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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Governance ; Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; PHC ; Primary Health Care Performance ; Vital Signs Profile
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the Vital Signs Profile (VSP) assessment conducted by the World Bank and the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) in collaboration with Fiji's Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MHMS). The VSP provides an opportunity to assess the state of the primary health care (PHC) system in Fiji, highlighting areas of strength and challenges through the lens of the PHCPI framework. The framework organizes various domains and subdomains of primary health care using a logic model approach that encompasses the traditional inputs and outputs of PHC systems and emphasizes the capacity and processes of PHC service delivery and performance. Notably, while PHCPI recognizes the role of social determinants of health and intersectoral health promotion and prevention efforts as important factors influencing population health, the VSP is primarily focused on aspects of health service delivery. Fiji is one of four Pacific countries - alongside Kiribati, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Solomon Islands that have, with support of the World Bank, used PHCPI tools to take stock of current performance, safeguard what works well, and lay out a vision for areas requiring improvement
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Health Economics and Finance ; Health Sector ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; International Financing ; Investments ; Ukraine
    Abstract: The full-scale invasion of the Russian Federation in Ukraine has immense local impact and global consequences. Ukraine is experiencing huge human and economic suffering, which will have long-lasting effects. This war has been particularly devastating for the Ukrainian health sector, tremendously increasing the urgent need for specific services and simultaneously obstructing health outcomes and access to health care due to hostilities, disruption of service delivery, and damage and destruction of health facilities. Moreover, the recovery of Ukraine is shrouded in uncertainty as the duration of the ongoing war and the frequency and localization of the attacks are unknown, all occurring against the backdrop of economic challenges within the country and at a global scale. Despite an expected international effort to finance the recovery of Ukraine akin to the Marshall Plan, financial resources may not be easily available or may become more scarce and more expensive. Investments will receive more scrutiny, and competition for funds will increase due to monetary tightening, rising interest rates, and possibly sustained high inflation (International Monetary Fund 2022). However, in the short to medium term, Ukraine is expected to have favorable access to international financing on concessional terms. While Ukraine is struggling with the gruesome immediate impact of the war and a fight for survival, the shared understanding emerges that going back to business as usual will neither be possible nor desirable. This moment may also serve as a window of opportunity for rapid reform and innovation of health service delivery in Ukraine. Improving and reconstructing services while restoring and stabilizing them is critical to aiding a suffering population and to laying strong foundations of governance that will have lasting impacts into the country's future. This document provides a proposal for stakeholdersin the Ukrainian health sector on how service delivery may need to change, how to deal with this change, and how the health sector may come out stronger in the longer term. It focuses on the organization of health care service delivery and shares considerations of how it may develop using a long-term (10+ years) perspective
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; KIRIBATI ; PHP ; PHPCPI ; Vital Signs Profile
    Abstract: The assessment of Kiribati's primary health care (PHC) system, carried out by the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Kiribati under the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI), marks a unique opportunity to identify the system's strengths and gaps and to catalyze further improvements. The PHCPI tools, including the Vital Signs Profile (VSP) methodology, provide important insights into the country's PHC system and generate actionable policy recommendations for improvement
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Access and Coverage ; Equity ; Financing ; Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; PHCPI Framework ; PHP ; Quality
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the primary health care (PHC) system in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), an assessment that the World Bank conducted in consultation with the Ministry of Health and Human Services (MHHS) of the government of RMI. The assessment provides an opportunity to understand the performance of RMI's PHC system, highlighting important areas of strengths and opportunities to address ongoing challenges. The assessment uses the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) framework, which organizes various domains and subdomains of primary care using a logic model approach that encompasses the traditional inputs and outputs of a system, emphasizing service delivery and performance
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impact ; Covid-19 Impact ; Education ; Food Security ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital Accumulation and Utilization ; Inclusive Development ; Long-Term Economic Growth ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report is undertaken as a part of the Human Capital Project (HCP), a globalinitiative of the World Bank Group that aims to increase governments' awarenessof the importance of investing in people (World Bank date of publication not identifiedb). One of the maincomponents of the HCP is a cross-country metric--the Human Capital Index (HCI). The HCI estimates the amount of human capital a child born today can expect to accumulate by the age of 18, thus highlighting how current health and education outcomes shape the work productivity of the next generation. Moreover, given the cumulative nature of human capital, the HCI has clear milestones across the entire human life cycle: at birth, children need to survive; during childhood, they need to be well-nourished; at school age, they must complete all schooling and active adequate learning levels; and in adulthood, they need to stay in good health. Finally, the HCI includes a result: a score that ranges from 0 to 1. A country where an average child has virtually no risk of being stunted or dying before age five, receives high-quality education, and becomes a healthy adult, would have an HCI close to 1. Conversely, when the risk of being ill-nourished or prematurely dying is high, access to education is limited, and the quality of learning is low, the HCI would approach zero
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Financial Protection ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health Services ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; SDI ; Service Quality ; Systems and Tools ; Workforce
    Abstract: The Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) health survey in Moldova serves as a vital tool for assessing and benchmarking the performance of health service delivery. Its primary aim is to evaluate the quality of basic health services. This comprehensive evaluation enables both governments and service providers to pinpoint deficiencies and bottlenecks in health service delivery, monitor progress over time, and make cross-country comparisons. The widespread availability of and public awareness about SDI indicators foster engagement among policy makers, citizens, service providers, donors, and stakeholders, in turn driving efforts to enhance service quality and ultimately development outcomes
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Demographics ; Family Planning Research ; Female Education ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; High Fertility Rates ; High Population Growth ; Human Capital ; Mortality ; Population Policies ; Women's Agency
    Abstract: Tanzania has managed to sustain its growth momentum despite the intensifying effects of climate change. While Tanzania's economy continues to expand, recent growth has been concentrated in sectors that employ few workers from poor households, limiting its impact on poverty. The Bank of Tanzania (BoT) has implemented an effective monetary policy designed to curb inflation and alleviate mounting short-term demand pressure on foreign exchange. While Tanzania's recovery continues to accelerate, several serious threats cloud its economic outlook. Key risks include the slow or incomplete implementation of structural reforms, the damaging effects of climate change on the agriculture and tourism sectors, and the possibility of a global recession caused by fiscal and monetary policy tightening in advanced economies and major EMDEs. To mitigate these risks, policymakers must accelerate structural reforms as part of a sustained effort to attract greater private investment and spur resilient and inclusive private-sector-led growth. Over the longer term, one of the country's key challenges will be to complete its structural economic transformation, which will require creating a more favorable business climate to support the growth of the industrial and services sectors while boosting agricultural productivity. Another key long-term growth challenge will be achieving more balanced and inclusive growth
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Demographics ; Early Childhood Development ; Education ; Fetal and Maternal Health ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Gender ; Gender and Poverty ; Government Financing ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital ; Mortality ; Nutrition Services ; Pregnancy ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This Human Capital Review (HCR) report presents an in-depth analysis of human capital indicators throughout a person's lifetime, from in utero to productive aging. By examining the various stages of human capital accumulation, the report aims to provide accurate recommendations for specific groups in Sierra Leone. Thus, the report disaggregates data whenever possible. It relies on an extensive consultative process involving various stakeholders such as Government counterparts, development partners, teachers, adolescent girls, students, private sector representatives, and local representatives. The consultation process followed a Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) approach, which facilitates the identification and resolution of problems by local leadership. In addition, this report aims to inform the design and implementation of human capital reforms that will respond to specific challenges identified in the report
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: CHVA ; Climate and Health ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Climate Change and Health ; Climate Change Impacts ; Environment ; Health Risks ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Vulnerability
    Abstract: The objective of this Climate and Health Vulnerability Assessment (CHVA) is to assist decision-makers in Colombia with planning effective adaptation measures to deal with climate-related health risks. This assessment includes sub-national considerations for health-related climate action (see Annex A for the methodology). Sub-national considerations are given for Colombia's 32 departments (see Figure 1). It also incorporates data from a Climate and Health Economic Valuation conducted by the World Bank to estimate of the potential economic costs of health impacts arising from projected changes in temperature and precipitation (see Annex B for the methodology). The findings from this CHVA are organized under four sections. Section I characterizes the climatology in Colombia, highlighting observed and projected climate exposures relevant to health. Section II describes key climate-related risks to health, including nutrition and food security, vector-borne diseases (VDBs), water-borne diseases, increasing temperatures, air quality, and zoonotic diseases. Section III analyzes the adaptive capacity and readiness of Colombia's health system to prevent and manage climate-related health risks. Recommendations are discussed in Section IV
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Racing against time
    Keywords: Wirtschaftsentwicklung ; Kreditmarkt ; Entwicklung ; Tendenz ; CBRs ; Economic Development ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Palestinian Economy ; West Bank and Gaza
    Abstract: Operating in environments marked by fragility, conflict, and violence poses complex and distinct challenges, and the Palestinian case is no different. A significant body of literature has emphasized the specific bottlenecks that exist, ranging from - in the first place - the movement, access, trade, and investment restrictions imposed by the Government of Israel (GoI) on the West Bank, and the near-blockade of Gaza, the noncontiguous geography of the territories, to the program advanced by the Palestinian Authority on structural reforms lacking momentum, and increasing penury of foreign aid. Numerous analytical and policy papers - spanning at least three decades, since the establishment of the AHLC forum - have emphasized the severity of the challenges at hand and the imperative of fostering cooperation among all parties. Despite relative clarity on the objectives, progress on the implementation of priorities has been modest, resulting in increased complexity and urgency at the present day. At the behest of the AHLC, this report aims to guide the renewed efforts of the PA and the GoI, the global community, and - more broadly - all relevant policymakers and stakeholders, as they lay the groundwork for sustainable growth and shared prosperity in the Palestinian territories and the wider region. In line with the above, the findings of this report are unsurprising. Unlocking the economic potential of the West Bank and Gaza requires urgent action, in order to spur per capita growth beyond near-stagnation levels, as well as to put the fiscal situation on a sounder footing. The removal, or at least a significant reduction, of restrictions by Israel is a vital prerequisite. Simultaneously, steadfast commitment by the PA to the implementation of a comprehensive reform agenda will be paramount to bolster both recovery and resilience, along with reinforcing institutional governance. In addition, as this report indicates, addressing shortfalls in the health sector will be pivotal to improve the efficiency of public spending, safeguarding human capital, improving service delivery, and revitalizing economic opportunities in a context marked by decades of fragility. While underscoring the burning pressure of these challenges, the World Bank remains fully committed to continuing its close technical collaboration with the PA, the GoI, and all relevant development partners, to help forging a path towards stability, security, economic progress and prosperity, and to contribute to the collective aspiration for a brighter future
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2109
    Keywords: Education ; Education Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Health ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; HRM ; Human Development ; Macro Fiscal Context ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Expenditure ; Sustainability
    Abstract: This is an overview of the CAR Human Development (HD) Public Expenditure Review (PER). This overview provides an analytical basis to decision-makers and stakeholders for the formulation of ambitious yet fiscally responsible interventions to improve human capital outcomes in CAR. The PER examines public expenditure trends of the education, health, and social protection (SP) sectors with a focus on adequacy, efficiency, and equity of expenditures as well as human resource management (HRM). The primary objective is to provide analytical insights for government policy development and prioritization strategy as it seeks to achieve a resilient recovery and rebuild its education and health sectors and establish a strong SP system which will help the poorest households invest and protect their own human capital. The PER can also serve as a useful source of knowledge and information to development partners seeking to deepen the impact of their support to the human capital development sectors. The recommendations put forth by the PER are those identified as fiscally sustainable and most important for rebuilding and strengthening human capital development sectors, including a focus on future human resource (HR) recruitment needed in the education and health sectors
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Consistency ; Equity ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Health Financing ; Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Impartiality ; UHC ; Universal Health Coverage
    Abstract: The report offers decision support on fair processes for policy choices relating to health financing for universal health coverage (UHC). It opens by making the case for why fair processes matter for health financing. It argues that procedural fairness contributes to fairer outcomes, strengthens the legitimacy of decision processes, builds trust in authorities, and promotes the sustainability of reforms on the path to UHC. The report then describes key health financing decisions with an impact on equity in service coverage and financial protection, where issues of procedural fairness are particularly important. Next, it offers principles and criteria for designing and assessing the processes around these health financing decisions and provides suggestions for how to make them fairer. Finally, the report examines country experiences with diverse instruments that can be used to operationalize principles and criteria for fair processes in health financing decision-making
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2203
    Keywords: Disease Control and Prevention ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; NCDs ; Non-Communicable Diseases ; Prevention and Control ; Primary Health Care
    Abstract: This report aims to assess the current role and scope of private health care provision for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Republika Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federation of BiH). Over the last decade, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in the Republika Srpska and the Federal Ministry of Health have implemented municipal initiatives to reduce NCD risk factor exposure and formulate an action plan for NCD control. These efforts have been supported by development partners, including the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the World Bank, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The assessment recommends actions that the health authorities in Republika Srpska and the Federation of BiH can take to better engage private providers in tackling NCDs. In mixed health systems, improving NCD prevention and control requires effective partnerships between the public and private sector and establishing an effective regulatory and financialcontext to contribute to progress towards Universal Health Coverage
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  • 14
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2196
    Keywords: Employment and Unemployment ; Governance ; Health Insurance ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; RIPSS ; Service Delivery ; T2D ; Universal Health Insurance
    Abstract: The aim of this report is to document the fidelity of the implementation of the RIPSS in the Huetar-Atlantica Region in Costa Rica. Implementation fidelity seeks to assess the extent to which an intervention is implemented as planned and, for this, the PIPs were contrasted with what was implemented in practice. The assessment identified the following: (i) gaps in the implementation that require subsequent actions, and (ii) the core elements for the sustainability and scale-up of the RIPSS
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access To Labor Market ; Accessibility ; Climate Change ; Disability Inclusion ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Stabilization ; Environment ; Health Services ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Inclusive Disaster Management ; Social Protection ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The impacts of climate change will be unevenly felt within and across countries partly due to social and economic inequalities. Persons with disabilities represent 16 percent of the global population and face widespread forms of social and economic marginalization yet have received little attention in prior studies of climate change and social inequality. The mortality rate of persons with disabilities in natural disasters is "up to four times higher than people without disabilities" (Stein and Stein 2021). How do the fast-moving shocks, flooding, drought, heatwaves and slower-moving social and economic effects of climate change impact persons with disabilities How can climate change adaptation efforts be disability inclusive This study examines these questions through original fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted in Uzbekistan. In November 2022, the authors interviewed persons with disabilities in three regions of the country. The resulting qualitative data afford key insights into how climate change and disability status interact to generate distinct vulnerabilities. Within the nascent field of climate change and disability studies, this report represents one of the first fieldwork-based accounts of how climate change presents heightened risks to persons with disabilities in a developing country context
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Disease Control and Prevention ; Economic Growth ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital ; Impact ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; NCDS ; Noncommunicable Diseases
    Abstract: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) hamper the development of human capital for current and future generations. NCDs are chronic conditions that are often untreatable and require close monitoring to control the progression of the disease. They account for 70 percent of all deaths worldwide and directly affect countries' economies, as every 10 percent increase in mortality due to NCDs reduces economic growth by 0.5 percent. NCDs have a direct and indirect impact that threatens the human capital of current and future generations
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Capacity ; Effective Response ; Health Emergencies ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Preparedness
    Abstract: La reciente crisis ha evidenciado la necesidad que tienen los paises de identificar capacidades y brechas existentes para asegurar que sus sistemas de salud esten preparados para soportar el estres causado por una emergencia sanitaria, que pueden ser extensas y de gravedad, y que ademas amenazan la prestacion rutinaria de servicios esenciales de salud. En ese sentido, el fortalecimiento de muchas de las areas del sistema de salud tambien contribuye a fortalecer la seguridad sanitaria y viceversa, el fortalecimiento de las capacidades de preparacion y respuesta ante emergencias en muchos sentidos fortalece el sistema de salud en general. Existe una superposicion entre esfuerzos para fortalecer los sistemas de salud para que sean confiables y sostenibles y fortalecer la seguridad sanitaria. Por ello, es importante identificar y promover aquellas inversiones que fortalecen las capacidades de preparacion y respuesta ante emergencias sanitarias y que a su vez contribuyan a fortalecer el desempeno del sistema de salud y lo haga mas resiliente
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2196
    Keywords: Capacity ; Equity ; Governance Indicators ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Information Technology ; Performance ; PHC ; PHCPI Framework
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the primary health care (PHC) system assessment in the Republic of Moldova undertaken by the World Bank in collaboration with the Moldovan government and under the leadership of the Ministry of Health (MoH). It highlights existing strengths, identifies areas in need of improvement, and suggests strategies for system strengthening
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Health Economics and Finance ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; National Health Systems ; Resilience ; South Caucasus
    Abstract: This report looks at resilience through national health system lenses and provides lessons to strengthen health systems for future shocks. The findings are based on case studies from five countries in Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine), as well as focus group discussions with the population and health care workers in Georgia, Armenia, and Moldova. The following section provides the definition and examples of health system resilience. This is followed by descriptions of the baseline characteristics of the five Eastern European and South Caucasus countries' health systems pre-pandemic performance, which determined most of their capacity and decisions to deal with the shock. The rest of this report reviews key baseline characteristics of the health systems in the countries, which are followed by lessons from the countries' responses to the pandemic (a summary of each country case study is provided in Annex A). The report concludes with recommendations for building the strong and resilient health systems needed to protect human capital through shocks and crises
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access To Healthcare ; Adolescent Health ; Climate Change and Health ; Female Sexual Health ; Gender ; Gender and Health ; Gender-Based Violence ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Maternal and Girls Health ; Reproductive Health ; Violence Against Women and Girls ; Vulnerable Populations
    Abstract: This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note provides in-depth insights into the status of women's and girls' maternal, sexual and reproductive health in Madagascar and proposes several strategic lines of action to improve access to professional health care by Malagasy women and girls and prevent teenage pregnancy. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: education, economic opportunities, and agency
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  • 21
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Adolescent Well-Beng ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Drop-Out Rate Reduction ; Economic Growth ; Education ; Energy and Environment ; Financial Sector and Social Assistance ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gendered Adolescent Health Trends ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Secondary Education ; Water Resources Management ; Youth Health ; Youth Well-Being
    Abstract: This report focuses on the trends of adolescent and youth well-being in Tanzania, identifying how and why well-being has or has not changed over time. The report conceptualizes well-being holistically. Well-being can be defined as one's ability and opportunity to learn, make decisions, live a healthy life (physically and mentally), be well-nourished, express agency, have peace of mind, and ultimately be economically empowered. Well-being can be accumulated over time and is a composite of multiple aspects that affect the life one lives and the quality of that life. In many ways, how to live a good life and whether one is living this good life has been a key question asked across countries, and there are multiple frameworks that have been used to measure well-being. For the purposes of this study, six domains of well-being are recognized: (1) education and learning, (2) bodily integrity, (3) health, (4) psychological well-being (peace), (5) voice and agency, and (6) economic empowerment and skills. These domains are interconnected, and, also considered is the idea of peace of mind, without which, there is no wellness
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  • 22
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2196
    Keywords: Covid-19 ; Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Pandemic ; Primary Health Care ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: While the incidence of COVID-19 in Belize has subsided, the lasting health and economic impacts caused by the pandemic have demonstrated the need to build a resilient health system. The most recent figures from the Statistical institute of Belize confirm that there have been over 60,000 cases and 678 deaths due to COVID-19. Additionally, a rapid phone survey of over 2,000 households, conducted between December 2021 and January 2023, found that 20.6 percent and 26.8 percent of respondents reported losing their job permanently or temporarily, respectively, and an additional 64 percent of respondents reported a reduction in their income during pandemic. Ensuring the health system remains resilient to shocks is critical, especially given the pandemic's impacts on heath and the economy
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Disease Control and Prevention ; Economic Growth ; GCC ; Gulf Cooperation Council ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; NCDS ; Non-Communicable Diseases
    Abstract: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies performed strongly in 2022. Amidst a year of economic uncertainty marked by inflation, geopolitical crises, and supply chain insecurity, the GCC region registered remarkable GDP growth of 7.3 percent in 2022. Progress made on structural reforms are bearing fruits on the economy. Despite the uptick, inflation remains relatively muted in comparison to other high-income countries. Looking ahead, the GCC region is projected to grow at a slower pace. The main contributors to this growth are private consumption, fixed investments, and government expenditures through looser fiscal policy in response to high oil revenues. However, downside risks to the outlook are numerous. Special Focus: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) pose a major health burden to the population and governments of the GCC. NCDs are also a growing concern from an economic perspective. To mitigate the health and economic burden of NCDs, the region needs to scale up efforts to target the behavioral and environmental risk factors of NCDs. Effectively addressing NCDs requires a whole-of-government approach, and the effective implementation and monitoring of targeted, evidence-based solutions. Addressing the risk factors of NCDs requires an increased strategic focus on prevention over treatment, targeting of the young and adolescents, and the development and implementation of evidence-informed, cost effective, high impact interventions. Governance structures that can effectively mobilize, incentivize, and hold accountable the many non-health sectors in the implementation and monitoring of cost-effective interventions are critical
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Food Security ; Food Systems ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Stability ; Value Chains
    Abstract: Sierra Leone's economy experienced overlapping setbacks during 2022, as external spillovers from the Russian invasion of Ukraine aggravated domestic macroeconomic vulnerabilities. This led to high levels of inflation, a substantially weaker currency, greater imbalances in public finances, and lower foreign exchange reserves. GDP growth slowed in 2022 (from 4.1 percent in 2021 to 3.5 percent) bringing the average GDP growth since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to only around half of the pre-pandemic trend. High global energy and fertilizer prices coupled with a weaker currency translated into accelerating inflation which rose from 12percent in 2021 to 27 percent in 2022, and further to over 50 percent by August 2023, threatening the welfare of households and worsening food insecurity and poverty
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2203
    Keywords: Climate ; Health Taxes ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Household Budget ; Infectious Diseases ; UHC ; Universal Health Coverage
    Abstract: Leaving no one behind is a central promise of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which recognizes health as a fundamental human right. Achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is key to delivering on this promise. UHC ensures that everyone receives good quality health services, when and where needed, without incurring financial hardship arising from payments made for those services. The 2023 Universal Health Coverage Global Monitoring Report presents an alarming picture of stagnating access to essential health services and increased financial hardship from out-of-pocket health payments affecting especially the poorest and most vulnerable people. Globally, about 4.5 billion people, more than half of the world population, lack full access to essential health services. Since 2015, health service coverage has stagnated after a dynamic increase in previous years, indicating that urgent action is required by governments to ensure people can access health services. Past progress in service coverage was largely driven by improved access to infectious disease services, but since 2015 there has been minimal to no expansion of health service coverage related to infectious and noncommunicable diseases or for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health services. Financial hardship due to out-of-pocket health spending continues to worsen and undermine efforts to eradicate poverty globally. The number of people incurring catastrophic out-of-pocket health spending (more than 10% of their household budget) increased to more than 1 billion people in 2019, or almost 14% of the global population. About 1.3 billion people (almost 17% of the global population) were pushed or further pushed into poverty by out-of-pocket health spending. This includes 344 million people living in extreme poverty. Out-of-pocket health payments reduce the ability of households to afford other essential goods and services and negatively affect a family's consumption levels. Health costs also cause individuals to forgo essential care, which can lead to more severe illnesses or even death. Reaching the goal of UHC by 2030 requires substantial public sector investment and accelerated action by governments and development partners, building on solid evidence. This includes strengthening health systems based on a primary health care approach and advancing equity in both the delivery of essential health services and financial protection. Achieving UHC also requires modern, fit-for-purpose health information systems that provide timely and reliable data to inform policy design. Such shifts are essential following the pandemic's impact on health systems and health workers and in view of deepening macroeconomic, climate, demographic, and political trends which threaten to reverse hard-won health gains around the world
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Climate-Smart Agriculture ; Education ; Education Finance ; Energy Resources Development ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Systems ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Inclusion ; Investment and Investment Climate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; NEDI ; Off-Grid Solar Access ; Transport and Trade ; Water and Sanitation
    Abstract: Kenya's north and northeastern region is a host to 11 percent of the total population scattered across 63 percent of the country's landmass. The arid and semi-arid region experiences recurrent droughts that create vulnerabilities for the nomadic pastoralist communities, pervasive insecurity, suffers fragility, and has been a host to the largest population of refugees in sub-Saharan Africa over the last three decades. These policy choices contributed to the significant lag in most of the development indicators for this region compared to the rest of the country. The region has huge infrastructure deficits, low literacy rates, and contributes only a modest 4.7 percent to the national gross domestic product. To address the socio-economic disparities and inequality challenges, the Government of Kenya with support from World Bank (WB) launched the North and Northeastern Development Initiative (NEDI) in 2018. The NEDI, the region's first significant, integrated, and transformative investment, cuts across foundational sectors including energy, water, transport, social protection, displacement, and agriculture
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2203
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Environment ; Health ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Migrations and Resettlements ; Human Rights ; Threat Mitigation
    Abstract: Climate change has been called the most important threat to human health in the 21st century. It is estimated that if thetemperature rises and its impact on the other climatic variablescontinues unchanged, it will kill more than 83 million people (1 percent of the world's population) in the next 80 years (Wattset al. 2020)-13 times the toll of the COVID-19 pandemic (WorldHealth Organization 2023). Historically, only pandemics or worldwars have posed such threats to human health. As a result, the issue has aroused unprecedented attention. In 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared climate changethe greatest health threat facing humanity (WHO 2021). Now, more than 195 governments have included climate change mitigation and adaptation as pillars in their multi-year plans, and government health sectors have been developing plans tomeasure and respond to the impact of climate change on health. However, recognition of the links between climate change and health remains nascent, so these efforts have not yet been accompanied by strategic and actionable approaches to measure the impacts and ground the responses. This report contributes to addressing that gap by providing a framework for understandingthe impact of climate change on human health in Colombia and by outlining the most effective actions to mitigate the threat
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  • 28
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2196
    Keywords: Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Medicines and Supplies ; NCD ; PHC ; Quality Of Care
    Abstract: The results of the assessment point to four policy recommendations to address challenges related to governance, availability of medicines and supplies, comprehensiveness of services, and ability to deliver adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) services and promote universal and effective PHC coverage in The Gambia: 1. Establish a PHC-specific policy focused on improving coordination across governmental and non-governmental actors, quality of care, and monitoring and evaluation. 2. Increase the availability of medicines and supplies by leveraging. existing purchasing mechanisms and strengthening supply chain management.3. Implement a people-centered model of PHC focused on delivering comprehensive infectious and NCD services. 4. Increase capacity for adolescent sexual and reproductive health service delivery
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Disease Control and Prevention ; Financing ; Global Activity ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; PPR ; Preparedness ; Prevention
    Abstract: This paper has outlined an ambitious agenda for the WBG to support PPR enhancement at country, regional, and global levels as part of a broader approach to strengthen health systems. It is an agenda that not only seeks to deliver on the Bank's IDA commitments related to disease outbreaks and crisis response but also to respond to demands from all our shareholders, clients, and other stakeholders for the Bank to play a key role in strengthening PPR capacities at country and regional levels through a wider health system strengthening agenda. Policy commitments from IDA's Human capital special themes support the building of resilient health systems that can provide core essential health services and have the capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to disease outbreaks and other health emergencies an approach that will ensure sustainability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The paper has highlighted that PPR is an inherently multisectoral agenda. Further, the paper has argued that there are large financing gaps to fill, particularly in LICs and MICs. Looking forward, the WBG will support strengthening of PPR through actions in three interconnected domains: 1) financing; 2) global engagements and partnerships; and 3) analytics, evidence, and dialogue
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Armed Conflict ; Children and Education ; Civil War ; Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Displacement ; Food Security ; Food Unaffordability ; Health and Poverty ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Humanitarian Response ; Limited Health Care ; Living Costs ; Living Standards ; Poverty Reduction ; Reduced Food Intake ; Repeated Shocks
    Abstract: This report highlights respondents' lived experiences during Yemen's conflict as experts of their own experiences. This report aims to present the voices of Yemenis who have now spent eight years living through a civil war, economic crisis, and close to famine. This report is among the few authentically capturing Yemeni voices on a range of day-to-day issues from different governorates across the country. But arguably the small sample size limits ability to generalize findings. However, generalizing findings was not the intention of the report. For each theme, 'Voices from Yemen' presents a multi-stakeholder perspective to mitigate bias towards a single stakeholder group or geographical area. Moreover, the report's findings are in line with those in quantitative reports, such as 'Surviving in the Times of War' or the 'World Bank Phone Survey' report on food security. 'Voices from Yemen' presents a comprehensive picture of suffering derived from human stories behind the statistics. The conflict has made Yemeni lives unaffordable, uncertain, vulnerable, and often unbearable. The power of people's speech and the intensity of their stories narrate their grave vulnerabilities and the sense of helplessness and suffering the conflict has caused
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Financial Viability ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Immunizations ; Investments ; Vaccine Security ; Value Chain
    Abstract: This regional analytical activity will contribute to knowledge on the technical, operational, and financial viability and strategic partnership required among ASEAN countries to strengthen coordinated investments on the vaccine value chain. The ASA has three major activities: i) A deep-dive public sector technical assessment of country and regional level vaccine security, including gaps and opportunities across the value chain from RandD to last mile distribution; ii) A private sector value chain analysis covering upstream and downstream aspects of vaccine manufacturing; and iii) An economic analysis examining the feasibility of coordinated investments across countries to leverage comparative advantage in specific aspects of the vaccine value chain
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  • 32
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Country Population Profiles ; Demographics ; Evaluation ; Financing ; Health Indicators ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Healthy Aging ; Innovation ; Older Adult Care ; Older Adults ; Regulation
    Abstract: Bangladesh is home to one of the largest populations of older adults in the world. Driven by increasing life expectancy at birth, this population is increasing. By 2040,one in five Bangladeshis will be 60 years old or older. The increase in lifespan isaccompanied by a greater burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), whichaccount for 70 percent of all deaths in the country. These chronic conditions tend toaffect older adults, leading to an increased demand for health care services by thisgroup. NCDs are also expensive to treat, placing financial hardship on families in low resource settings. While the Government of Bangladesh has committed to providing many of the basic rights of older adults, the health care needs of older adults remain unmet. A lack of adequate funding and services point to a need for a health care system that caters to the specific needs of older adults, such as long-term care and consolidation of care. Other supportive structures also appear to be missing, such as a health insurance fund that covers common chronic conditions faced by older adults, which would remove barriers to accessing health care. A bill proposing a pension scheme is currently undergoing approval in Bangladesh's legislative system. The primary health care (PHC) system, too, is geared toward the treatment of acuteillnesses rather than providing older Bangladeshis with integrated, long-term, people centered care. This study aimed to better understand the current capacity of PHC inBangladesh to provide care oriented towards older persons. The authors carried outa desk review of global and Bangladeshi literature on aging populations, followed bystakeholder consultations and key informant interviews with government officials, health professionals, and developmental organizations. Field visits to PHC facilitieswere also carried out to assess whether they met the internationally accepted criteriafor age-friendly infrastructure. The data were compiled and analyzed according to the FIRE framework (Financing, Innovation, Regulation, Evaluation) for older adult care. Despite the large burden of NCDs, only USD0.82 is spent per capita on NCD control, much lower than the USD1.50 recommended by the World Health Organization(WHO). Increasing spending on NCD management can help alleviate the financial pressure on households to care for older adults
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2199
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) ; Central Asia ; Covid-19 ; Ecosystem Transformations ; Education Reform and Management ; Food Safety ; Food Systems Resilience ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; ICT Applications ; International Economics and Trade ; Livestock ; One Health Approach ; Regional Cooperation
    Abstract: Central Asia has made much progress in public health and animal health in the last 20 years but was as unprepared as other regions in the world to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. The region also faces challenges from other emerging diseases, re-emerging diseases, and climate change. Since 2020, the Central Asian regional economies, as the rest of the world, have faced two shocks - the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine. Animal diseases do not respect borders and remain a public health concern because of the possible transmission of pathogens to humans. They can spread quickly from one country to another, with impact on animal health, trade, food security, food safety and possibly creating public health emergencies. One Health is an approach that allows for addressing human, animal, and ecosystem health issues through intersectoral action, to prevent, detect, respond to, and recover from infectious diseases, with an endpoint of improving global health security and achieving gains in development. The World Bank has been actively engaged in Central Asia for over two decades and is well-placed to act as a convener able to provide regional program-design expertise and implementation support for a One Health program. The findings of this report will support the preparation of the Central Asia One Health Framework for Action by providing recommendations for activities which can be further supported through public spending, private investments, and other financial resources
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Coverage ; Equitable ; Financing ; Health System ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Resilient
    Abstract: Ukraine provides an illuminating example of a health system that has responded to a health shock in a way that both builds health system resilience and advances health system reforms. When the COVID-19 pandemic broke out in Ukraine in early 2020, a set of major health financing and provider payment reforms were under way. The capacity of the National Health Services of Ukraine (NHSU) and collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Ukraine offered considerable flexibility to make quick adjustments in purchasing arrangements toward changing COVID-19 health care needs. The NHSU is entitled to purchase program of medical guarantees (PMG) services through packages defined on an annual basis with regular adjustments to accommodate evolving needs. The ongoing reforms involved a transition from historical line-item budgeting toward output-based purchasing arrangements through which resources were channeled to selected health providers, conditional on confirmed provider capacity and using new payment mechanisms (capitation, global budgets, fees for service, per-case payment, and so on) that incentivize efficiency. It is an opportune time to reflect on how Ukraine's pandemic response affected the health system reforms and the extent to which adjustments made helped them progress or set them back. The lessons from this experience may be important during the current health sector emergency caused by the Russian invasion in Ukraine, which started on February 24, 2022
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Disability ; Health Indicators ; Health Policy and Management ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The objective of this Technical Note is to provide task teams and task team leaders (TTLs) with tools for designing and delivering health care services that are inclusive of disability. More specifically, the ambition of this Technical Note is to improve awareness and skills of TTLs and other World Bank employees toward recognizing the rights of persons with disabilities to receive equitable health care from the outset, to help drive demand from governments, and to identify concrete actions to promote disability-inclusion in health service delivery. The guide provides the rationale for disability inclusion, tips for engaging in dialogue, information and examples on disability-inclusive practices and operations, and specific guidance on integrating disability into health service programming and delivery supported by the World Bank
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: DBT ; Direct Benefit Transfer ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Private Providers ; Public Health Concern ; TB ; Treatment of Patients ; Tuberculosis
    Abstract: Eliminating tuberculosis (TB) as a public health concern is not only about saving lives, but also equally an important economic investment. In line with this, the Government of India (GOI) has a target of elimination of TB by 2025, through innovative measures, including providing multiple direct benefit transfer (DBT) schemes for patients and providers and using technology to strengthen service delivery. The GOI has implemented DBT for more than 300 social protection schemes, including eleven in the health sector. This policy brief explicitly focuses on the DBT scheme for TB patients. The four supporting DBT schemes for TB include: (i) under the Ni-Kshay Poshan Yojana (NPY), monetary incentives are provided for each notified TB patient until the completion of the treatment; (ii) Ni-Kshay monetary incentives are provided for the private providers and informants for the notification and until completion of the treatment of patients treated by private providers; (iii) transport monetary incentive for TB patients in notified tribal areas; and (iv) honorarium to treatment supporters who may be individual volunteers or non-profit organizations providing support to TB patients. This policy brief documents and distills lessons from NPY's early implementation of DBT in three states and six districts in India
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Digital Divide ; Disease Control and Prevention ; Economic Growth ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy
    Abstract: Myanmar's economy continues to be severely tested by the ongoing impacts of the military coup and the surge in COVID-19 cases in 2021. While some real-time indicators have improved in recent months, they remain consistent with a much lower level of economic activity than prior to the February coup. Reported COVID-19 cases have fallen to low levels (and few reported cases of the Omicron variant as of early January 2022), while real time indicators of mobility, manufacturing activity, and exports are showing signs of recovering. On the other hand, indicators of conflict suggest that the security environment has deteriorated in many parts of Myanmar, including in states and regions which have historically been relatively peaceful. This has affected businesses' operations, logistics, confidence, and appetite to invest. After the sharp decline in incomes and employment observed across the economy, available indicators suggest domestic demand remains very weak. At the same time, supply-side constraints persist and some have worsened in recent months. Access to kyat liquidity, credit, and foreign currency remains severely constrained. A sharp exchange rate depreciation in September 2021 has raised import prices across the economy, including of fuel and other critical inputs to production, increasing transport costs. Electricity outages are a growing concern and internet disruptions continue to reduce the reliability of firms' and households' connectivity and ability to access information and connect with markets (see Part III: Digital Disruptions and Economic Impacts)
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Data Collection ; Health Management Information System ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Roads and Highways ; Transport
    Abstract: This report provides insights into the current situation and overall burden of trauma and RTCs in Malawi, shares what we have learned about how to effectively run a digital trauma registry in a low-resource setting, and highlights lessons learned from the implementation of the EMS pilot
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Disease Control and Prevention ; Early Child and Children's Health ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health Policy ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Public Health
    Abstract: The historical situation of instability in the West Bank (WB) and the Gaza Strip (GS) has multiple adverse impacts on the population. In this context, several assessments have documented a deterioration in the nutritional status of the population of the WB and GS including static or increasing prevalence of anemia, caused by iron deficiency, and other nutrition deficiencies. According to the most recent information available, anemia is a public health problem among pregnant and postnatal women, children aged 6-59 months, and adolescents. In these four groups, the prevalence of anemia is higher in the GS compared to the WB. The fact that children aged 6-59 months are affected by anemia makes it probable that children aged 0-5 months are also affected. However, this may not be reflected in the data because this age group is not normally sampled due to the procedure involved in taking a blood sample from babies. The flour fortification program aims to increase the intake of iron and other micronutrients for the whole population, by adding 10 micronutrients to wheat flour, including iron, vitamin A, and folic acid. This document provides recommendations to address demand-and-supply-side bottlenecks for wheat flour fortification and iron supplementation
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Food Safety ; Food Security ; Health and Poverty ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Nutrition
    Abstract: Current donor investment in food safety in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) largely reflects the concerns of previous decades and as a result is substantially focused on access to regional and overseas export markets, with emphasis on national control systems. Relatively little is being done to reduce foodborne illness among consumers in SSA. More investment in food safety (by African governments, donors, and the private sector) is needed to help ensure that Africans have safe food. New understanding of foodborne disease burden and management, along with rapid and broad change within societies and agri-food systems in SSA, has led to food safety emerging as an important public health and development issue. There is need to reconsider donor and national government investment strategies and the role of the private sector. This report is a call for action on food safety. It provides up-to-date information on key food safety actors, presents the first-ever analysis of food safety investments in SSA, captures insights from a wide-ranging expert consultation and makes suggestions for attaining food safety, based on evidence but also consensus principles, successful elsewhere but not yet applied widely in mass domestic markets in SSA
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Curriculum and Instruction ; Education ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Mental Health ; Teacher Training
    Abstract: LAC has endured one of the longest spells of school closures. The region was hit disproportionately hard in health, economic, and educational terms. In the region, an entire generation of students - approximately 170 million - were fully deprived of in-person education for roughly 1 out of 2 effective school days to date. The effects of the pandemic on the education sector of the region have been severe. The incipient recovery must focus on returning to schooling and, especially, recovering and accelerating learning. In a nutshell, this agenda entails the urgent and comprehensive implementation of four commitments: (i) A commitment to place the education recovery at the top of the public agenda; (ii) A commitment to reintegrate all the children that abandoned school and ensure they stay in it; (iii) A commitment to recover lost learning and ensure the socio-emotional well-being of children; (iv) A commitment to value, support and train teachers
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Armed Conflict ; Communicable Diseases ; Conflict and Development ; COVID-19 ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Analysis ; Social Development
    Abstract: Global growth slowed markedly in H1 2022. This was due to COVID-19 resurgences at the turn of the year; protracted supply disruptions; reduced macroeconomic support; and substantial negative spillovers from the war in Ukraine. The conflict, which has sparked the largest commodity price shock in 50 years, has exacerbated the increasingly difficult policy tradeoffs between supporting growth and managing price pressures. It has contributed to tightening in global financial conditions, increased financial market volatility and higher borrowing costs, particularly in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies (EMDEs)
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Burden Of Disease ; Communicable Diseases ; Disease Control and Prevention ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; HIV/AIDS ; Malaria ; Nutrition ; Tuberculosis
    Abstract: Over the last two decades, Tanzania has registered improvement in the health status of the population and a reduction in the overall disease burden. However, the burden of communicable diseases and maternal and child health conditions, including nutrition, remains persistently high. These conditions can be prevented and treated with existing affordable and cost-effective interventions but remain major public health problems. Besides the persistently high burden of communicable diseases, Tanzania is witnessing a growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and is at risk of a protracted, full-fledged double burden of disease. The study assessed the current and future trajectory of the disease burden, assessed the organization and performance of the health care delivery system in responding to the disease burden, and identified actions that Tanzania would need to employ to address the major causes of disease burden so that they may cease to be major public health problems
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Keywords: Covid-19 ; Education ; Education For All ; Environment ; Gender ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Natural Resources ; Natural Resources Management ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Sustainability
    Abstract: The Performance and Learning Review (PLR) summarizes progress in the implementation of the World Bank Group (WBG) Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Cambodia for Fiscal Year (FY) 2019-2023 (Report No. 136500-KH). The CPF, discussed by the Board of Executive Directors on May 30, 2019, proposed a joint WBG program of assistance covering three focus areas: (i) promoting state efficiency and boosting private sector development; (ii) fostering human development; and (iii) improving agriculture and strengthening sustainable use of natural resources. A cross-cutting theme of strengthening governance, institutions and citizen engagement underpins reforms in all three focus areas. These areas address the key development challenges identified in the 2017 Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) (Report No. 115189-KH) and are aligned with the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC)'s Rectangular Strategy Phase IV and the National Strategic Development Plan 2019-2023 and remain relevant to support Cambodia's post COVID-19 recovery
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  • 45
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Food and Nutrition Policy ; Food Safety ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Risk Assessment
    Abstract: Vietnam's agricultural sector plays an important role in the global agri-food value chain. As the sector having the highest trade surplus in one of the most open economies in the world, Vietnam's agricultural sector was affected by Coronavirus (COVID-19) in two main ways. Firstly, raw materials and immediate input supplies for the sector were disrupted due to the early outbreak in Asian countries, especially China, which supply most agricultural inputs such as fertilizers and plant protection products. Secondly and compounding this trend, demand has dropped significantly due to mobility restrictions and reduced economic activity within the country and its most important markets, such as the US and Europe. The objective of this study was to enhance Vietnam's trade and competitiveness, focusing on strengthening private sector participation in global value-chains and food safety awareness and compliance. This report is structured as follows. The first chapter presents the context, objectives and approach for the study. The second chapter highlights the key issues, challenges and gaps in Vietnam's food safety risk assessment. The third chapter presents some of the key lessons and experiences in food safety risk management from some countries within the region and more advanced economies, as a basis to inform Vietnam's national food safety risk assessment framework. Chapter four makes recommendations on how to strengthen Vietnam's National food safety risk assessment committee
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Health Indicators ; Health Insurance ; Health Shocks ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Resources
    Abstract: As the world approaches the third anniversary of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, the devastating health, economic, and societal impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic remain on every continent. COVID-19 underscored how unprepared we are for a public-health emergency of staggering proportions. And yet potentially graver health threats loom. The increasing number of acute infectious diseases combines with trends such as population aging, chronic-disease burdens, and climate change to raise the risk of syndemics-events in which two or more diseases adversely interact with each other and with political and economic conditions of inequality and poverty. The only way to prevent, prepare for, and manage these threats is by building resilient health systems to withstand shocks and improve health outcomes between crises. This report, which is filled with country examples of resilience, shows how strengthening resilience is within every country's reach, even those with low incomes. It describes the key features of resilient systems as integrated systems that are aware of threats; agile in response to evolving needs; absorptive of shocks; adaptive to minimize disruptions; and able to transform after crises, based on lessons learned. The report makes recommendations for countries to operationalize resilience based on a framework that prioritizes investments according to their impact. The most important investments center on risk reduction, including prevention and community preparedness. The second most important investments focus on disease detection, containment, and mitigation to contain outbreaks before they spread widely. The final set focuses on advanced case management and surge response during an epidemic or pandemic, making this the most expensive and least cost-effective tier. The final message of the report is urgency. Investments are needed to save lives and economies - before it is too late
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases ; Disease Control and Prevention ; Health Policy ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Public Health
    Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when microbes, bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, evolve in ways that reduce medicine's ability to fight them. AMR has made many infections, particularly bacterial infections, increasingly difficult or even impossible to treat. Without effective medicines, the number of people with severe microbial infections will increase, as will the number of people who die from these infections. In 2019, 4.95 million deaths were associated with AMR, with the highest AMR-attributable death rates occurring in western sub-Saharan Africa.8 While AMR is a natural evolutionary process that occurs over time, many human-led behaviors have increased its occurrence. The main drivers of AMR include: (1) the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials; (2) lack of access to clean water and adequate sanitation for people and animals; (3) poor infection prevention and control measures in healthcare facilities and farms; (4) limited access to quality, affordable medicines, vaccines, and diagnostics; and (5) lack of awareness and knowledge about AMR. Additionally, for countries to progress from planning to acting, AMR coordination committees must have a clearly defined role and the remit to develop and implement an operational plan. Operational plans should embed NAP activities into the national development agenda, sectoral strategies, and budgets, and should coordinate an aligned approach to delivering NAP activities across sectors and stakeholders. Creating and empowering AMR coordination committees and comprehensively implementing and monitoring the prioritized activities outlined in their NAPs operational plan takes time; but there are several relatively easy entry points for AMR action that countries can utilize to accelerate their fight against AMR. The remaining case studies in this series showcase successful actions against AMR that three countries, Burkina Faso, Jordan, and Malawi, have taken along their journey to fully operationalizing and implementing their NAPs on AMR
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Air Pollution ; Air Quality and Clean Air ; Environment ; Green Issues ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Psychology ; Public Health Promotion ; Social Development ; Social Policy
    Abstract: In order to promote environmentally friendly behaviors, it is fundamental not only to consider and modify already existing infrastructure and facilities, or rethink physical prompts and cues in the environment, but also contemplate and target the cognitive traits inherent to any human being. Sustainable behaviors such as recycling, reusing, and composting are driven by different motivations and beliefs. In the past few decades, scholars have also devoted significant attention to identify and describe major socio-psychological and situational determinants of sustainable behaviors, such as age, gender, cultural background, attitudes, knowledge, motivation, social influence and others. In this report, the authors provide a description of how behavioral science was used to generate insights on factors that influence open burning in the population of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). This report will walk the reader through the different phases of the behavioral method applied to open burning in Lao PDR. In the definition phase the behavior is outlined, and the social, psychological, and contextual factors that influence it are studied. In the second phase, an intervention based on the hypotheses is designed. Finally, the intervention is implemented and evaluated in order to adapt the solutions to the current reality of the population
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Debt ; Disease Control and Prevention ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Debt ; Public Sector Development ; Unemployment
    Abstract: The Economic Monitor examines four possible factors behind Tunisia's slow recovery. First, the drop in mobility related to the pandemic may have been more harmful in Tunisia. However, mobility in Tunisia has dropped to a similar extent as other countries and it has now returned to pre-pandemic levels following the acceleration in the vaccination campaign since July. If anything, the mobility drop in Tunisia has resulted in a lower reduction in economic activity than in comparator countries as Algeria and Egypt. Second, it could be that the level of public support to the ailing firms and households may have been particularly low. However, at 2.3 percent of GDP, the Covid-19 stimulus package in 2020 was in the same ballpark as other comparators in the region. Third, the structure of the Tunisian economy, particularly its reliance on tourism, may have exposed it to the negative demand shock more than other countries. Indeed hotels, cafe and restaurant and transport are the sectors which have contracted the most since the start of the pandemic. The losses of these sectors explain a significant portion of the negative effects of the crisis in Tunisia, although they do not fully account for such slow recovery
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  • 50
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Health Economics and Finance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health Project Design and Implementation ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population
    Abstract: Pakistan along with all UN member states has been a signatory to the International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 which calls for countries to work together to prevent, detect, and respond to public health emergencies under the IHR (2005). The signatory countries have also agreed to work towards Universal Health Coverage and to build resilient health systems which can adapt and respond to the challenges posed by outbreaks and other health hazards and emergencies of national and international concern. The purpose and scope of the IHR (2005) are very broad. According to Article 2 of the IHR, the purpose and scope of the Regulations are "to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade." In 2021 with the promulgation of the National Institute for Health (NIH) Ordinance, the reorganization of the NIH to National Public Health Institutes was initiated with the core functions of disease surveillance and response, public health laboratories, and research. This meant that as per the JEE and NAPHS, which lay out the various functions of IHR-GHSA under the three pillars conceptual framework for Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDSR) that comprises Prevent-Detect-Respond capacities, the newly constituted NIH required an assessment of current and future health workforce capacities in the country The findings in the report are organized by the three pillars of IDSR:1) Prevent, 2) Detect, and 3) Respond. The gap analysis identified the number of additional health workforce needed in various categories. This review concluded that most of the departments in both animal and human health sectors had urgent requirements for filling existing sanctioned posts as well as for additional workforce. Engagement of the requisite workforce, also requires training needs to be met among the 13 areas of work
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  • 51
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases ; Disease Control and Prevention ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population
    Abstract: Kenya has experienced sustained economic growth over the past few years. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average annual rate of 5.2 percent over the past 10 years (2007 to 2016). The rebasing of its national accounts in 2014 resulted in an upward revision of the country's GDP per capita and its re-classification as a lower middle-income country (LMIC). Kenya's economic prospects mean that the country is surpassing critical income eligibility thresholds for international financing and is bound to experience reduced international financing for its priority programs. This technical review analyzed the design and financing of five priority programs in Kenya (immunization, human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV and AIDS), tuberculosis, malaria and reproductive health) in relation to their sustainability as Kenya transitions from a donor dependent country, to one that predominantly finances health through domestic resources. The review forms the first phase of work, which involves conducting a detailed analytical assessment and synthesis of a wide range of studies to assess the financing and delivery of immunization and other priority programs in Kenya. The report will serve as a one-stop-shop for the government, partners, and other stakeholders interested in sustainable financing and integration of vertical programs in health service delivery. The second phase of the work will draw on findings and recommendations from the first phase to support the national and county governments to implement interventions that will improve Kenya's readiness to transition its priority health programs towards being sustainably financed
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Macroeconomic Management ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Buffeted by COVID-19 and Tropical Cyclone Seroja, the non-oil economy grew by 1.5 percent in 2021. A record-high budget with expenditure of nearly 90 percent of GDP bolstered government consumption. A series of fiscal and quasi-fiscal stimulus measures supported employment and incomes, thereby allowing households to maintain their consumption. On the demand side, gross capital formation shrunk while net exports expanded. The oil economy grew by 8.3 percent, bringing the total economic growth to 4.4 percent.1 The government lifted the pandemic-related state of emergency at the end of November 2021, but challenges remain. Following a relatively brisk start, the vaccination campaign has moved sluggishly in recentmonths. Nevertheless, the authorities have initiated vaccination of children and adolescents between 12 and 18 years old, while booster shots have been made available. There has been a concerning surge of Dengue Fever with 5,000 reported cases (and 54 fatalities) to date since January 2022-a more than seven-fold increase from the same period a year ago. All restrictions for inbound international vaccinated travelers to Timor-Leste havebeen rescinded. By the end of May 2022, the partly vaccinated and fully vaccinated figures in Timor-Leste stood at 85.4 percent and 73.4 percent, respectively
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Gender ; Gender and Social Policy ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Rights ; Mental Health
    Abstract: The objective of this assessment is to provide background information about GBV issues, policies, programming, and gaps in Malawi, for the purpose of assisting the World Bank (WB) to 1) consider how to directly support efforts to address GBV in Malawi; 2) inform strategies for integrating attention to GBV in development programming; and 3) understand the extent of GBV response programming. In addition to providing an overview of data on the scope of GBV in Malawi, the assessment investigates: legislative and policy protections related to GBV; systems and coordination mechanisms in place for addressing GBV in Malawi; and GBV response and prevention programming. The assessment analyzes key gaps across these areas of investigation based on inputs from key stakeholders as well as the desk review and concludes with several recommendations for WB to consider assisting in addressing these key gaps
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