examined three interrelated issues that are closely aligned with Malaysia's own goal of becoming an e-commerce hub for the region. Building on this research agenda, this deep dive seeks to explain how the role of digital services trade can be enhanced to contribute to Malaysia's competitiveness and integration into the global marketplace. The paper is structured as follows: section one gives introduction and context. Sections 2 and 3 benchmarks Malaysia's digital preparedness (for example, in terms of Internet penetration ratios) against its structural, aspirational, and regional peers. Section 4 assesses the performance of Malaysia's digital services trade and digital economy, including in sub-sectors such as e-commerce and FinTech which are both important elements of digitalization. Section 5 discusses the constraints to deeper integration and development of the digital sector in the Malaysian economy. Section 6 presents the main findings and makes policy recommendations
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Digital Divide ; E-Finance and E-Security ; E-Government ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: Migrating from legacy IT infrastructure and data storage to cloud services can yield enormous benefits for governments: it can save governments money; increase the integrity, quality, and speed with which they deliver services; and provide access to the most advanced analytical tools and cybersecurity features available. These benefits have spurred a shift by governments across the globe away from legacy information technology (IT) systems, and towards cloud solutions, including public cloud services
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: ICT Economics ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology
    Abstract: Digital technologies are paving the way for economic growth and new service delivery models across Africa. On key digital indicators, Botswana fares similarly or better than regional neighbors, but is lagging behind global peers with the same income levels, illustrating the potential to enhance performance. The digital economy in Botswana rests on several relatively strong individual strategies, policies, and regulations. However, when combined, these form a somewhat fragmented framework - further challenged by oftentimes slow implementation. This digital economy for Africa (DE4A) report considers the digital economy's five foundational pillars, as well as cross-cutting issues. The report summarizes pillar status and recommendations for addressing challenges: infrastructure; digital platforms; digital financial services (DFS); digital business; digital skills; and suggested priority areas for action
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Digital Identity ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Private Sector ; Science and Technology Development ; Social Protections and Labor ; Technology Innovation
    Abstract: This case study describes Singpass, Singapore's national digital identity (NDI), and API Exchange (APEX), the government's data-sharing platform. It highlights not just how they work but also how they work together. Built by the Government Technology Agency of Singapore (GovTech), both products have helped to improve the lives of Singaporeans and residents, and to enable government agencies and businesses to offer better services. This has contributed greatly to Singapore becoming a leading digital government, economy, and society, which are the three pillars of its Smart Nation Initiative
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Ethics ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Human Rights ; ICT Data and Statistics ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Private Sector Development
    Abstract: Technology is at the core of credit reporting systems, which have evolved significantly over the past decade by adopting new technologies and business models. As disruptive technologies have been increasingly adopted around the globe, concerns have arisen over possible misuse or unethical use of these new technologies. These concerns inspired international institutions and national authorities to issue high-level principles and guidance documents on responsible technology use. While adopting new technologies benefits the credit reporting industry, unintended negative outcomes of these technologies from ethics and human rights perspectives must also be considered. The white paper begins with a brief introductory section, followed in section 2 with a discussion of technology use in credit reporting, with a special focus on the key disruptive technologies being increasingly adopted by the industry. Section 3 provides information on the scope, development, and high-level principles of several key technology frameworks, including the principles underlying their responsible use. Section 4 introduces ten principles to guide responsible use of technology in credit reporting activities. Section 5 discusses considerations for applying the principles. The section concludes with use cases illustrating the principles in action
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Education ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Industry ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Infrastructure Finance
    Abstract: This report provides a region-wide analysis on the status of the digital economy in South Asia. It identifies opportunities and challenges for national and regional action to realize the transformational potential of digitalizing economies, societies, and governments. The report synthesizes and builds upon country assessments produced for Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. It follows the World Bank's digital economy assessment framework, covering different dimensions of the digital economy from digital infrastructure and public platforms to digital financial services, skills, and the trust environment. It also discusses the opportunities and benefits of regional integration and collaboration. First and foremost, enabling access to high-quality affordable broadband, and increasing its adoption, will yield substantial social and economic benefits. These benefits include better access to information, education, and training, greater administrative efficiency in public services, and improved economic growth and productivity. There are currently significant gaps in connectivity access and usage within and across South Asian countries. While most countries have closed the gaps in mobile network coverage, fixed broadband coverage remains a challenge. The usage gap (represented by the number of people living within range of a mobile network but not using the Internet) remains the region's biggest challenge, and is driven by gaps in digital literacy, gaps in affordability for the poorest quintiles, and a lack of relevant content and applications. While there is significant diversity across South Asia, countries in the region might consider adopting a twin-track approach as follows: a) implement policies to enhance competition and attract private sector investment for the upgrade and roll out digital infrastructure, especially for fixed fiber networks that connect users over the middle and last miles, and b) invest heavily in demand-side policies and programs to enhance digital skills and increase affordability, especially for the poorest in the region
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Democratic Government ; E-Government ; Financial Policy ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; National Governance
    Abstract: Authorities in Mexico are seeking solutions to the complex task of improving efficiency in the financial and government sectors when identifying individuals and legal entities, while balancing other public-policy objectives, such as governance, technological neutrality, safety, privacy, and universal coverage. The objective of this document is to describe the identity-management system (IMS) in Mexico and its importance to the financial-sector environment while reflecting on the need for digital identification and authentication procedures and processes. The document will analyze the different options for, and policy implications of, the digital identification of individuals and legal entities in Mexico when meeting financial policy objectives and regulation. This document builds on the principles established by the G20 on digital financial inclusion, the Identity management system analysis, and the common principles on Identification for sustainable development. It takes into account standards and guidelines issued in the financial-sector context that recognize the need to identify individuals and legal entities and intends to provide guidance to Mexican authorities when defining policies that involve the need to identify individuals and legal entities. The document is organized as follows: First, an executive summary presents key observations and recommendations for authorities. A discussion of identification systems in the financial sector comes next, followed by a description of the IMSs in Mexico, including the institutional arrangements, and then by sections on digital identity and the legal framework supporting such infrastructures. Finally, the report concludes with a section on potential actions, which build on initiatives in other countries, which are included along with the report. International standards are attached as appendixes to support the methodology used to elaborate this document
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Digital Divide ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Telecommunications
    Abstract: Myanmar has experienced a series of total and partial internet shutdowns since the military coup in February 2021. These restrictions have varied in intensity across the country and over time, ranging from the complete shutdown of all wireless broadband services and nightly shutdowns of fixed line services between February and April 2021, followed by limited access to a whitelist of websites and services and intermittent subnational shutdowns starting in May 2021. The restrictions on internet access have had a profound impact on investments in the sector, subsequently affecting the growth of digital infrastructure and digitally enabled services in Myanmar. Internet restrictions have also had important implications on household welfare, firm operations, and growth of the digital economy in Myanmar. New regulations, market exit by private sector providers, and continued internet restrictions threaten to reverse the progress made over the last decade. Continued internet restrictions can lead to further restraint of online economic activity and closure of many young digital start-ups that rely on consistent, reliable, and widespread internet adoption to reach markets
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; ICT Applications ; ICT Economics ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Digitalization represents a key driver for long-term economic growth. While the use of digital technology has accelerated during the pandemic, the Philippines has not fully leveraged its expected benefits. There has been progress in expanding digital connectivity, but challenges remain. The explosive digitalization during the pandemic requires policies to keep up with the pace of development of the digital economy
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Digital Development ; Economic Growth ; ICT Economics ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has suffered from decades of conflict, poor governance, and volatile economic growth reflecting commodity dependence. Poverty remains widespread in the country, including in urban areas, albeit uneven across regions. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic exacerbated the DRC's existing economic vulnerability to external shocks while boosting the use of digital technology. This 7th edition, covering the period 2020-2021 and the first quarter of 2022, examines how the DRC economy responded and fared amidst adverse shocks, with a view to improving the country's resilience in the future. It analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the global recovery, as well as the most recent impact of the war in Ukraine on the DRC's main macroeconomic aggregates. The report focuses on the importance of digital development in bringing about poverty reduction and inclusive growth. It leverages the critical breakthrough of the new Telecommunications Law to improve connectivity and close the digital divide, while exposing the remaining challenges. This economic update targets a broad audience, including decision makers, the business environment, local and international development partners, civil society actors, the academic environment, and economic and financial analysts
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Digital Divide ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The widespread adoption of digital technologies is transforming how individuals, businesses, and governments interact, as well as creating new opportunities for boosting shared prosperity and reducing poverty. Digital technologies are playing an increasingly important role in El Salvador's economic development and will play an even larger role as the global economy continues to digitize. Digital transformation can help El Salvador address its persistent growth challenges and explore new avenues toward green, resilient, and inclusive development. This report builds on the strategic priorities of the digital agenda (DA) 2020-2030, assesses the state of digital economy development in El Salvador, and provides detailed analysis and policy recommendations to inform the reform agenda in the country. The report provides a comprehensive overview El Salvador's digital economy development across six foundational elements of a digital economy: digital infrastructure, digital platforms, digital financial services, digital businesses, digital skills, and trust environment. The diagnostic and recommendations are based on analysis of secondary data, structured interviews, surveys, and focus group discussions with key government and private sector stakeholders. The findings of the report are organized in six chapters - each dealing with a pillar of the digital economy. Policy recommendations are presented in the form of sequenced action plans that can inform relevant efforts by national authorities, the private sector, and development partners. The report summarizes the main findings on each digital economy pillar
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Poverty Reduction ; Services and Transfers to Poor ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in vast numbers of people in need of social assistance, many of whom were not previously covered by social safety nets. To meet this unprecedented level of need, governments quickly scaled social assistance reaching over 1.7 billion people in low- and middle income countries. Scaling up social assistance presented two separate but related challenges: first, adapting targeting and registration to reach individuals not commonly included in social assistance databases, such as urban informal workers, and second, how to deliver government to person (G2P) payments safely and securely in the context of the pandemic. Countries that could leverage pre-pandemic investments in digital public infrastructure (DPI)- identification (ID), payments and trusted data sharing-were better able to implement COVID-response social assistance programs and reach more beneficiaries. This paper, analyzes the role of these DPIs, also called digital stack, in the social protection response to COVID by analyzing data on howCOVID-response social assistance programs register red and made payments to beneficiaries across178 programs across 85 countries. The analysis shows how these digital systems and infrastructure allowed for innovative targeting, registration, and payment approaches that covered a significantportion of the population. This paper uses administrative data on G2P registration and payment methods combined with anecdotal evidence from country case studies to show how pre-pandemic investments in digital databases, digital ID, and digital payments impacted countries' abilities to reach new beneficiaries and deliver payments safely in the context of the pandemic response. It further details workaround solutions implemented by countries without these assets and infrastructure in place, and how some countries were able to expand their digital infrastructure even amidst the urgency of the crisis response. The analysis concludes with suggestions as to the impact that the social assistance response to COVID-19 can have on the future of social protection payments, in terms of inspiring investments in building and strengthening G2P ecosystems globally
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  • 51
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    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Environment ; Environmental Information Systems ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: The Kyoto Protocol has provided a common framework for greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting through its internationally governed market-based approaches. On the other hand, the Paris Agreement is not calling for the establishment of one centrally coordinated or interlinked emissions trading architecture. The discussions at COP25 on Article 6.2 only suggest that each participating Party shall have, or have access to, a registry for tracking purposes. While this market infrastructure will need to reflect the diversity of instruments and market transactions, as well as differences in country capacities, a certain degree of standardization is likely to be required if the countries intend to use international market mechanisms or cooperate by connecting their national registries to those of other jurisdictions. Striking the right balance between these two purposes - that is, creating a registry that is both nationally appropriate and internationally compatible - will be one of the biggest challenges. That said, future developments regarding infrastructure design in the Paris framework will benefit greatly from already existing infrastructure, as well as knowledge and experience that have been gained over the years. This approach paper aims to reach a common understanding on what market infrastructure may be needed at the national and international level to meet transparency and integrity requirements of Article 6, as well as to store, track, and transact units at different stages of a carbon asset's life cycle. Different options will be explored to assess how the market infrastructure at the national and international level could be developed under different scenarios
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  • 52
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Cash Transfers ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Environment ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Infrastructure ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Regulation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: In the business of making policies, decisions are based on experience and guided by political concerns. However, in the business of delivering policies, the machinery of government is often taxed by delays and inefficiencies, and constrained by insufficient resources, management tools, and just-in-time information. The result is that governments operate well below the efficiency frontier. For most of our history, research has been disconnected from policy and has moved slowly to build knowledge relevant to designing policies. The authors introduce some of the principles that govern this young institution in the chapters that follow, each designed to exemplify the value of doing better research for doing better development. In these chapters, they present four overarching ideas that they have worked into development practice. Overall, Development Impact Evaluation (DIME's) approach is to inform the path of development through a capacities-based and iterative process of evidence-informed adaptive policy change. To do so, DIME has developed and implemented a model of co-production with agencies on the ground that transfers capacity and know-how to partners, enables them to make mid-course corrections and motivates the scale-up of more successful policy instruments to achieve policy outcomes and optimize development impact. Finally, DIME invests in public goods to improve the quality and reproducibility of development research around the world
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  • 53
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Infrastructure Economics ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Regulation
    Abstract: Cyberattacks against industrial control systems (ICS) are on the rise. Roughly one-third of ICS were targeted by malicious activity in the first half of 2021, with hackers often tied to nation-states and organized crime. Electric utilities around the world have been undergoing a transformative digitalization process, promoting efficiency but also exposing the sector to cyberattacks that can have serious negative effects on other critical infrastructure (transport, water supply, et cetera). Given the increased connectivity and digitalization of power networks, and the convergence of operational technology (OT) with information technology (IT), cybersecurity and proactive cyber risk management in the electricity sector have become a necessity
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  • 54
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: ICT Economics ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Science and Technology Development ; Technology Innovation
    Abstract: Many Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, including Guinea-Bissau, lack the requisite enabling environment to capture a larger fraction of the global digital economy or benefit from its gains and are thus at increasing risk of being left behind. Rapid digital transformation is reshaping the global economy, driving financing inclusion, closing information gaps between buyers and sellers, and changing the way economies of scale are achieved. In many, although certainly not all, parts of the continent, access to and affordability of broadband internet remains low; for that matter, even access to electricity is low, preventing Africans from being able to go online. Most public services remain offline, and many Africans lack digital identity or mobile wallets to take advantage of digital financial or other services. Digital skills and literacy remain weak. Finally, although venture capital investment on the continent continues to grow, 2021 witnessed 681 rounds of fundraising across 640 startups, totaling US5.2 billion dollars in equity raised, according to the African Private Equity and Venture Capital Association, structural constraints prevent businesses from taking greater advantage of the digital economy. Of the 716 financial technology (fintech) companies currently operating in SSA, only 5 percent have scaled. In this context, the WBG has undertaken this digital economy diagnostic of Guinea-Bissau under the leadership of the Ministry of Transport and Communication and the Vice Prime Minister. Based on desk research, virtual and in person interviews with a wide range of public and private sector stakeholders, and an April 2022 field mission to discuss preliminary findings and proposed recommendations, this report analyzes the constraints in each of the five foundational pillar and puts forward actionable recommendations categorized by priority level and sequencing. Overall, it aims to inform the national dialogue, as well as next steps, around Guinea-Bissau's digital transformation, a policy agenda in which the Government of Guinea Bissau (GoGB) has expressed keen interest
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  • 55
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Cryptocurrency ; E-Finance and E-Security ; Emerging Markets ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Private Sector Development
    Abstract: Fintech is transforming the global financial landscape. It is creating new opportunities to advance financial inclusion and development in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies (EMDEs), but also presents risks that require updated supervision policy frameworks. Fintech encompasses new financial digital products and services enabled by new technologies and policies. Although technology has long played a key role in finance, recent fintech developments are generating disruptive innovation in data collection, processing, and analytics. They are helping to introduce new relationship models and distribution channels that challenge traditional ways of finance, while creating additional risks. While most of these risks are not new, their effects and the way they materialize and spread across the system are not yet fully understood, posing new challenges to regulators and supervisors. For example, operational risk, especially cyber risk, is amplified as increasing numbers of customers access the financial network on a 24 by 7 basis. Likewise, increased reliance by financial firms on third parties for provision of digital services, such as cloud computing, may lead to new forms of systemic risks and concentration on new dominant unregulated players such as big tech firms. This note aims to provide EMDE regulators and supervisors with high-level guidance on how to approach the regulating and supervising of fintech, and more specific advice on a few topics. Preserving the stability, safety, and integrity of the financial system requires increased attention to competition and ensuring a level playing field and to emerging data privacy risks. As a general principle, policy response should be proportionate to risks posed by the fintech activity and its provider. While striking the right balance can be challenging in the absence of global standards, the IMF-World Bank Bali Fintech Agenda (BFA), along with guidance by Standard Setting Bodies, provides a good framework for reference
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  • 56
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