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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Governance ; Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; PHC ; Primary Health Care Performance ; Vital Signs Profile
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the Vital Signs Profile (VSP) assessment conducted by the World Bank and the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) in collaboration with Fiji's Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MHMS). The VSP provides an opportunity to assess the state of the primary health care (PHC) system in Fiji, highlighting areas of strength and challenges through the lens of the PHCPI framework. The framework organizes various domains and subdomains of primary health care using a logic model approach that encompasses the traditional inputs and outputs of PHC systems and emphasizes the capacity and processes of PHC service delivery and performance. Notably, while PHCPI recognizes the role of social determinants of health and intersectoral health promotion and prevention efforts as important factors influencing population health, the VSP is primarily focused on aspects of health service delivery. Fiji is one of four Pacific countries - alongside Kiribati, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Solomon Islands that have, with support of the World Bank, used PHCPI tools to take stock of current performance, safeguard what works well, and lay out a vision for areas requiring improvement
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Serbia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Serbia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Serbia on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Serbia; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Serbia; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Serbia; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Serbia
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Zimbabwe assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Zimbabwe perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Zimbabwe on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Zimbabwe; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Zimbabwe; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Zimbabwe; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Zimbabwe
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Jamaica assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Jamaica perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Jamaica on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Jamaica; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Jamaica; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Jamaica; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Jamaica
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Kenya assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Kenya perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Kenya on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Kenya; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Kenya; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Kenya; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Kenya
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Ghana assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Ghana perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Ghana on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Ghana; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Ghana; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Ghana; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Ghana
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Mongolia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Mongolia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Mongolia on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Mongolia; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Mongolia; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Mongolia; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Mongolia
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Anticorruption Agenda ; Governance ; Governance and Financial Sector ; Integrity Risks ; Law and Development ; Public Administration ; Public Procurement
    Abstract: The Armenia public sector accountability survey is instrumental in addressing the disparities between de jure laws and regulations and de facto practices and seeks to fill existing knowledge gaps and inform further definition and implementation of the government's anticorruption initiatives. The survey was implemented by the Corruption Prevention Commission (CPC) and the World Bank. It aimed to: (i) provide a comprehensive assessment of the patterns and determinants of integrity risks, and how they can impact productivity and performance in the public administration in Armenia; (ii) understand the perceptions of Armenian public servants regarding ongoing anticorruption initiatives, their awareness of integrity risks, and the needs for further interventions; and (iii) generate evidence, support and inform further definition of reforms and anticorruption initiatives that help address and counter weak integrity practices in the public sector in Armenia. By highlighting the disparities between de jure laws and de facto practices, particularly in terms of integrity within the public sector, this survey aimed to serve as a cornerstone for informing effective implementation in targeted interventions and bridging the gap between policy intentions and actual practices within Armenia's governance. The Armenia public sector accountability survey was aimed at public servants in selected public entities in Armenia, including central ministries and agencies, regional governments, and selected municipalities across the country. The analysis of the survey findings is anchored in the government production function conceptual framework and adjusted to explicitly take into account the drivers and consequences of corruption
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Guinea assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Guinea perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Guinea on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Guinea; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Guinea; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Guinea; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Guinea
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Investment Climate Assessment
    Keywords: Digital Economy ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Governance ; International Economics and Trade ; Investment Lifecycle ; Legal Framework
    Abstract: This Investment Policy and Regulatory Review (IPRR) presents information on the legal and regulatory frameworks governing foreign direct investment (FDI) in India. Since legal and regulatory frameworks are constantly evolving, a cut-off date was set for the research. This country review therefore covers information available as of December 31, 2021, unless otherwise indicated in the review. This IPRR is organized as follows: Section 2 provides an overview of the country's investment policy framework, including the legal instruments regulating foreign investment, key institutions involved in investment promotion, as well as the country's foreign investment promotion strategy; it also delineates the country's international investment legal framework, including the country's commitments under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and select international investment agreements (IIAs); Sections 3-6 cover the country's policies and domestic legal framework concerning different dimensions of the lifecycle of an investment: entry and establishment (Section 3), protection (4), incentives (5) and linkages (6); Sections 7-8 explore emerging investment policy and regulatory areas - Section 7 considers outward FDI, Section 8 responsible investment; Section 9 focuses on city-specific investment policy and regulatory measures in the largest commercial center; and Section 10 focuses on FDI in the digital economy
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Cloud Computing ; Data Classification ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Institutional Framework ; Security
    Abstract: Despite widespread awareness on the benefits of cloud computing, authorities in most of the World Bank's client countries have not explored the opportunity of adopting cloud computing solutions. Task teams are finding it difficult to provide relevant advice to the counterparts and address their concerns. Most authorities have identified risks of moving to cloud computing: Will their data be safe? Will they have sovereign control over access to data stored offshore? Will privacy be protected? These risks are real. Due to an inadequate assessment framework to identify and assess these risks, the typical response of most client governments is to develop a government's cloud (G-Cloud or GovCloud). This seems logical for more sensitive or mission critical data. However, this is not enough. Adopting a hybrid cloud model, which leverages the cloud services from the private sector to work in conjunction with the G-Cloud can offer immense opportunities to save costs, improve security, enhance performance, and strengthen resilience in a post COVID-19 world. However, client governments need guidance to change their policy response on cloud computing - from the risk-avoidance to the one of risk-management. This note provides guidance on institutional and procurement arrangements and risk mitigation methodology for acquiring and managing public cloud solutions using a whole-of-government approach
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Additionality ; Banking Sector ; Capacity Building ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Additionality ; Financial Collaboration ; Financial Competition ; Governance ; Non Bank Financial Institutions ; Nonfinancial Additionality
    Abstract: Additionality is a core feature of private sector development finance institutions (DFIs). It is the unique contribution that a DFI or a multilateral/ bilateral bank brings to a private investment project that is not offered by commercial sources of finance. The key idea is that the investment project should add value without crowding out private sector activity. Identifying and articulating project additionality is particularly important in middle- income countries (MICs) since financial markets in MICs are more developed, and private investment far exceeds official development assistance. This evaluation report examines the relevance and effectiveness of IFC's approach to additionality in MICs and seeks to explain the factors that contribute to or constrain its realization. While the evaluation focuses on IFC's additionality on the level of the project, it also applies the lens of country and sector context to draw additional learning. Thus, it considers whether additionality can occur beyond the level of a single project-for example, at the country and sector level. Both at the project level and beyond the project, the evaluation derives lessons and offers recommendations on how IFC can further strengthen its additionality
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2196
    Keywords: Employment and Unemployment ; Governance ; Health Insurance ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; RIPSS ; Service Delivery ; T2D ; Universal Health Insurance
    Abstract: The aim of this report is to document the fidelity of the implementation of the RIPSS in the Huetar-Atlantica Region in Costa Rica. Implementation fidelity seeks to assess the extent to which an intervention is implemented as planned and, for this, the PIPs were contrasted with what was implemented in practice. The assessment identified the following: (i) gaps in the implementation that require subsequent actions, and (ii) the core elements for the sustainability and scale-up of the RIPSS
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2206
    Keywords: Digital Government Strategy ; Digitization Policy ; E-Governance Transition ; E-Government ; Electronic Registries ; European Commission ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Sustainable Digital Transformation
    Abstract: This report, which is funded by the EU under the Support to Public Sector Management Reform Project in BiH, presents an assessment of e-services and key enablers that underpin an efficient and user-centric digital government in the RS, including recommendations for further development. The assessment was conducted at the request of and in close collaboration with the RS Ministry of Scientific and Technological Development, Higher Education and Information Society (MNRVOID). The report is meant to inform the RS Government's future reform plans in the area of digitization
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 39458
    Keywords: Collusion ; Corruption ; Fraud ; Governance ; Governance Indicators ; Governance Risk ; Law and Development ; Public Expenditure
    Abstract: Corruption poses a significant threat to development and has a disproportionate impact on the poor and most vulnerable. Government agencies struggle to identify fraud and corruption in public expenditures. Risk assessments usually rely on manual analysis and follow-up on specific complaints or anecdotes which requires substantial resources. Assessments are often limited in scope and ineffective, failing to generate the evidence needed to build strong cases. The World Bank developed the Governance Risk Assessment System (GRAS), a tool that uses advanced data analytics to improve the detection of risks of fraud, corruption, and collusion in government contracting. GRAS increases the efficiency and effectiveness of audits and investigations by identifying a wide range of risk patterns. GRAS makes use of public data and is based on a robust and comprehensive conceptual framework which draws on insights from experienced practitioners and sound academic research. This report presents GRAS's main features, examples of GRAS implementation, and outlines the steps government agencies can take in applying GRAS in their countries. GRAS was developed in Brazil, where it has been piloted in four subnational governments and has helped to investigate fraud, corruption, and collusion in public procurement. Concrete results include the identification of over 850 suppliers with strong indication of collusive behavior, 450 suppliers likely registered under strawmen, 500 cases of conflict of interests involving suppliers owned by public servants, and about 4500 companies with connections to political campaigns, among other examples
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Capital Markets ; Capital Markets and Capital Flows ; Climate Change ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Inclusion ; Poverty Alleviation ; Resilience ; Shared Prosperity ; Sustainability ; Sustainable Finance
    Abstract: This annual report, which covers the period from July 1, 2022, to June 30, 2023, has been prepared by the Executive Directors of both the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)-collectively known as the World Bank-in accordance with the respective bylaws of the two institutions. Ajay Banga, President of the World Bank Group and Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors, has submitted this report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2185
    Keywords: Central Banks ; Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Risk Management ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Portfolio Management ; RAMP ; Reserve Advisory and Management Partnership ; Strategic Asset Allocation (SAA)
    Abstract: This survey report represents a collaborative effort between Reserve Advisory and Management Partnership (RAMP) and central banks worldwide to advance the understanding and practice of reserve management. The cooperation of all central banks involved is greatly appreciated, and we anticipate that the findings obtained from this survey will make a valuable contribution to the ongoing success and resilience of central bank reserve management
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Policy ; Fiscal Spending ; Governance ; Government Revenue
    Abstract: Bulgaria has traditionally adhered to fiscal discipline and prudent fiscal policy since the introduction of its currency board arrangement in mid-1997. After a gradual decline in the 2000s, public debt has remained among the lowest in the European Union (EU), hovering in a narrow band between 17 and 29 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) for the last 10 years. The low level of public debt has been supported by relatively low fiscal deficits or even surpluses in some years. This has helped the fiscal system absorb recent shocks relatively unscathed and provided sufficient fiscal space to address emerging crises and limit the scarring on economic activity, the labor market, and incomes. This report provides fresh evidence on Bulgaria's fiscal landscape and some of the key issues that fiscal policy may need to address going forward. To start with, the report looks at opportunities to increase revenue collection with two special focuses - the value-added tax (VAT) compliance gap and health taxes (excises on tobacco and alcohol products). Social spending effectiveness in reducing headline poverty and child poverty in particular also requires urgent attention from policy makers. An updated fiscal incidence analysis shows that Bulgaria's fiscal system has a limited impact on overall poverty; neither is it effective in addressing child poverty, as it reduces it by just 0.3 percentage points
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Investment Climate Assessment
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment ; Governance ; Incentives ; International Economics and Trade ; Legal Framework ; Linkages ; Policies ; Protection
    Abstract: This Investment Policy and Regulatory Review (IPRR) presents information on the legal and regulatory frameworks governing foreign direct investment (FDI) in Malaysia. Since legal and regulatory frameworks are constantly evolving, a cut-off date was set for the research. This country review therefore covers information available as of December 31, 2021, unless otherwise indicated in the review. This IPRR is organized as follows: Section 2 provides an overview of the country's investment policy framework, including the legal instruments regulating foreign investment, key institutions involved in investment promotion, as well as the country's foreign investment promotion strategy; it also delineates the country's international investment legal framework, including the country's commitments under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and select international investment agreements (IIAs); Sections 3-6 cover the country's policies and domestic legal framework concerning different dimensions of the lifecycle of an investment: entry and establishment (Section 3), protection (4), incentives (5) and linkages (6); Sections 7-8 explore emerging investment policy and regulatory areas - Section 7 considers outward FDI and Section 8 responsible investment; Section 9 focuses on city-specific investment policy and regulatory measures in the largest commercial center; and Section 10 covers FDI in the digital economy
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Access ; Child-Centered Curriculum ; Governance ; Governance, Preschool Education ; Nutrition and Health ; Universal Enrollment
    Abstract: The potential benefits from supporting early childhood development range from healthy development to a greater capacity to learn and increased productivity in adulthood. Despite undertaking various preschool education reforms and initiatives, issues of access and quality remain and continue to grow. The Malaysia Education Blueprint (2013-2025) set a target to achieve universal preschool enrollment by 2020, and Malaysia, along with many other developing countries, has yet to achieve this. Findings from the World Bank's preschool survey and stakeholder interviews carried out for this report point to a range of issues, such as a lack of preschool seat availability in certain areas, low awareness among parents on the benefits of sending their children to preschools, affordability of preschool expenses, low teacher quality, and concerns over the overlapping roles between the multiple ministries and agencies that oversee ECCE in Malaysia. This review is carried out in collaboration with the Ministry of Education (MOE) and is a comprehensive assessment of Malaysia's current preschool education landscape. The review aims to identify the gaps between the targets and aspirations set by MOE and the government under various policy documents and the outcomes to date. It also aims to deep-dive into the underlying reasons for these gaps, and seek solutions to close them and achieve the aspirations. This report synthesizes the findings from research, analysis, and stakeholder engagement activities, and is organized by a framework of targets, pillars, and enablers
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 36277
    Keywords: Air Transport ; Airports and Air Services ; Connectivity ; Governance ; Infrastructure ; Resilience ; Tourism ; Transport ; Urban Development
    Abstract: The lack of land connectivity among the Caribbean Island nations and the growing significance of the tourism sector as a key economic pillar have underscored the importance of improved air connectivity for economic growth and shared prosperity in the region. On average, tourism's contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP) for the region rose from 12 percent in 2011 to 15.2 percent in 2017, accounting for 4.3 percent of the jobs (CIA, The World FactBook). Almost half these contributions can be traced to capital investments in the travel and tourism industry, while one-third is linked to tourism-related service industries. Overall, Caribbean origin and destination air passenger traffic grew by 50 percent between 2007 and 2017, from approximately 40 million to nearly 60 million passengers annually. However, intra-regional passenger traffic remained flat and declined in some countries, including in Grenada, Dominica, and Saint Lucia. While post-2017 regionwide data is limited, evidence indicates that these trends persist
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2181
    Keywords: Economic Management ; Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance ; Governance ; Macroeconomic Management ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; National Governance ; Public Sector Development ; Score Analysis ; Sector Management and Institutions ; Social Inclusion and Equity ; Structural Policies ; Trends
    Abstract: The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) for Africa is an annual diagnostic tool for Sub-Saharan African countries that are eligible for financing from the International Development Association (IDA), the part of the World Bank that helps the world's poorest countries. The CPIA Africa 2023 report provides an assessment of the quality of policies and institutions in all 39 IDA-eligible countries in Sub-Saharan Africa for calendar year 2022. The average overall CPIA score for Sub-Saharan Africa remained unchanged at 3.1 in 2022. Economic and social resilience continues to be tested in all countries in Sub-Saharan Africa amid tight global credit markets, as institutional capacity for restoring stability and delivering sustained growth remains a challenge. Such resilience is also fundamental to responding to global climate change and the expected market shifts as the world economy transitions to green energy. The recovery of economic activity in the region following the slowdown caused by COVID-19 has been multispeed, with wide variation across countries. Global events that diverted attention away from longer-term development priorities marked 2022. Inflation was the predominant form in which international pressures translated to domestic economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in stress on social policies and government budgets, on account of divergent responses by governments and private sector competition. In some countries, this has led to significant stress on debt sustainability, highlighting the importance of debt management, budgetary oversight, and financial soundness. An opportunity for regrouping on policy reforms arose in the second half of 2022, as gas prices declined after a mild European winter and China lifted health-related restrictions. Despite global economic challenges, more countries in Sub-Saharan Africa saw improvements in their overall CPIA scores compared to the previous year. In Western and Central Africa (AFW), the overall score increased for eight countries-Benin, Cabo Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, the Republic of Congo, and Togo. The overall score increased for four countries in Eastern and Southern Africa (AFE)-Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, and Zambia. In contrast, the overall score decreased for eight countries-Chad, the Comoros, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Sao Tome and Principe, and Sudan. The countries with improved scores made notable advancements in the economic management, policies for social inclusion, and governance clusters. Conversely, the countries with declining scores faced economic management and governance challenges. For the most part, the countries that received downgrades were positioned toward the lower end of the scale, while the upgraded countries generally had overall scores above 3, indicating a growing divergence in scores across the region in 2022
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 39458
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Digital Technologies ; E-Government ; Environment ; Governance ; Govtech ; Green Transition ; ICT Applications ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: Governments are increasingly seeking opportunities to leverage digital technologies to build a greener future. This guidance note provides useful advice to policy makers underlining adequate leadership and commitment are crucial to implement coordinated GovTech and Green policies. The climate change impacts of digitalization can provide the benefits of green digital service delivery, paperless administration, and the efficiency of integrated services for a reduction of the carbon footprint. The guidance note will focus on "greening Public Administration through GovTech" defined as GovTech policies, initiatives, and/or solutions that embrace environmental considerations by design, maximizing the green benefits and considering the potential negative impacts, for example through digitalization of government processes. This guidance note is centered around three main topics: (i) the green government process through digital solutions; (ii) greening digital service delivery; and (iii) identifying policy mechanisms to mainstream green digital approaches throughout government systems
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 11872
    Keywords: Economic and Employment Structure ; Economic Growth ; Governance ; Inflation ; Labor Force Participation ; Learning Employable Skills ; Skills Development System ; Social Protections and Labor ; Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) ; Youth Employment
    Abstract: Tanzania's rapidly growing population, particularly its youth, faces challenges in entering the labor market due to limited employable skills. This policy note first reviews the demand-side factors including Tanzania's economic, employment, and labor force characteristics, then it critically analyzes the technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and skills development system. It draws from existing studies and available data to provide an overview of key sector issues and highlights the challenges that require attention as they relate to cultivating employable skills for all Tanzanian youth. This policy note complements the World Bank Policy Note on Strengthening Basic Education System and Improving Learning Outcomes and offers timely input to the government's ongoing effort to strengthen the TVET sector
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2206
    Keywords: Data Governance ; Digital Transformation ; E-Government ; FCV ; Governance ; Governance Indicators ; Palestinian Authority (PA) ; Public Sector Data
    Abstract: Data serves many purposes in the public sector: first as infrastructure that supports services and enables transactions between diverse stakeholders in a network, from government to businesses and to citizens; and second as an evidence base for governance and decision-making. Most recently, the value of data was demonstrated through efforts to manage the COVID-19 pandemic using data to aid in disease contact tracing, provide information, guide policies, and inform spending of funds. Public sector and government data sources such as censuses, national surveys, and administrative data, combined with data produced by the private sector helping to fill data gaps, provide timelier and finer-scale assessments of programs and policies, and serve public policy and development needs. Businesses can create value from government data by integrating it with data produced by the private sector. This highlights the importance of efficient and effective data sharing, reuse, and interoperability between different actors to better realize development objectives. This report describes the key findings on: leadership on data use and sharing in the government; key enablers for better public sector data use; key legal, regulatory, and policy safeguards that facilitate the trusted use, reuse, and sharing of data in a safe and secure manner; key stakeholders and their role and responsibilities in the data governance framework; and a proposed action plan
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Investment Climate Assessment
    Keywords: Digital Sector ; Domestic ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Governance ; International ; International Economics and Trade ; Legal Instruments
    Abstract: This Investment Policy and Regulatory Review (IPRR) presents information on the legal and regulatory frameworks governing foreign direct investment (FDI) in Nigeria. Since legal and regulatory frameworks are constantly evolving, a cut-off date was set for the research. This country review therefore covers information available as of December 31, 2021, unless otherwise indicated in the review. This IPRR is organized as follows: Section 2 provides an overview of the country's investment policy framework, including the legal instruments regulating foreign investment, key institutions involved in investment promotion, as well as the country's foreign investment promotion strategy; it also delineates the country's international investment legal framework, including the country's commitments under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and select international investment agreements (IIAs); Sections 3-6 cover the country's policies and domestic legal framework concerning different dimensions of the lifecycle of an investment: entry and establishment (Section 3), protection (4), incentives (5) and linkages (6); Sections 7-8 explore emerging investment policy and regulatory areas - Section 7 considers outward FDI and Section 8 responsible investment; Section 9 focuses on city-specific investment policy and regulatory measures in the largest commercial center; and Section 10 covers FDI in the digital economy
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 39458
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; FCS ; Fragility and Conflict ; Governance ; GOVTECH ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Insurance and Risk Mitigation ; Investment and Investment Climate ; Political Economy ; Reforms
    Abstract: This report takes stock of the development of GovTech solutions in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations (FCS), be they characterized by low institutional capacity and/or by active conflict and provides insights on challenges and opportunities for implementing GovTech reforms in such contexts. It is aimed at practitioners and policy makers working in FCS but will also be useful for practitioners working in Fragility, Conflict, and Violence (FCV) contexts, at-risk countries, or low-income countries as some similar challenges and opportunities can be present. Chapter 1 describes the methodology and provides basic definitions of FCV and GovTech as well as the rationale for the report. Chapter 2 provides an overview of GovTech in FCS, based on the analysis of GovTech Maturity Index (G_TMJ) data, and common challenges to GovTech in FCS. Chapter 3 analyzes the state of GovTech reforms per pillar in FCS and illustrates these with selected examples. Chapter 4 concludes with some recommendations for designing and implementing GovTech projects in these contexts based on the analysis
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Current Economic Indicators ; Equity Committment ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Policy ; GDP Growth By Sector ; Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Recent Economic Developments
    Abstract: Global growth is projected to slow significantly in 2023 as continued monetary tightening constrains the credit supply. Tanzania's economy has performed relatively well despite a challenging external environment. The government recognizes that a dynamic private sector fueled both by domestic and international investment is crucial to increase productivity, accelerate job creation, and support more inclusive and resilient growth. Tanzania has several macroeconomic advantages that could support a successful transition to middle-income status. Tanzania's most urgent reform priorities include measures to improve efficiency and effectiveness of expenditure programs and boost tax-revenue mobilization. The government should assess and regulate budget transfers to state-owned enterprises to ensure their sustainability. An analysis of the implementation capacity of ministries with low expenditure execution rates could inform efforts to improve procurement systems and strengthen monitoring and evaluation. The government should adjust VAT, corporate income tax, and excise tax rates to increase revenue mobilization, and excise taxes on tobacco should be reevaluated to balance revenue and public health objectives. Strengthening taxation on wealthier households is vital to improve the equity of the tax system. Reinforcing the tax administration's auditing capacity will be necessary to boost collection efficiency and enhance distributional equity, and registration thresholds should also be adjusted to broaden the tax base. The Commitment to Equity (CEQ) methodology could be used to assess the impact of proposed fiscal policy changes on household income, poverty, and inequality
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  • 29
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2153
    Keywords: Climate Change and Agriculture ; Communities and Human Settlements ; Conflict and Development ; Covid and Refugee Welfare Covid ; Economic Growth ; Food Security ; Forceably Displaced Populations (FDP) ; Gender and Development ; Governance ; Host Population Welfare ; Labor Markets ; Refugee Education ; Refugee Labor Market
    Abstract: This report makes several contributions to the literature on the welfare of FDPs and their hosts. On the data front, the harmonized database compiled for this report represents a large and unique source of information on the welfare of both hosts and FDPs during the period of an unprecedented pandemic. The data span 14 countries from different regions, populations of concern (IDPs, refugees, hosts), and accommodation types (in camps, out of camps). Over a fifth of the global population displaced before the start of the pandemic is represented in this database, allowing for direct comparison and aggregation of results across countries and subgroups. The report also brings a policy lens to the analysis. By examining the role of existing labor market and education policies in the hosting country using newly available information from a cross country, up-to-date policy database, the data yield important insights. In addition, the report examinesaid financing trends using disbursement-level data from OECD's Creditor Reporting System (CRS) and a labor-intensive keyword search approach to teaseout disbursements that are intended for displaced populations. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the data used in this exercise, including the samples, the harmonization process, and the resulting database. Section 3 presents the key results on the welfare impact of the forcibly displaced and their hosts during the pandemic and ensuing crises. Where relevant and possible, theresults are linked to preexisting sectoral polices that were in place in hosting countries before the pandemic. Section 4 discusses the recent trend in official development assistance (ODA) intended for displaced populations. The report concludes with adiscussion of the results and a set of forward-looking policy recommendations, focusing on inclusive social policies and sustainable financing aimedat promoting self-reliance among the displaced, and on lessons learned for data collection and harmonization following this unprecedented endeavor
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Data Analysis ; Data Collection ; Economic Growth ; Governance ; ICT Data and Statistics ; Index Construction ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Results Reporting ; Technology ; Validation
    Abstract: The 2021 GovTech Maturity Index (GTMI) report and underlying dataset provide opportunities to replicate the study, identify gaps in digital transformation by comparing the differences among economies and groups of economies, and track changes over time in a transparent way. The dataset will be updated every two years to reflect developments in the GovTech domain. This 2022 GTMI update report and the accompanying dataset and new data dashboard present the progress within the last two years, highlight some of the good practices, and identify existing gaps for possible improvements in countries at the technology frontier. As with the 2020 edition, economies are grouped, not ranked, to illustrate the state of GovTech focus areas globally. This overview report presents a summary of the approach, how the 2022 GTMI dataset update is different, improvements in the GTMI dataset contents and visualization tools and GTMI group calculations, and initial findings and key messages
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Fiscal Adjustment ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Governance ; Governance Indicators ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Croatia's high degree of municipal fragmentation has been consistently recognized as a weakness and one of the main problems of its intergovernmental fiscal system. The report argues that the problem of fragmentation is in essence a problem of capacity. The objective of this report is to review international experiences and lessons in the promotion of local government mergers and municipal associations to inform efforts to advance institutional reform in Croatia and address the problem of low local government capacity. The report is organized into six sections. The first section is introduction, the second section reviews the fragmented territorial administrative structure in Croatia, and the third is devoted to unpacking the concept of local government units (LGU) capacity. The fourth section focuses on relevant international experience related to municipal fragmentation and capacity deficiencies, and the fifth examines incentive measures for Intermunicipal Cooperation (IMC) and the creation of associations or commonwealths. The sixth section lays out policy options and recommendations for Croatia, prioritized along a sequence for implementation
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Business in Development ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; National Governance ; Private Sector Development ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Lesotho witnessed poverty reduction prior to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the subsequent shocks, but the pace was slow, and poverty remained widespread. The World Bank Group (WBG)'s partnership with Lesotho is fully aligned with the country's development vision articulated in the second National Strategic Development (NSDP II) and key findings of its 2021 Mid-Term Review. The overall objective of the proposed CPF FY2023-2027 is to support Lesotho in building a sustainable and resilient economy in a post-COVID environment by promoting a private sector driven, export-oriented economy for job creation supported by an enabling, efficient and effective public sector. The CPF consists of three high-level outcomes (HLOs) -increased employment in the private sector, improved human capital outcomes and improved climate resilience with seven objectives under the HLOs. There are two foundational themes (governance and government capacity, and macroeconomic and fiscal sustainability) and three approaches (gender, digitalization, and lagging-region approach) that cut across the CPF. The CPF is scheduled to be finalized with the new government by early 2023
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: 2030 Agenda ; Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance ; Environmental Social and Governance (ESG) ; Governance ; Green Bonds ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Municipal Bond Markets ; Paris Agreement ; Sustainable Debt ; Sustainable Development ; Urban Development
    Abstract: Sustainable debt is loan or bond financing that helps mitigate or address a specific environmental or social concern or achieve positive environmental or social outcomes. The term environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investing, often used interchangeably with sustainable investing, denotes an investment approach wherein investors apply nonfinancial factors related to ESG issues in their investment analysis to identify risks and opportunities. The practice of ESG investing began in the 1960s as socially responsible investing, with investors excluding stocks or entire industries from their portfolios to avoid investing in morally questionable businesses. In recent years, ESG investing has garnered tremendous interest because of the recognition of environmental and social risks to the global economy; the urgency that the Paris Agreement and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development have created; and the resulting impetus to finance initiatives that help limit global warming, environmental degradation, and various social problems. Investors use a variety of strategies, including negative or exclusionary screening, positive screening, integration of ESG considerations, thematic and impact investing, and active ownership and stewardship, to incorporate ESG considerations into their investment processes. Climate change, resource scarcity, and demographic and social change feature prominently in several investment strategies. Impact investments are often made to address challenges in sectors such as sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, conservation, microfinance, and affordable and accessible basic services, including housing, health care, and education
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Development Update ; Economic Activity ; Economic Growth ; Global Benchmark Indicators ; Governance ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Stunted Economic Growth
    Abstract: Nigeria's economic performance has weakened since the previous Nigeria Development Update (NDU) was published in June 2022 under the title of "The Continuing Urgency of Business Unusual". The global economic environment has weakened. Economic activity in most major economies has slowed in 2022 amid high inflation and central banks shifting toward contractionary monetary policies. External financing conditions, particularly for governments and private borrowers in frontier markets such as Nigeria, have tightened, as the US dollar has appreciated sharply against most other currencies to historically strong levels, and global benchmark interest rates have risen. Moving into 2023, growth in most regions is expected to weaken further, and uncertainty regarding the outlook remains elevated, partly because of key unknowns such as future developments related to the Russian Federation's invasion of Ukraine
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Public and Municipal Finance
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic represents the largest economic shock the world economy has witnessed in decades, causing a collapse in global activity. Nevertheless, there are signs that global activities are stabilizing, and have picked up in many large emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs). Global growth is set to reach 5.6 percent in 2021, however, growth will be uneven and concentrated in a few major economies, with most of the EMDEs lagging behind. The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region has been one the most severely affected in economic and social terms. Its estimated decline in GDP exceeds both that of advanced and developing economies. This study on the impact of COVID-19 on financial reporting in LAC was conducted with the following objectives: (i) Analyze whether the financial impact of COVID-19 is reflected in the financial reports of a sample of countries of the LAC region; (ii) assess whether the balance sheet of the countries included in the sample can convey the long-term fiscal sustainability of the government, reflecting the fiscal risks associated with the financial performance and financial position of the government in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic; and (iii) determine whether the notes to the financial statements are being used to present the financial information in a transparent manner by explaining materially large figures and significant changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Intermediation ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Financial Services ; Governance ; Insurance and Risk Mitigation
    Abstract: This note examines the implications of digital innovation for market structure and attendant policies, including financial and competition regulation. There have been several surveys of regulatory responses. This note takes a step back, to look at what the economic theory of banking and financial intermediation can tell us about how technology may drive industrial organization in the sector, and how that might inform further policy responses. The paper roots the impact of the digital transformation of finance in innovations that have enabled providers to address long-standing challenges of financial intermediation, including asymmetric information, uncertainty, incomplete markets, and fixed and variable costs of production. The paper describes how digital innovation affects these key economic frictions in finance and alters the financial services value chain and industrial organization. The forces driving these changes, and potential outcomes in terms of industry structure, lead to insights for policy makers on how to harness the benefits of fintech, while mitigating some of the risks, particularly around competition and market structure. The focus is on economic and technological forces that apply broadly across financial services. It recognizes that the sector encompasses a wide range of different products and services and is composed of numerous sub-markets that might use different technologies or have different economic structures. These may thus diverge in market structure and competition outcomes
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Governance ; Local Government ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; National Governance ; Pension Reform ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; Social Funds and Pensions ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Brazil's pension system takes up an oversized proportion of its social protection spending. It comprises of Regime Geral de Previdencia Social (RGPS), covering private sector workers, and over two thousand Regimes Proprios de Previdencia Social (RPPS), insuring public civil servants at federal and subnational levels. While the total membership of RPPS only stands at about 10 percent of RGPS coverage, its spending amounts to almost half of RGPS pension outlays. This paper attempts to present an integrated view of RPPS pension schemes, their influence on subnational budgets, and their interaction with human resource policies. After a brief introduction, Chapter 3 starts by documenting the history of civil service and its associated pension schemes, looking for explanations on how subnational RPPS became so big, dispersed, and difficult to reform. The fiscal consequences of subnational civil service pension scheme expansion and maturation, including RPPS role in the fiscal challenges and policies of the last few years, are discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 attempts to expose important interlinkages between pension and human resource policies and argues for the need of integrated policy approach. Chapter 6 describes the history of previous RPPS reform attempts, while Chapter 7 focuses on the effects of federal pension reform of 2019 on subnational civil servant pension schemes. The paper ends with lessons and policy recommendations for the future
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Armed Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; International Financial Markets ; International Governmental Organizations ; International Organizations ; Law and Development
    Abstract: The war in Ukraine is a human tragedy for the people of Ukraine, but its economic implications are global. This instant report focuses on the direct impact of the war on world trade and investment. It identifies five trade and investment channels through which countries will be affected by the war in Ukraine. These encompass disruptions to: (i) commodity markets (especially food and energy), (ii) logistic networks, (iii) supply chains, (iv) foreign direct investment, (v) specific sectors. The report finds that world trade will drop by 1 percent, lowering global GDP by 0.7 percent and GDP of low-income countries by 1 percent. Beyond these direct effects, the war's long-term implications for global trade and investment will largely depend on how governments respond to the changing geopolitical environment
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Digital Divide ; E-Finance and E-Security ; E-Government ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: Migrating from legacy IT infrastructure and data storage to cloud services can yield enormous benefits for governments: it can save governments money; increase the integrity, quality, and speed with which they deliver services; and provide access to the most advanced analytical tools and cybersecurity features available. These benefits have spurred a shift by governments across the globe away from legacy information technology (IT) systems, and towards cloud solutions, including public cloud services
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Governance ; Gross Domestic Product ; Irrigation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Iraq's economy is gradually emerging from the deep recession caused by the pandemic and the plunge in oil prices in 2020. Higher oil revenues pushed Iraq's overall fiscal and external balances into a surplus in 2021. The turnaround in oil markets has significantly improved Iraq's economic outlook in the medium term. Iraq's fiscal and socio-economic fragilities underscore the urgency of wide-ranging structural reforms by the new government. Iraq's existing food security challenges have intensified with the recent surge in global commodity prices. To plug the food supply gap, Iraq has become increasing reliant on imports for more than half of its food consumption, which has increased the country's exposure to global food price and supply shocks. Subsidies and direct transfers, including recently new measures announced by Government of Iraq (GoI), partly mitigate the impact of rising global prices in the short term. However, achieving food security calls for coordinated efforts to improve domestic production including through raising the efficiency of irrigation water, reducing and rehabilitating soil degradation, improving land management, and implementing climate change adaptation and mitigation measures including the adoption of climate-smart agriculture
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Debt Management Performance Assessment
    Keywords: Debt Management ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance
    Abstract: The Bolivian economy is gradually recovering from the pandemic-induced recession. La Paz Municipality primary balance has fluctuated near balance as this municipality managed to cushion the decline in hydrocarbon revenues and the pandemic. The DeMPA assessment for the Autonomous Municipal Government of La Paz (Gobierno Autonomo Municipal de La Paz) - GAMLP was undertaken by applying the 2016 methodology available for local governments at the time of the mission. The Subnational DeMPA (SN DeMPA) is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. This report is divided in 4 sections. Section 2 briefly describes the economic background of the country, and more specifically of the Municipality of La Paz (including challenges and changes brought by COVID-19 pandemics) and presents an overview of the local government debt portfolio. Section 3 summarizes the applied methodology for the assessment and discloses assigned scores for each of the 13 Debt Performance Indicators and the 31 sub-indicators. Finally, section 4 provides details for each assessed sub-indicators, pointing for the requirements that are met for the assigned score, and what is missing for the GAMLP achieving improved scores in a future assessment
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Public and Municipal Finance ; State-Owned Enterprises
    Abstract: State-owned enterprises (SOEs), entities that provide goods or services on a commercial basis and are controlled by the state, are major economic actors in most countries. SOEs typically deliver essential public services such as access to water, electricity, telecommunications, or transportation. Poorly performing SOEs can be a major drain on the public purse, often requiring state support to maintain operations and posing significant fiscal risks. However, in many partner countries, high-quality, reliable, and publicly available financial and operational information on the SOE portfolio (including enterprises in which the state holds a significant minority stake) is limited. As a result, there is an increasing need and demand for governments to strengthen monitoring of SOE performance and to improve transparency in reporting on the sector. The objective of this note is to examine two distinct but related practices for public reporting on SOEs, aggregate reporting and public sector consolidated financial statements, and suggest options for governments to manage the two processes efficiently
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Ethics ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Human Rights ; ICT Data and Statistics ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Private Sector Development
    Abstract: Technology is at the core of credit reporting systems, which have evolved significantly over the past decade by adopting new technologies and business models. As disruptive technologies have been increasingly adopted around the globe, concerns have arisen over possible misuse or unethical use of these new technologies. These concerns inspired international institutions and national authorities to issue high-level principles and guidance documents on responsible technology use. While adopting new technologies benefits the credit reporting industry, unintended negative outcomes of these technologies from ethics and human rights perspectives must also be considered. The white paper begins with a brief introductory section, followed in section 2 with a discussion of technology use in credit reporting, with a special focus on the key disruptive technologies being increasingly adopted by the industry. Section 3 provides information on the scope, development, and high-level principles of several key technology frameworks, including the principles underlying their responsible use. Section 4 introduces ten principles to guide responsible use of technology in credit reporting activities. Section 5 discusses considerations for applying the principles. The section concludes with use cases illustrating the principles in action
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Conflict of Interest ; Corporate Data and Reporting ; Equity ; Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector Development ; Public Sector Development ; Transparency
    Abstract: The world spent USD 11 trillion on public procurement in 2018, amounting to 12 percent of global GDP (Bosio and others 2022). Given these substantial volumes, public procurement can contribute to several objectives: savings, integrity, economic growth, inclusiveness, and sustainability. Procurement Data Analytics (PDA) can contribute to the achievement of these objectives. It refers to the use of data to generate actionable insights and evidence to monitor outcomes, inform the policy dialogue, guide reform efforts, and assess the impact of reforms and strategies in public procurement. Despite a growing academic literature and impact evaluations on public procurement, the existing body of evidence is still scarce and limited to a few countries. This impedes drawing generalizable lessons on optimal policies and strategies to achieve the multi-layered objectives of the public procurement function, therefore highlighting the need for a larger adoption of data analytics tools in this area. With the increasing adoption of electronic government procurement (eGP) systems and the corresponding digitization of transaction records, public procurement has enormous untapped potential for the application of data analytics tools. This paper highlights the successful approaches and good practices of previous PDA work and provide useful resources to World Bank teams with country engagements relating to public procurement. Possibly interesting to a broader audience, an analytical framework is also discussed to guide the application of data analytics tools in public procurement, data sources, the open government agenda, and data standards
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Democratic Government ; E-Government ; Financial Policy ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; National Governance
    Abstract: Authorities in Mexico are seeking solutions to the complex task of improving efficiency in the financial and government sectors when identifying individuals and legal entities, while balancing other public-policy objectives, such as governance, technological neutrality, safety, privacy, and universal coverage. The objective of this document is to describe the identity-management system (IMS) in Mexico and its importance to the financial-sector environment while reflecting on the need for digital identification and authentication procedures and processes. The document will analyze the different options for, and policy implications of, the digital identification of individuals and legal entities in Mexico when meeting financial policy objectives and regulation. This document builds on the principles established by the G20 on digital financial inclusion, the Identity management system analysis, and the common principles on Identification for sustainable development. It takes into account standards and guidelines issued in the financial-sector context that recognize the need to identify individuals and legal entities and intends to provide guidance to Mexican authorities when defining policies that involve the need to identify individuals and legal entities. The document is organized as follows: First, an executive summary presents key observations and recommendations for authorities. A discussion of identification systems in the financial sector comes next, followed by a description of the IMSs in Mexico, including the institutional arrangements, and then by sections on digital identity and the legal framework supporting such infrastructures. Finally, the report concludes with a section on potential actions, which build on initiatives in other countries, which are included along with the report. International standards are attached as appendixes to support the methodology used to elaborate this document
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Anti-Money Laundering ; Conflict and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Governance Indicators ; International Terrorism and Counterterrorism ; Terrorist Financing
    Abstract: The objective of this Terrorist Financing Risk Assessment Tool is to support World Bank Group (WBG) client countries in the assessment and understanding of their terrorist financing (TF) risks per Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Recommendation. The outputs of this risk assessment are expected to guide user countries in applying a risk-based approach to the design and implementation of their regimes for countering the financing of terrorism (CFT) and improve the effectiveness of their CFT measures at national and sectoral levels. The WBG developed a national money laundering (ML) and TF risk assessment tool in 2012-2015 and has been assisting WBG client countries in using the tool for assessing their ML/TF risks. This tool included a module for the assessment of TF risks. Since then, TF risks and typologies have changed, and the FATF's attention on TF has increased. In 2019, the FATF issued Terrorist Financing Risk Assessment Guidance, following on from its earlier guidance on national risk assessments. This new TF Risk Assessment Tool intends to incorporate these developments and the lessons learned from the implementation of the previous TF module in a wide range of countries
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Economic Development ; Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Sustainability
    Abstract: This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) comes at critical moment in Tunisia. Since the 2011 revolution and the promulgation of a new constitution in 2014, Tunisia has been navigating a difficult political transition. While there have been gains in poverty reduction, public trust in government has declined sharply, and the economy has stalled. The COVID-19 pandemic and more recently the effects of the war in Ukraine also exacerbated stresses on the economy, the public finances, and public trust in government. Partly as result of these trends, recent political events since July 25 2021 have marked a break with the 2014 constitutional model, and created great uncertainty regarding the future direction of Tunisia's transition. At the time of writing, it is still uncertain what form Tunisia's new political and constitutional model will take in coming years. The Tunisia SCD takes a ten-year view of trends in Tunisia since 2011, drawing comparisons with other comparable countries, and suggesting possible future pathways. The World Bank Group undertakes SCDs as a diagnostic exercise to identify key challenges and opportunities to accelerate progress towards rebuilding trust and meeting citizen aspirations, and ultimately to contribute to the World Bank Group's twin goals of ending absolute poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. It is intended to become a reference point for consultations on priorities for World Bank Group country engagement. It is also intended as a contribution to the public debate about Tunisia's path forward. This longer term perspective means that the Tunisia SCD does not place a heavy emphasis on recent events, but rather seeks to situate them in the broader context of trends in equitable growth, poverty reduction, and state capability
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Access of Poor To Social Services ; Anticorruption ; Business Environment ; Energy Security ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Governance ; Labor Market ; National Governance ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Sector Development ; Public Sector Management and Reform ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Water Resource Management
    Abstract: Moldova's policy priorities and key actions going forward: Strengthening the capacity and governance of public administration; Strengthening the judiciary and the fight against corruption; Supporting a resilient recovery while safeguarding fiscal sustainability; Building fiscal resilience at the subnational level with land administration and property registration and valuation; Enhancing labor markets and addressing COVID-19 challenges; Achieving a sustainable social protection system; Improving the efficiency and resilience of health service delivery; Strengthening environment protection and disaster risk management; Water resource management; Increasing resilience and competitiveness of agriculture; Enhancing the business environment and market competition; Fostering SMEs and strengthening FDI linkages; Enhancing financial sector stability and governance; Strengthening education outcomes and skills; Expanding inclusive digital development opportunities; Multimodal transport and logistics; and Addressing energy security and sustainability
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Economics ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Financial Structures ; Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Central counterparties (CCPs) require a certain level of market development to operate in a safe and efficient manner. This note presents a practical cost-benefit analysis framework for country authorities to decide whether this specific type of financial market infrastructure will benefit their markets, financial institutions, and investors, or whether the costs of a CCP are higher than its benefits. The note discusses three key questions: (1) Are the necessary preconditions met-for example, is the market sufficiently liquid to enable the CCP to calculate margin; (2) Will a CCP support a well-functioning market; and (3) Is there a positive business case Introducing a CCP is recommended only when all questions can be answered in the affirmative. Otherwise, alternative clearing models should be considered, such as bilateral clearing between financial institutions, multilateral netting with a guarantee, prefunding, or clearing through a CCP abroad. Often, introducing a CCP uncovers a chicken-and-egg problem whereby a CCP will positively impact market liquidity while at the same time a minimum level of market liquidity is a condition to set up a CCP. In such cases, the introduction of a CCP should be part of a comprehensive market development plan
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  • 50
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Keywords: Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Governance ; Non Bank Financial Institutions
    Abstract: The State plays an important role in the provision of financial services in Colombia through state-owned financial institutions (SOFIs), interest rate controls, mandatory investment requirements and credit subsidies. State-owned financial institutions (SOFIs) hold about 12 percent of banking sector assets and about 8 percent of insurance sector assets. SOFIs are key actors in microcredit, agricultural and small business loans markets. The recently created Grupo Bicentenario (GB), a financial holding for SOFIs reporting to the Ministry of Finance (Ministerio de Hacienda y Credito Publico, MHCP), aspires to become the third largest financial group in Colombia. There are also fourteen small subnational development financial institutions (Institutos Financieros de Fomento y Desarrollo Territorial, INFIs), albeit the size of the sector is unknown as most INFIs do not disclose financials. All credit in Colombia is subject to interest rate controls, either ceilings under usury caps set relative to industry rates or regulated rates in socially sensitive sectors. Mandatory investments remunerated at below market rates are used to provide subsidized credit to the agricultural sector. The State also provides interest rate subsidies to private intermediaries lending to certain sectors and subsides agricultural insurance premiums. In the past, agricultural producers have received debt relief, undermining credit culture. Monitoring and evaluation (M and E) and disclosure of public credit support policies and programs and their costs should be substantially strengthened to assess value for money. Information on credit support programs and their subsidies should be systemically compiled, aggregated, and reported. Profitability of SOFIs excluding subsidies should be calculated and disclosed. A strategy for systematic and rigorous impact evaluation of public credit programs and policies should be designed and implemented. The GB should also formulate a strategy for the M and E function at the group level following international best practices that would facilitate aggregate monitoring and disclosing of SOFI activities
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: E-Finance and E-Security ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology ; Science and Technology Development
    Abstract: As economies and societies become increasingly digital, governments around the World are prioritizing the use of digital technologies and data to increase the participation and engagement of civil society in public matters. At the same time, citizen's rising expectations and demands require public sectors to strengthen civil society engagement. Digital technologies and data have the potential to increase substantially the tools that governments have available to further involve citizens in policy and service design and delivery. This how-to-note provides advice on how to use digitalization to strengthen the engagement between the governments and citizens, with various examples of what CivicTech is and why it is an important element of the GovTech approach
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  • 52
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Independent Evaluation Group Studies
    Keywords: Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Impact Evaluation ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This evaluation assesses the quality of the World Bank's early response to the COVID-19 crisis and the initial steps toward recovery, focusing on the health and social response. It concentrates on the relief stage and support to restructure systems in the first 15 months of the pandemic (February 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021) in 106 countries. A parallel Independent Evaluation Group evaluation looks at the World Bank Group support to address the economic implications of the pandemic. To assess the quality of the response, the evaluation is guided by a theory of action that synthesizes evidence in three dimensions: relevance of support to the needs of countries; implementation, learning, and adjustment; and operational policy and partnerships to support smooth responses in countries. As the response is ongoing, the evaluation does not assess effectiveness but considers early results and pathways that are expected to lead to outcomes. The findings from the evaluation inform four recommendations for ensuring stronger future preparedness: (i) Use the World Bank's crisis recovery efforts to strengthen the resilience of essential health and education. (ii) Apply a gender equality lens to health and social crisis response actions across sectors. (iii) Help countries strengthen regional cooperation and crisis response capacities for public health preparedness. (iv) Build on the COVID-19 experience to strengthen the World Bank's internal crisis preparedness so that it has the tools and procedures ready to respond in future emergencies
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Economic Development ; Education ; Governance ; Human Capital ; Human Rights ; Indigenous Communities ; Inequality ; Law and Development ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Colombia has long held great promise. The World Bank's 1950 report on Colombia, the institution's first ever study on a developing country, declared, "The potentialities for development in the future are great." The country boasts a vibrant culture, rich natural resources, and resilient people. Despite its great potential, the country's development has been disappointing. As recently as the early 1980s, Colombia's income per capita was similar to that of Chile, Malaysia, Poland, and the Republic of Korea (Figure 1). Subsequent growth in those countries has exceeded Colombia's, and the Republic of Korea is now four times richer in per capita terms than Colombia. Three interlocking long-run constraints have held Colombia back. The first is violence, which has claimed the lives of one million Colombians since 1948. The second is inequity rooted in the nation's history-the Currie Report highlighted 70 years ago that "a wide disparity in levels of income exists between a small wealthy group and the great mass of the population." The third is institutions that have favored the interests of an elite over inclusive growth
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  • 54
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: City Development Strategies ; Governance ; Local Government ; Urban Development ; Urban Housing ; Urbanization
    Abstract: Over the past four decades and prior to the pandemic, the Dominican Republic (DR) experienced high economic growth rates, which were accompanied by an expansion of the middle class and a significant reduction of poverty rate. During the same period, the country became predominantly urban, and its territories evolved from rural and agricultural spaces to large metropolitan areas, consolidating tourism poles in coastal areas and suburban spaces where manufacturing emerged, fueled by the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZ). In 2020, it is estimated that 82.5 percent of the Dominican Republic's population lives in urban areas; and by 2050 this number will go up to 92 percent.While the economic and territorial transformation of the country has generated opportunities for its population, it has also created a number of challenges which require to be tackled. Such as providing quality basic services, assuring safe and affordable housing solutions to the fast-growing population, assuring firms count with the right enabling environment in the places where they locate and, more recently, supporting the Coronavirus (COVID-19) recovery efforts to build a better future for the country. The government of the Dominican Republic has recognized the opportunities that come with better leveraging its territory and tackling current development challenges; and is pushing to advance an ambitious territorial development reform. This DR's Urbanization and territorial development review aims to inform and contribute to the Government's effort by (i) providing evidence of the main territorial challenges currently being faced by the country with a specific focus on urban areas and lagging regions; (ii) review the current (and proposed reforms to the) regulatory framework for territorial planning and local government finance; and (iii) inform policy decisions at the national, regional, and local levels for ways ahead to address the territories challenges and embrace its opportunities, and to implement the proposed reforms
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  • 55