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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Climate Change Impacts ; Employment Growth ; Fiscal Consolidation ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Western Balkans
    Abstract: Economic growth in the Western Balkans slowed to 2.6 percent in 2023, from the 3.4 percent reached in 2022, reflecting the impact of a weak European economy weighed down by sequential shocks. Overall, the WB6 region has experienced a rise in total hours worked driven by employment growth and labor force expansion, especially driven by women joining the labor force. Poverty in the Western Balkans returned to its declining trend during 2023, but at a slower pace than pre-pandemic. A robust fiscal performance and solid rate of gross domestic product (GDP) growth led to a fall in debt as a share of GDP. After increasing to levels not seen in several decades, inflation rates in the WB6 fell significantly during 2023. Growth projections for the medium term have increased slightly, reflecting cautious optimism that, having weathered a flurry of shocks over recent years, the Western Balkans is beginning to see a return to trend economic performance. However, while the WB6 region is expected to return on its pre-pandemic trend in 2024, this is insufficient to enable meaningful convergence with European Union (EU) income levels over the medium term. The spotlight in this edition of the Western Balkans Regular Economic Report focuses on the role of cities as engines of growth and leading actor in the green transition. This spotlight recommends action on three main fronts to make cities in the Western Balkans greener. First, it is crucial to reduce urban sprawl and make cities more compact. Second, cities must bring down their emissions, also because this will have immediate improvement on socio-economic and environmental outcomes. And third, cities must take actions to reduce extreme urban heat and enhance preparedness for it
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Developing Countries ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; No Poverty ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction ; SDG 1
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Sub-Saharan Africa region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product, and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Environment ; Inflation ; Macroeconomic Analysis of Economic Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; No Poverty ; Poverty and Climate Change ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Measurement ; Poverty Reduction ; SDG ; Sustainanble Development Goals
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Access To Education ; Economic Development ; Economic Forecasting ; Education ; Education Governance ; Inflation ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the benefits of investing in early childhood education (ECE) for human capital development and economic growth, which lays the foundation for cognitive development, socioemotional skills, and lifelong learning. Recognition of the need to expand participation in preschool education in the Philippines is increasing. In response to the increasing demand for ECE, the Philippine Development Plan (PDP) 2023-2028 aims to increase the participation rate in early learning programs of children aged 0 to 4 years from 16 percent to 63 percent by 2028. The current National System for Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) aims to promote the holistic development of children aged 0 to 4 years throughout the country. this report focuses specifically on center-based ECE programs for 3 to 4-year-old children to demonstrate that gaps and opportunities still remain in ECE service provision in this setting and age group. Chapter 1 discusses the early education system in the Philippines. Chapter 2 presents case studies on the implementation of ECE programs at the local government unit (LGU) level. Chapter 3 presents country case studies of Malaysia, Indonesia, and Peru from which the Philippines may derive lessons in ECE implementation. Finally, the report summarizes key findings and policy recommendations submitted for the consideration of the Philippine government
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Developing Countries ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; Inflation ; Living Standards ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; No Poverty ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Sector Development ; SDG 1
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Europe and Central Asia region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; FDI ; Foreign Direct Investment ; FX ; Import Bans ; Improved Welfare ; Inflation ; International Economics and Trade ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Oil Flows ; Private Sector Credit
    Abstract: Important reform decisions have been taken for Nigeria to avoid a fiscal cliff, and temporary compensation is being provided to help the poorest and most vulnerable households. In May and June 2023, the incoming administration undertook two critical policy decisions, which have resulted in price and exchange rate adjustments in the second half of the year. Targeted cash transfers are helping to cushion the adjustment to higher gasoline prices. On fiscal policy, budget planning for the next several years is consistent with sustaining the fiscal savings from the subsidy reform and mobilizing more revenues. However, the reforms are yet to be completed to fully realize the economic benefits. The FX market has remained volatile and is still in a period of continuing adjustment to the new policy approach. Revenue gains from the FX reform are visible, but more clarity is needed on oil revenues, including the fiscal benefits from the PMS subsidy reform. The economic outlook for Nigeria in the short to medium term hinges on the continuation and effectiveness of its macroeconomic stabilization agenda. Successful implementation of the initiated reforms will be the first step toward improving Nigeria's growth prospect. Moving decisively onto a higher long-term growth and poverty reduction path requires not only a stable macroeconomic environment but also concerted structural reforms
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Demand Shortfalls ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Growth ; Inflation ; Investment Shifts ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Property Sector
    Abstract: Economic activity in China has picked up in 2023, but the recovery remains fragile. Real GDP growth accelerated to 5.2 percent y/y in the first three quarters of 2023, driven by demand for services, resilient manufacturing investment, and public infrastructure stimulus. The initial phase of economic reopening triggered a surge in economic activity in Q1, but growth momentum decelerated rapidly in Q2 before recovering modestly in Q3. The volatile growth performance, compounded by persistent deflationary pressures and still weak consumer confidence, suggests continued fragility in the recovery. China's investment deceleration has been one of the key drivers of the overall growth slowdown in recent years. Together with the decline in aggregate investment growth, there has been a marked shift in the composition of investment. Structural reforms are crucial both to accelerate rebalancing towards higher consumption and to mitigate risks of inefficiencies in capital allocation. Following recent statements by policymakers, a renewed focus on structural reform implementation with specific measures strengthening the rule of law, independent enforcement of regulations, fostering competition, and ensuring a level-playing field could help ensure that resources are allocated to the most productive sectors and firms. Deepening financial sector reform will enhance market-based financial intermediation. Measures to improve the progressivity of the fiscal system, reform the hukou system, and foster inclusive finance will support household consumption growth
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Food Security ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy ; Real Sector
    Abstract: Notwithstanding slower global growth and lingering impacts of recent catastrophic floods, private sector activity, outside the oil sector, has been supported by a relative return to peace, and higher government spending. Nevertheless, the economy is estimated to have contracted by 0.4 percent in FY23/24, reflecting drags from oil production. Supported by a successful exchange rate liberalization, inflation averaged -3.2 percent in 2022 and around 3 percent in the first nine months of 2023. Monetary policy has tightened in recent months, but it remains imperative that the central bank refrain from financing the fiscal deficit. The FY23/24 budget projects a smaller financing gap of about 13 percent of budget expenditures comparedto previous years. However, financing vulnerabilities remain high because of limited fiscal and external liquidity buffers and limited debt-carrying capacity
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Carbon Pricing ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Energy ; Energy and Economic Development ; Energy Prices ; Growth and Real Sector ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The twin shocks of the pandemic and weak global trade has particularly impacted Thailand due to the country's position as a trade and tourism hub. Thailand's tourism arrivals reached only 75 percent of pre-pandemic levels in September despite the ongoing growth in global services trade. Visitor numbers increased across the board, except for China and Japan which are experiencing economic slowdown. The economic recovery faltered due to global headwinds as growth fell to 1.5 percent year-on-year in 2023 Q3, well below expectations. Thailand has implemented a range of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and has taken the first steps to implementing comprehensive carbon pricing. This report explores some of the complexities involved in implementing carbon pricing. It finds that Thailand has already taken some of the most difficult steps in setting up a comprehensive carbon pricing policy instrument. Important questions remain to be addressed about what form carbon pricing should take in Thailand and which economic sectors should be included in a carbon pricing scheme. The potential benefits from carbon pricing may be substantial. Carbon pricing is likely to play an important role in meeting future emission reduction targets, reducing environmental degradation and air pollution while positioning Thailand as a regional leader in green and sustainable growth
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (194 pages)
    Series Statement: Global Economic Prospects
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Commodity Prices ; Debt Relief ; Emerging and Developing Economies ; Exchange Rates ; Fiscal Frameworks ; Food Price Volatility ; GDP Growth ; Inflation ; Interest Rates ; Macroeconomics ; Trade
    Abstract: Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing economies, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). Each edition includes analytical pieces on topical policy challenges faced by these economies
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Banking Sector ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Financial Economics ; Inflation ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Global growth has slowed markedly, edging closer to falling into recession. Meanwhile, growth in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region, excluding China rebounded, diverging from the global trend, as mobility restrictions were removed. Malaysia's growth during the quarter was also the highest relative to other regional countries. Like its regional peers, the Malaysian economy bucked the global trend and recorded a strong growth in Q3 2022. Malaysia's strong performance in Q3 2022 - and for 2022 overall - was in part due likely to the withdrawals from the employee's provident fund (EPF) which contributed to higher private consumption in Malaysia than in other countries. In addition, improved labor market conditions, other government policy measures such as the increase in the minimum wage and cash assistance programs such as Bantuan Keluarga Malaysia provided additional support. On the supply side, all economic sectors expanded during the period
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Carbon-Neutral ; Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Policy ; Household Incomes ; Housing Finance ; Inflation ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Investment
    Abstract: Economic activity bounced back in Q1 2023 with the removal of mobility restrictions and a surge in spending on services. However, growth momentum has slowed since April, indicating that China's recovery remains fragile and dependent on policy support. China's GDP growth is projected to rise to a 5.6 percent in 2023, led by a rebound in consumer spending. The economic recovery offers an important opportunity for policymakers to refocus their efforts on achieving China's longer-term development objectives. Structural reforms remain crucial to solidify the recovery and achieve the longer-term goals to (i) become a high-income country by 2035 through productivity-led and environmentally sustainable growth; (ii) peak carbon emissions before 2030 and become carbon-neutral by 2060; and (iii) share the gains from economic growth more equally among the population
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Disease Control and Prevention ; Economic Growth ; GCC ; Gulf Cooperation Council ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; NCDS ; Non-Communicable Diseases
    Abstract: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies performed strongly in 2022. Amidst a year of economic uncertainty marked by inflation, geopolitical crises, and supply chain insecurity, the GCC region registered remarkable GDP growth of 7.3 percent in 2022. Progress made on structural reforms are bearing fruits on the economy. Despite the uptick, inflation remains relatively muted in comparison to other high-income countries. Looking ahead, the GCC region is projected to grow at a slower pace. The main contributors to this growth are private consumption, fixed investments, and government expenditures through looser fiscal policy in response to high oil revenues. However, downside risks to the outlook are numerous. Special Focus: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) pose a major health burden to the population and governments of the GCC. NCDs are also a growing concern from an economic perspective. To mitigate the health and economic burden of NCDs, the region needs to scale up efforts to target the behavioral and environmental risk factors of NCDs. Effectively addressing NCDs requires a whole-of-government approach, and the effective implementation and monitoring of targeted, evidence-based solutions. Addressing the risk factors of NCDs requires an increased strategic focus on prevention over treatment, targeting of the young and adolescents, and the development and implementation of evidence-informed, cost effective, high impact interventions. Governance structures that can effectively mobilize, incentivize, and hold accountable the many non-health sectors in the implementation and monitoring of cost-effective interventions are critical
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Budget Deficit ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Non-Hydrocarbon Activity ; Oil and Gas
    Abstract: This Algeria Economic Update reports on the main recent economic developments and policies. It places them in a global and longer-term context and assesses the implications of these developments and policy changes for Algeria's economic prospects. The report is intended for a broad audience, including policymakers, business leaders, financial market participants, and the community of analysts and professionals working in/on Algeria. The report is divided into two chapters. Chapter 1 presents macroeconomic developments in Algeria over the year 2022 and the first quarter of 2023, while Chapter 2 describes the short- and medium-term outlook for the Algerian economy
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Fossil Fuels Subsidies ; Hydrocarbon Prices ; Inflation ; Macroeconomic Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Non-Performing Loans ; Social Safety Nets ; Transport Sector
    Abstract: This is the tenth edition of the Republic of Congo Economic Update. Each edition of this annual report presents an overview of the Republic of Congo's (ROC) evolving macroeconomic position, followed by a detailed exploration of a specific topic. The first chapter of this year's update presents recent economic developments and macroeconomic outlook and risks. It also includes policy actions that could help strengthen fiscal and debt sustainability, contain food inflation, and sustain economic recovery. The second chapter discusses fossil fuel subsidies, which represent a significant fiscal burden in the Republic of Congo
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Cyclone Freddy ; Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Environment ; Foreign Exchange ; Inflation ; Kwacha ; Macro-Fiscal Crisis ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Disasters
    Abstract: The Malawi Economic Monitor (MEM) provides an analysis of economic and structural development issues in Malawi. This 17th edition was published in July 2023 and is part of an ongoing series published twice each year. The publication intends to foster better-informed policy analysis and debate regarding the key challenges that Malawi faces in its endeavor to achieve inclusive and sustainable economic growth
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2119
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Developing Countries ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Indicators
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the South Asia region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 39458
    Keywords: Capacity Building ; Climate Change Impacts ; Data ; Development ; Economic Growth ; Inflation ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Poverty Assessment ; Statistics
    Abstract: The digital revolution has changed the operating environment for statistics and has increased competition in the information space. The operating environment for NSOs has changed significantly in the past decades. Computing power once prohibitively expensive has become affordable even for low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Data that had to be collected manually are now ubiquitous because of digitalization and e-government initiatives, which have also created a constant flow of data from citizens and businesses to government agencies. The rollout of national ID programs, unique business entity identifiers, and national address registers have created the potential for integrating data from disparate databases. However, the vast new technical possibilities have been accompanied by intense competition in the information space. NSOs that were once the main, or in some cases the only, providers of socioeconomic information, are being challenged by new, nimbler, and more data savvy players who are not bound by the rigid definitions and standards of official statistics. The COVID-19 pandemic amplified this trend, with a proliferation of data sites providing near to real-time data on the impact of the pandemic on public health, livelihoods, labor markets, and the economy
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agricultural Export ; Crop Production ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; FDI ; Goods Exports ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: This year's economic activity has been slower than previously anticipated due to emerging structural bottlenecks and continued external headwinds. This has prompted a sense of urgency to address the rising economic challenges to sustain growth in the short to medium term. While Cambodia's structural slowdown started well before the pandemic, it had been masked for several years by rapid capital inflows, mainly from China, fueling a construction boom until COVID-19 hit. The structural challenges are now exposed, hurtingeconomic activity, which is also being impacted by global headwinds. Despite a rapid expansion of public investment in physical infrastructure, shortcomings in Cambodia's transportation network and logistics performance remain, and the country continues to face high costs and low reliability of energy supply. The country is ranked low among East Asian countries in terms of ease of doing business, investment climate, and competitiveness, due in part to its difficulties in promoting good governance
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Debt ; Fiscal Developments ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Inflation ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy ; Social Protections and Labor ; Women's Economic Power
    Abstract: Jordan's real growth registered 2.4 percent in 2022 and has accelerated to 2.7 percent in H1-2023, compared to a pre-COVID-19 (2012-2019) average of 2.4 percent. Growth was supported by the services sector, agriculture sector, in addition to a robust contribution from agriculture. Inflation decelerated significantly in 2023, supported by favorable base effect, monetary policy tightening and lower global commodity prices. External imbalances have narrowed, supported by a string recovery in tourism activity and travel receipts. Central government fiscal balance was supported by economic growth and revenue-enhancing reforms, whereas total expenditure grew at a slower pace. Despite these positive developments, entrenched structural constraints weigh on labor market outcomes, as labor force participation continues its gradual decline driven by a fall in both male and female participation. Jordanian female labor participation remains among the lowest in the world. Debt-to-GDP ratios continues to rise from already elevated levels with persisting pressures from the electricity and water sectors. The global and regional environments remain challenging. In particular, the conflict in the Middle East has the potential for material economic spillovers on the Jordanian economy, including through its impact on tourism activity. The "In Focus" section highlights the role of women and their increased economic participation as central to Jordan's development agenda. The piece takes a life cycle approach and follows the journey of girls and women from birth through education and into the labor market. It sheds light on two of the main barriers to women's increased participation in the economy: childcare and public transportation. A comprehensive institutional renovation, together with enabling policies and a clear signal regarding the role of women, are all crucial in removing barriers and facilitate the integration of women into the labor force
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (194 pages)
    Series Statement: Global Economic Prospects
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Advanced Economies ; Debt Levels ; EMDE ; Emerging Market and Developing Economies ; Fiscal Policy ; Global Deceleration ; Global Economy ; Global Growth ; Inflation ; Macroeconomic Policy ; Recession ; Russia Invasion
    Abstract: Global growth is projected to decelerate sharply, reflecting synchronous policy tightening aimed at containing very high inflation, worsening financial conditions, and continued disruptions from Russia's invasion of Ukraine. Investment growth in emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) is expected to remain below its average rate of the past two decades. Further adverse shocks could push the global economy into recession. Small states are especially vulnerable to such shocks because of the reliance on external trade and financing, limited economic diversification, elevated debt, and susceptibility to natural disasters. Against this backdrop, it is critical that EMDE policy makers ensure that any fiscal support is focused on vulnerable groups, that inflation expectations remain well anchored, and that financial systems continue to be resilient. Urgent global and national efforts are also needed to mitigate the risks of global recession and debt distress in EMDEs, and to support a major increase in EMDE investment. Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing economies, on a semiannual basis (in January and June). Each edition includes analytical pieces on topical policy challenges faced by these economies
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  • 22
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Climate Change Impact On Debt Growth ; Country Debt Capacity ; COVID-19 Pandemic Impact On Debt ; Debt Sustainability Framework ; Determining Debt Distress ; Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Economic Insecurity ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; IFC ; Inflation ; Low-Income Country Debt ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; MIGA ; World Bank Debt Data
    Abstract: This evaluation, requested by the Committee on Development Effectiveness of the Executive Board of the International Development Association (IDA), is intended to provide input and insight into the upcoming World Bank-International Monetary Fund (IMF) review of the Low-Income Country Debt Sustainability Framework (LICDSF) currently planned for fiscal year 2023. The sharp rise in debt stress among low-income countries and a changing global risk landscape leading up to and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic have pushed concerns with debt sustainability to the top of the global policy agenda. This evaluation assesses the World Bank's inputs into the LIC-DSF and how it uses LIC-DSF outputs to inform various corporate and country-level decisions. Main findings and recommendations include: (i) Expectations of the World Bank in taking the lead on long-term growth prospects should be clarified. (ii) Recently increased attention to debt data coverage should be sustained and extended; greater attention is needed to assess data quality. (iii) The DSA should be more directly and consistently used to inform priorities for the identification of fiscally oriented prior actions in development policy operations and SDFP performance and policy actions. (iv) The World Bank should continue to give increasing attention in the LIC-DSF to the long-term implications of climate change, in terms of both growth and fiscal requirements of adaptation and mitigation
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Deficit ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Following the significant volatility that characterized much of 2022, economic conditions in Myanmar have shown tentative signs of stabilization in the first half of 2023. The parallel market exchange rate remained broadly stable between January and May, albeit 27 percent lower against the US dollar than in June 2022 and depreciation pressures appear to have reemerged in recent weeks. In the medium-term, the deep contraction in 2021, the ensuring weak and uneven recovery, and increasing policy distortions will leave the economy permanently scarred. Many of the trends observed at household, firm and industry levels are likely to damage the productive capacity of the economy, in addition to their direct impacts on welfare and inequality. Increased reliance on coping mechanisms such as asset sales and reduced spending on health, education and agricultural inputs will curtail the longer-term earnings capacity of households. There has been little evidence of productivity-enhancing structural transformation in recent years; instead, more highly educated workers have moved into agriculture and away from higher productivity activities. Migration in recent years has been mostly forced, lowering the potential for income and productivity gains with recent migrants across states and regions within Myanmar tending to be worse off across various welfare indicators. And while interventionist measures to promote import substitution and self-sufficiency can generate employment and activity in the short term, in the long run, growth is likely to suffer as resources move toward activities that are less compatible with local factor endowments, and as the scope for productivity gains from specialization and exposure to international competition diminishes. Increased out-migration of more skilled workers and the sharp slowdown of foreign investment inflows will further constrain Myanmar's prospects for development over the longer term
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Economic Sanctions ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal Policy ; Inflation ; International Economics and Trade ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Trade ; Trade and Regional Integration
    Abstract: Kazakhstan's economy is set to experience a moderate growth acceleration, with real GDP forecast to rise by 3.5 percent in 2023 and 4 percent in 2024, propelled by the hydrocarbons sector, as oil production increases. Inflation has surged to its highest level since the late 1990s due in part to wage increases across sectors and crisis-related fiscal measures. Inflation is expected to remain high in 2023 due to elevated food prices and prices of imported intermediate goods. The outlook for growth faces several downside risks. Any further disruptions to the operation of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium could lead to losses in production volumes and fiscal revenues, posing downside risks to growth. The persistent high domestic inflation is a serious challenge, particularly for the most vulnerable households, and could potentially amplify the risk of social tensions. Additional tightening of global financial conditions due to geopolitical tensions, energy crisis, and high inflation may pressure the exchange rate, leading to potential capital flow volatility
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Conflict ; COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Food Insecurity ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Yemen's economy has been transformed by eight years of violent conflict. War has shattered the country's already fragile economic equilibrium, touching upon virtually every aspect of life. The compounded shocks of the COVID-19 pandemic and rising global prices have only deepened the economic and humanitarian disaster precipitated by the war. Since the start of the conflict, economic analyses have tended to focus on the deterioration of macroeconomic indicators, the sharp rise in poverty and food insecurity, and the destruction of infrastructure and the capital stock, but relatively little attention has been paid to the current structure of the economy or what prospects can be envisaged for the country. Also, it is important to situate this analysis within the political economy dynamics of the country which majorly affect the economic development challenges of the country. Data constraints and the unique characteristics of Yemen's recent experience limit the effectiveness of traditional growth-analysis methodologies. This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) uses novel data-collection methods and analytical techniques, triangulating its findings with traditional approaches and direct data collection to close the economic knowledge gap. Information sources include extensive key-informant interviews, household phone surveys, and remotely sensed geospatial data based on satellite imagery, including nighttime illumination data. This CEM also combines an in-depth political economy analysis with economic development investigation
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Energy Crisis ; Energy Markets ; Environmental Fiscal Measures ; Food and Energy Prices ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Western Balkans
    Abstract: The six countries of the Western Balkans have seen their resilience tested over the last three years. Growth in the Western Balkan economies started strong in early 2022, before moderating toward year-end, but the impact of major shocks, such as electricity and heating outages, has been less severe than expected. Inflation surged to a two-decade high in 2022 in almost all economies, and price pressures remain elevated in early 2023. Higher food and energy prices have affected low-income households especially severely, resulting in a much slower pace of poverty reduction in 2022 despite universal government support. In the medium term, the Western Balkans continues to have a positive outlook, but reforms are needed to rebuild buffers, accelerate the green transition, and to address key structural challenges. The ongoing energy crisis has highlighted the need to accelerate the green transition across Europe, including in the Western Balkans. A key starting point in this regard is to accelerate the move toward carbon pricing and to increase the use of environmental fiscal measures that incentivize households and firms to shift toward lower carbon intensity with respect to economic activity
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Anti-Money Laundering ; Dollarization ; Financial Integrity ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Money Laundering ; Tax Invasion
    Abstract: The systemic failure of Lebanon's banking system and the collapse of the currency have resulted in a large, dollarized cash-based economy, worth an estimated USD 9.86 billion or 45.7 percent of GDP in 2022 (Special Focus: Gauging the Size of the Cash Economy in Lebanon). A pervasive and growing dollarized cash economy is a major impediment to Lebanon's economic recovery. It not only threatens to compromise the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy, but also heightens the risk of money laundering, increases informality, and prompts further tax evasion. Moreover, the increasing reliance on cash transactions also threatens to completely reverse the progress that Lebanon made pre-crisis towards enhancing its financial integrity by instituting robust anti-money laundering mechanisms in its commercial banking sector
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agricultural Development ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Government Spending ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Oil Production
    Abstract: Timor-Leste's economy continued its recovery in 2022, expanding by 3.9 percent, fueled by public consumption and investment. Private investment rose from an exceptionally low level while net exports continued to be a drag on growth. Headline inflation soared in March 2023 at 9.6 percent, spurred by significant increases in food and non-food prices. High inflation is part of a global trend driven by prices of tradable goods. Within Timor-Leste, the government's policy of enforcing higher excise taxes on tobacco products, implementing import taxes, and applying excises to sugar and sugary beverages, partially drove the inflationary trend. To advance a reform agenda, the new government may want to consider institutionalizing fiscal consolidation through robust fiscal rules. Both revenue mobilization and expenditure rationalization efforts should not only be maintained but also enhanced. Given that significant increases in public spending have had a limited impact on Timor-Leste's medium-term economic growth, it is possible to sustain growth levels with a reduced budget
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2119
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Developing Countries ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Indicators
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Latin America and the Caribbean region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Debt Management ; Economic Growth ; Financial Economics ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Developments ; Inflation ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy ; Public Investment
    Abstract: Despite a challenging global environment, Jordan's growth exceeded expectations during the first half of 2022. Propelled by a strong rebound in international tourism, the full reopening of the economy, and improving exports, real GDP accelerated to 2.7 percent. However, the rebound in economic activity was only modestly reflected on labor market indicators with unemployment rates declining only gradually. Inflation has reached its highest level since 2018 but remains contained compared to regional peers, due to temporary fuel subsidies and a number of other price control measures introduced in 2022. Yet, the untargeted subsidy support came at a fiscal cost as fiscal consolidation adjustments have slowed down despite good tax performance. On the external front, elevated global commodity prices led to a significant rise in Jordan's import bill, outpacing the effect of the increased merchandise exports and tourism. Moreover, capital and financial inflows did not keep up with the widening current account deficit, resulting in a widening of the balance of payment deficit and a drawdown in foreign exchange reserves. Nonetheless, due to its substantial reserve buffers, the Central Bank's gross foreign reserves remained at an adequate level, while Jordan continues to retain investors' confidence and access to foreign financial markets. Jordan's economic recovery in 2022 is expected to be driven by a full rebound of the services sector, helped by the full reopening of the economy and a strong rebound in tourism. However, highly volatile global fuel and food prices are impacting both domestic consumption and the trade balance. Risks surrounding Jordan's outlook include a looming global economic downturn, prolongation of the global food and energy crisis, and the impact of higher borrowing costs and widening losses from state-owned water and electricity sectors on debt dynamics. The Special Focus highlights the role of public investment as a driver of growth, with a particular focus on its recent trends, as well as its efficiency and effectiveness. This is particularly relevant given Jordan's constrained fiscal envelope. Public investment spending has been suffering from a steady decline during the past two decades to meet the fiscal consolidation targets, consistent under-execution, large dependency on external aid and lack of budget for operation and maintenance cost. Its efficiency can be maximized by having in place financially realistic long-term strategic planning, transparent project selection and an adoption of a medium-term perspective. Purposefully integrating climate concerns in public investments would also advance the country's achievement of its climate targets
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Economic Insecurity ; Hydrocarbon Revenues ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Non-Hydrocarbon ; Private Sector ; Resilience
    Abstract: The recovery continued in the first semester of 2022, supported by nonhydrocarbon activity and crude oil production. The continuing high level of global hydrocarbon prices prolonged the upturn of external balances. The budget deficit is expected to narrow moderately in 2022, as the strong increase in public expenditure compensates for most of the increase in revenues. The economic recovery should continue in 2023, supported by the nonhydrocarbon sector and public expenditure growth. The main risks to the macroeconomic outlook arise from fluctuations in global hydrocarbon prices, underscoring the importance of the Government's current reform program
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Conflict ; Damage Assessment ; Economic Assistance ; Economic Challenges ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Insecurity ; Fiscal Policies ; Food Inaccessibility ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Syria ; Trade
    Abstract: The World Bank's teams have been resorting to the use of a mix of standard tools and innovative geospatial and remote-based data sources (e.g., nighttime lights, shipping-position data, traffic congestion data, aviation statistics, mobile phone location data, remote sensing vegetation indices, and conflict intensity maps) to reveal economic trends and analyze unrecorded activities that are prominent in war-torn economies like Syria. Macroeconomic conditions in Syria have substantially deteriorated since the start of the war in Ukraine. Already very high, the vulnerability of Syrian households is on the rise. Subject to high uncertainty, real gross domestic product (GDP) is projected to contract by 3.2 percent in 2023, following a 3.5 percent decline in 2022
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: CEMAC ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Energy Sector Regulation ; Fossil Fuel Subsidies ; Fuels ; Hydrocarbon Prices ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Safety Nets
    Abstract: The Gabon Economic Update is an annual World Bank publication that presents an overview of the evolving macroeconomic position in Gabon, followed by a detailed exploration of a specific topic in each edition. The first chapter analyzes recent economic developments, as well as the macroeconomic outlook and risks for Gabon's future growth. It presents policy actions that could help strengthen fiscal and debt sustainability, contain food inflation, and sustain a resilient growth path. The second chapter of this year's Economic Update has a special focus dedicated to fossil fuel subsidies, which represent a growing fiscal burden in Gabon. This chapter analyzes the costs of fuel subsidies and discusses policy options for alleviating their fiscal impact while protecting the most vulnerable groups in the country
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  • 34
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Financial Sector ; Fiscal Policy ; Growth and Poverty ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction ; Rice Economy
    Abstract: In the last two years, Liberia's economic performance has improved. Inflation remained in single digits despite high global food and fuel prices and a relaxation in monetary and fiscal policies. Liberia's poverty rate is projected to have declined slightly in the last two years as GDP growth rebounds and inflation moderates. On the external side, Liberia's current account balance improved in 2022, thanks to the continued increase in mining export earnings. The increase in gold export in 2022 offset the increase in imports. Liberia's medium-term economic outlook is positive, but uncertainties remain. Even as it has been trying to recover from a decade of weak economic and social performance, Liberia's overall productivity and economic efficiency remain low, especially in vital sectors of the economy, including agriculture. Demographic trends, economic growth, and a strong preference for rice are the main drivers of demand. Yet, Liberia produces only one-third of its rice needs due to several constraints, including limited access to technology, inefficient farming practices, low public and private investments, and a fragmented value chain, among other factors that have kept productivity low. Amid low production, the increase in imported rice prices continues to fuel food insecurity, poverty, and vulnerabilities in Liberia. Domestic production would need to triple to satisfy local demand, but increasing production would require significant investments in the rice sector, as well as policy actions. This report provides some broad directions for policies
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal Policies ; Inflation ; Labor Markets ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Protection ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: While armed clashed have declined, Libya continues to face fragmentation and fragility. The country's fragility is having far-reaching economic and social impact. Social conditions and public service delivery have been affected. Similar to numerous conflict-affected countries, the World Bank refrains from providing quantitative growth and macroeconomic forecasts. Despite the numerous challenges facing the country, the Libyan economy cab ne reconstructed and diversified by leveraging its substantial financial resources building on four critical pillars. The first is reaching a sustainable political agreement on the future of Libya. The second is the preparation of a shared vision on economic and social development that is based on accurate assessments of needs and aspirations. The third is the development of a modern and decentralized public financial management system that ensures adequate sharing of oil wealth and inter-governmental fiscal transfers as well as effective and transparent budget planning, execution, and reporting policies. The fourth is the establishment of a modern and comprehensive social policy that enables the reform of public administration and creates a clear distinction between social transfers and public wages
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Earthquake ; Economic Assistance ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Impact ; Environment ; Humanitarian Constraints ; Inflation ; Limited Response ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Disasters
    Abstract: Twelve years into a devastating civil war, a one-in-two-century earthquake devastated northwestern Syria. The 7.6 Richter scale shock was the deadliest in Syria after the one that hit Aleppo in 1822. Using novel data sources, such as big data, this Syria Economic Monitor analyzes what happens to a conflict-affected economy in the months following a large natural disaster. The earthquake created large human losses and physical damages in the most contested areas of the country. The earthquake also had significant socioeconomic impacts, exacerbating preexisting vulnerabilities. However, funding shortfall and humanitarian constraints impede response efforts. As a consequence, economic contraction in Syria is likely to deepen further post-earthquake
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  • 37
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 11872
    Keywords: Economic and Employment Structure ; Economic Growth ; Governance ; Inflation ; Labor Force Participation ; Learning Employable Skills ; Skills Development System ; Social Protections and Labor ; Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) ; Youth Employment
    Abstract: Tanzania's rapidly growing population, particularly its youth, faces challenges in entering the labor market due to limited employable skills. This policy note first reviews the demand-side factors including Tanzania's economic, employment, and labor force characteristics, then it critically analyzes the technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and skills development system. It draws from existing studies and available data to provide an overview of key sector issues and highlights the challenges that require attention as they relate to cultivating employable skills for all Tanzanian youth. This policy note complements the World Bank Policy Note on Strengthening Basic Education System and Improving Learning Outcomes and offers timely input to the government's ongoing effort to strengthen the TVET sector
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  • 38
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2119
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Education ; Environment ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; GHG ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2119
    Keywords: Climate Change Impacts ; Debt Indicators ; Economic Growth ; Education ; Environment ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; GHG ; Inflation ; Life Expectancy At Birth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Europe and Central Asia region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Access To Markets ; Debt ; Economic Crisis ; Inflation ; Low-Level Equlibrium ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Sri Lanka's longstanding structural weaknesses plunged the country into a severe economic crisis in 2022. The economy has shown initial signs of stabilization, albeit at a low-level equilibrium, in the first half of 2023. Swift and sufficiently deep debt restructuring is needed to restore Sri Lanka's debt sustainability and regain access to international financial markets
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Debt ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal Developments ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Real Sector ; Revenue Mobilization
    Abstract: Despite persistent macroeconomic instability, economic growth continued to recover in 2023, underpinned largely by a steady improvement in the service sector. GDP growth is forecast at 3.7 percent in 2023, slightly down from the projection in May 2023, primarily reflecting higher-than-expected kip depreciation and inflation, labor shortages, and unfavorable weather. Nevertheless, growth is still expected to have picked up in 2023, when compared to 2.7 percent in 2022, owing to tourism, transport and logistics services, and foreign investment. However, merchandise export growth has been muted, partly affected by higher business costs, labor shortages, and lower external demand. The Lao kip continued to depreciate in 2023, driven by debt pressures and external imbalances. On the official market, the kip weakened by 30 percent and 35 percent on average against the Thai baht and the US dollar during January-October 2023, if compared to the same period last year. As banks continue to ration access to foreign currencies at the official rate, the parallel market premium has risen to about 15 percent for the US dollar and 8 percent for the Thai baht. While the US dollar has strengthened over the past few years, domestic structural imbalances have played a much greater role in driving depreciation. The large external debt service burden (despite deferrals of principal and interest payments) and rising imports continue to exert pressure on forex demand, while official reserves remain low. Recent monetary and foreign exchange management measures have included increases in the policy rate, reserve requirements, issuance of kip savings bonds, closure of foreign exchange bureaus, implementation of repatriation requirements for exporters and increased official exchange rate flexibility. However, since these measures are not addressing the root causes of depreciation, they have had only a limited and temporary impact in easing exchange rate pressures. Restoring macroeconomic stability requires a strong commitment to ambitious reforms in five crucial policy areas: (i) raising public revenue to protect spending on education, health, and social protection; (ii) improving the governance of public and public-private investment; (iii) restructuring public debt; (iv) strengthening financial sector stability; and (v) improving the business environment to promote investment and exports. In addition, improving the availability, timeliness, and quality of data is essential for informing evidence-based policy making. Finally, while domestic reforms are critical, they are not sufficient to restore fiscal and external sustainability without addressing the underlying solvency issues through adequate debt treatment
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Economic Outlook ; Fiscal Deficit ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector Lending ; Public DEBT
    Abstract: The economy has recovered to pre-pandemic levels and, with rising tourist arrivals, is expected to maintain a strong growth and poverty reduction trajectory over the medium term. Commodity price volatility is driving inflation and exerting pressure on fiscal and external balances, through costlier imports and higher subsidies. Despite recent improvements, public debt is expected to remain high, warranting continued efforts to reduce fiscal deficits, including comprehensive subsidy reforms while mitigating impacts on the vulnerable
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  • 43
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Quality ; Carbon Footprint ; Climate Change Economics ; Decarbonization ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Growth Prospects ; Inflation ; Low-Carbon ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy
    Abstract: Kenya's economic performance softened in 2022, steering towards country's long-term growth rate. Real GDP expanded by 4.8 percent in 2022, a deceleration compared with the strong rebound from the Covid-19 crisis at 7.5 percent annual growth in 2021 but broadly aligned with growth rates of Kenya's potential GDP as well as of the pre-pandemic decade. The adverse weather shock of the last two years has been a major drag on economic growth, with growth in real GDP excluding agriculture standing at 6.3 percent in 2022. Besides, the impacts of tightening of domestic macroeconomic policies and challenging global financial conditions significantly hurt domestic economic activity, especially in the latter half of the year
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; European Union ; Inclusive Growth ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Policy Challenges
    Abstract: Following a strong recovery after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, growth in the European Union (EU) is expected to sharply decelerate in 2023 as high inflation and increasingly tight monetary policy dampen economic activity. Despite considerable resilience, the EU economy is in a weakened spot following the string of overlapping crises since 2020, which have eroded macroeconomic buffers and left the economy vulnerable to additional negative shocks. Fiscal policy support, going forward, will need to be timely, targeted, time bound, and transparent to eventually support gradual fiscal consolidation. Part 1 of the EU regular economic report (RER) focuses on recent developments and the short-term outlook and risks. This part looks at inclusive growth trends in the EU as a whole and the four regions: Northern Europe (NE), Southern Europe (SE), Western Europe (WE) and Central and Southeast Europe (CEE). Depending on data availability, it also zooms in on a set of selected countries - Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland, and Romania
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Adolescent Health ; Agriculture ; Education Indicators and Statistics ; Fiscal Consolidation ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gender Gaps ; Greening Agriculture ; Inflation ; Labor Markets ; Low Labor Force ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Western Balkans
    Abstract: In the context of weakening global demand, growth in the Western Balkans decelerated over the course of 2022 and into 2023. Against the background of the lasting effects of shocks from Russia's invasion of Ukraine, sticky inflation, and tighter financial conditions, global demand has been weakening, and this has a divergent impact across the Western Balkans (WB6). On the one hand, the slowdown in global demand contributed to weaker-than expected performance of industrial production in the whole European Union (EU) region and in the WB6. On the other hand, global demand has proved more resilient in services and, for travel, with twice as many people traveling globally during Q1 2023 as in the same period in 2022 (UNWTO). This has particularly benefited Albania, Kosovo, and Montenegro, where services exports have reached new record highs. In contrast, weakening global demand for goods has weighed on Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), North Macedonia and Serbia. On the demand side, private consumption remained in general an important growth driver, despite rising price pressures. Reforms are needed to consolidate the recovery toward sustainable growth, while negotiations with the EU hold the potential to bolster prospects in the Western Balkans. As the WB6 agriculture sector is undergoing a major structural transformation, efforts to green agriculture are also important to ensure access to the EU market and for the competitiveness of agriculture, rural development, and food and nutrition security. Most WB6 countries have recently included agriculture greening in their development strategies. Historically, the environmental footprint of the WB6 agriculture sector has been relatively low. But this has been more an unintended outcome of still high rurality and low farming intensity rather than a result of public policy and expenditure choices. Agricultural public expenditures, while substantial in terms of amounts and adequate to influence agricultural production, have not yet prioritized financing of greening and climate-smart agriculture. It is important for the WB6 countries to accelerate greening of their agriculture by learning from the EU's green transition and better utilization of the existing public funds available for agricultural development
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal Deficit ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Debt ; Resilient Infrastructure ; Sustainability ; Welfare Disparities
    Abstract: The economy has maintained its strong growth momentum, with the expansion in tourism, and poverty is expected to fall further in 2023. The number of tourist arrivals grew by 14 percent (y-o-y) to 1.25 million by early September 2023, reaching a historic high compared to similar periods in other years (Figure ES.1). Despite the Russian invasion of Ukraine, arrivals from Russia remained strong. An earlier-than-expected reopening of the Chinese market, on January 18, has compensated for lower arrivals from India and Gulf countries, while arrivals from Europe continued to increase. As a result, the Maldivian economy grew by 5.5 percent (y-o-y) in the first quarter of 2023. Poverty levels also fell with the strong economic rebound, to an estimated level of 1.5 percent of the population. High inequality in the country, especially in the outer atolls, remains a real concern
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Drought ; Economic Recovery ; Emigration ; Inflation ; Migration ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Migration will likely become increasingly important for Tunisia in terms of both inflows and outflows, given the demographic transition in both Tunisia and Europe. As such Tunisia can work (also with partner countries) to maximize the benefits of migration. As a country of mainly emigration, Tunisia could help strengthen the match of its emigrants with the demand abroad, including through enhanced cooperation with destination countries. Such cooperation should include focusing international assistance towards development objectives in Tunisia. Based on available evidence, increasing household incomes will contribute to reducing the propensity to consider emigrating through irregular channels. As its importance as a destination country (hence migrants who want to settle in Tunisia) is likely to increase, Tunisia can also enhance the economic benefits from immigrants by facilitating migrants' regular status and streamlining the recognition of their qualifications, which has been identified as one of the key aspects for the successful implementation of bilateral mobility agreements involving skill partnerships
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Domestic Economic Sectors ; Global Economic Headwinds ; Inflation ; International Economics and Trade ; Poor Households ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: While recovering from Coronavirus (COVID-19),Cambodia's economy is now facing global economic headwinds. The current account improved in the first half of 2022 as the trade deficit narrowed. Rising global energy, fertilizer and food prices prompted a surge in inflation. Rising inflation is particularly harmful to poor households. To mitigate impacts of the food and oil price shock, the authorities are planning to introduce additional social assistance measures, while extending the existing COVID19 cash transfer program until end-2022. Promoting the domestic economic sectors, focusing on the travel, tourism, and hospitality industries should help partly offset the deterioration of external demand conditions. And successful facilitation of coherent private sector leadership of the sector should help create a "crowding-in" effect, anchored to comprehensive long-term plans, catalyzed by public seed funding. It is equally important to address supply chain constraints, which include high logistics and transportation costs to boost export
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Global Shocks ; Inequitable Access ; Inflation ; Rural Development ; Uneven Distribution
    Abstract: The economy has shown resilience to recent global shocks thus far, with output surpassing its pre-pandemic level in 2022 Q3, earlier than expected but trailing behind peers. Thailand's economic recovery, however, lagged that of its ASEAN peers, most of which returned to pre-pandemic levels by late 2021. In addition, exports of goods remained a drag on growth in contrast to many peers who benefitted from stronger good export growth in the first half of this year. Most recently, Thailand experienced a sharp slowdown in goods exports growth, also observed it its ASEAN peers and consistent with the contraction in global manufacturing Purchasing Manager Index (PMI). Despite higher revenue from tourism, the current account deficit remained wide in 2022 Q3. Price pressures have remained elevated and broadened to core inflation. Fiscal measures aimed at mitigating the cost-of-living shock have supported economic activity but contributed to the slowdown in fiscal consolidation. The financial system remains stable overall, although risks associated with increased levels of household and corporate debt have not been resolved. Labor market conditions have improved, but the phasing out of Coronavirus (COVID-19) relief measures and the rising cost of living may slow down poverty reduction. Thailand's relatively low tax revenue collection contributes to underinvestment in pro-poor spending. Short-term reforms to VAT and social assistance could result in a net increase of tax revenues and significant reductions in poverty and inequality. Thailand will face a difficult global environment in 2023
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    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Insecurity ; Economic Investment and Savings ; Education ; Global Shocks ; Inequitable Access ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Uneven Distribution
    Abstract: Amidst repercussions from the Russia-Ukraine conflict, lingering supply chain disruptions, and tightening global financial conditions, Egypt is experiencing a spike in inflation and has suffered abrupt large-scale portfolio outflows; adding pressures to the country's already stretched public finances and external accounts. The Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) has undertaken exchange rate and monetary policy adjustments since March 2022 by allowing the exchange rate to depreciate and by raising key policy rates, in order to contain the widening trade deficit, capital reversal and the ensuing drop in foreign exchange buffers. In tandem, the government announced social mitigation packages. The authorities' efforts to restore macroeconomic stability, rebuild reserves, and push ahead with structural reforms is supported by the 46-month International Monetary Fund (IMF) program, along with other multilateral and bilateral financing and investments. This report provides an update on the recent economic developments and outlook of the Egyptian economy, while embedding the analysis in long-standing challenges. It also features a Special Focus on Education Sector reforms that draws on the World Bank Egypt Public Expenditure Review for Human Development Sectors. A key message is that education spending, its efficiency, and the overall learning outcomes require improvements in order to meet the needs for robust human development, poverty reduction, improved equity, and long-term growth. According to the report, there are three key (inter-connected) priorities going forward: (1) establishing sustained macroeconomic stability and enhancing the competitiveness of Egyptian economy to ensure resilient sources of foreign income activities (exports and FDI). This requires continuing to push ahead with business environment reforms; (2) streamlining budgetary and off-budget expenditures and increasing revenues to create the fiscal space required to allocate more resources for priority areas (such as the education sector); and (3) unleashing the private sector's potential in higher value-added and export-oriented activities to create jobs and improve living standards
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Development Update ; Economic Activity ; Economic Growth ; Global Benchmark Indicators ; Governance ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Stunted Economic Growth
    Abstract: Nigeria's economic performance has weakened since the previous Nigeria Development Update (NDU) was published in June 2022 under the title of "The Continuing Urgency of Business Unusual". The global economic environment has weakened. Economic activity in most major economies has slowed in 2022 amid high inflation and central banks shifting toward contractionary monetary policies. External financing conditions, particularly for governments and private borrowers in frontier markets such as Nigeria, have tightened, as the US dollar has appreciated sharply against most other currencies to historically strong levels, and global benchmark interest rates have risen. Moving into 2023, growth in most regions is expected to weaken further, and uncertainty regarding the outlook remains elevated, partly because of key unknowns such as future developments related to the Russian Federation's invasion of Ukraine
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Corporate Data and Reporting ; Economic Development ; Economic Forecasting ; Industrial and Market Data and Reporting ; Industry ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector Development
    Abstract: Nepal continues to struggle with the COVID-19 pandemic, but the ongoing COVID-19 vaccination drive has helped to reduce the fatality rate. The country experienced a first wave in March 2020, a second wave in mid-April 2021, and a third wave in January 2022. In response, social distancing measures were imposed but gradually became less stringent as COVID-19 progressed from the first to the third wave, driven in part by the COVID-19 vaccination drive that began in January 2021. Vaccination also contributed to a reduction in the fatality rate. As of March 2022, more than 60 percent of the population has received two doses of COVID-19 vaccines. High frequency indicators suggest that the economy continued to recover in the first half of FY22 after rebounding in FY21 from a contraction in FY20
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  • 53
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Commodity Prices ; COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Economic Modeling ; Inflation ; Macroeconomic Management ; Macroeconomics ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Indonesia's economic recovery from the Corornavirus (COVID-19) pandemic comes amidst an increasingly challenging global environment. Indonesia's growth accelerated at the end of 2021 as the country stepped off from a devastating Delta wave in July-August, ending the year with 3.7 percent growth. The momentum carried into the first quarter of 2022 with the economy growing at 5 percent (yoy) and absorbing a short and sharp increase in Omicron-related COVID cases. Growth drivers since end 2021 have rebalanced gradually from exports and public consumption towards private consumption and investment. Since February, the war in Ukraine has disrupted the global economic environment with rising commodity prices and de-risking in global financial markets. The positive terms-of-trade effect has benefited Indonesia in the near-term through higher export and fiscal earnings. But the country is starting to feel the pressures of rising prices and tightening external finance
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