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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Adolescent Girls ; Economic Growth ; Family Planning ; Gender ; Gender Equality ; Good Health and Well-Being ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Labor Markets ; Reproductive Health ; SDG 3 ; SDG 5
    Abstract: Adolescence is a dynamic period of biological development and social change, and also a period when adolescent girls are at risk of school dropout, early marriage, pregnancy, and gender-based violence. Adolescents have the highest unmet need for family planning in Bangladesh, and married adolescents have a significantly lower contraceptive prevalence rate than other age groups, leading to a high adolescent fertility rate. The Government of Bangladesh developed a national strategy for adolescent health 2017-2030 and a costed action plan to improve adolescent health, including sexual and reproductive health. The Strategy addresses overall health needs of adolescents, including menstrual hygiene management, prevention of violence and mental health. The Government of Bangladesh is currently implementing the 4th Health, Population and Nutrition Sector Program which includes support for a school-based adolescent health and nutrition program. Furthermore, programme implementers often work in silos and focus on single platforms, id est at the health facility, school, or community levels. Presently adolescents receive sexual and reproductive health information and services largely from private sector providers with variable quality
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Law and Justice Study
    Keywords: Discrimination ; Female ; Finance and Development ; Gender ; Genital Mutilation ; Human Rights ; Law and Development ; Violence Against Women ; Women's Rights
    Abstract: In 2012 and in 2018, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolutions urging the international community to intensify global efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). It also called upon "States, the United Nations system, civil society and all stakeholders to continue to observe 6 February as the International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM/C and to use the day to enhance awareness raising campaigns and to take concrete actions against female genital mutilations". FGM/C is an extreme type of violence against women and girls which impairs their development potential and impacts the societies in which they live and work, their children, their families and ultimately their countries. FGM/C also undermines the World Bank's efforts to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity. Women and girls affected by FGM/C may not be able to reach their full personal, productive and professional potential. FGM/C causes a large number of physical and psychological problems and complications and can even lead to death. It imposes unnecessary suffering and prolonged pain. The international community recognized that FGM/C is an important development challenge that affects more than 200 million women and girls in the world. Sustainable Development Goal 5 (SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls) includes a target on eliminating all harmful practices against women, such as female genital mutilation by 2030 (target 5.3). This eighth edition describes the international and regional instruments that address FGM/C as well as the national legislations adopted to outlaw FGM/C. This is a practical online tool to empower those fighting FGM/C
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank Gender Thematic Policy Notes Series
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Economic Development ; Fragility, Conflict and Violence ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Development ; Gender and Employment ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Private Sector Development ; Social Development
    Abstract: Fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) significantly impact women and girls, exacerbating gender-based violence and limiting access to rights and services due to weakened institutions. Positive changes can emerge from crises, providing opportunities to reshape social norms and empower women. Achieving gender equality in these settings requires tailored approaches that consider local dynamics and involve influential non-state actors. The World Bank Group's experience suggests that partnerships, strengthened laws, and inclusive policies can enhance outcomes. Sustainable progress demands increased investment, innovation in data collection, and collaboration among governments, NGOs, and the private sector to address these complex challenges effectively
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Saudi Arabia ; Women ; Women and Labor
    Abstract: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies have been a bright spot in an otherwise gloomy economic landscape. Average growthin the GCC surpassed 7 percent in 2022 led by Saudi Arabia, its biggest economy, which was globally the fastest growing large economy. This growth was not just a result of buoyant hydrocarbon prices but also continued growth of non-oil sectors. The latter was the result of persistent structural reforms undertaken by several GCC countries to improve the investment environment, promote flexible labor markets, and encourage women to join the labor market. GCC countries have used the windfall revenues from oil and gas to rebuild their buffers, pay down their debt, and shore-up their sovereign wealth funds. They have also sought to protect their vulnerable populations with continued subsidies on food, fuel, and utilities. Such policies have limited the impact of inflation on the domestic economy. Finally, GCC countries have also used their financial muscle to support economically weaker countries in the region. The stellar growth of 2022 is slowing down and growth is expected to moderate to 1 percent in 2023 before picking up again to 3.6 percent in 2024. The decline in economic activity in 2023 is driven by consecutive production cut decisions by OPEC+ in an effort to stabilize global oil prices. However, non-oil GDP continues its growth trajectory reaching 3.9 percent, resulting weaker integration between oil and non-oil sectors. To maintain this track record, GCC countries will need to continue to exercise prudent macroeconomic management, stay the course with structural reforms, and increase non-oil exports. Downside risks remain and it would be amiss not to mention them. The conflict in the Middle East presents major risks to the region and the GCC outlook if it extends or expands to include other regional players. While it is too early to quantify the impact and channels of the conflict, we already witness a 4 percentsurge in global oil futures. Although China is bouncing back after emerging from tight Covid-19 lockdowns, troubles in the real estate sector could still disrupt this trajectory. Persistent high inflation in the world's major economies has not been entirely vanquishedsuggesting a high interest rate environment for a longer period. Windfall revenues are anticipated as a result of higher oil prices driven by the conflict in the Middle East. However, the extent and duration of the conflict will play a pivotal role in determining economicramifications not only on energy markets but also on regional financial and trade markets and overall economic confidence. The Special Focus section of the report discusses the power of structural reforms and social norms in advancing female labor force participation in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia experienced an unprecedented surge in female labor force participation since 2016 as a result of: (i) changing regulations and the removal of legal barriers, shifting social norms, (ii) the implementation of sound structural reforms and (iii) effective government communications. Saudi Arabia's success in increasing female labor force participation from 17.4 percent in 2017 to 36 percent in 2023 offers important lessons to other countries in the region and the world
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Demographics ; Early Childhood Development ; Education ; Fetal and Maternal Health ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Gender ; Gender and Poverty ; Government Financing ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital ; Mortality ; Nutrition Services ; Pregnancy ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This Human Capital Review (HCR) report presents an in-depth analysis of human capital indicators throughout a person's lifetime, from in utero to productive aging. By examining the various stages of human capital accumulation, the report aims to provide accurate recommendations for specific groups in Sierra Leone. Thus, the report disaggregates data whenever possible. It relies on an extensive consultative process involving various stakeholders such as Government counterparts, development partners, teachers, adolescent girls, students, private sector representatives, and local representatives. The consultation process followed a Problem-Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) approach, which facilitates the identification and resolution of problems by local leadership. In addition, this report aims to inform the design and implementation of human capital reforms that will respond to specific challenges identified in the report
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Keywords: Equality ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Women ; Women's Empowerment
    Abstract: The aim of this report is to gather evidence that will identify priorities and actions by stakeholders towards positively influencing, up scaling and accelerating gender equality and women's empowerment in Zimbabwe. The report consolidates information on gender gaps and drivers of inequality in human endowments, economic opportunities, ownership and control of assets, and voice and agency. This includes identifying factors that deepen inequalities, and effectiveness of current policies and programming in narrowing gender disparities. The aim is to also identify promising and good practices that can potentially be replicated for greater impact, cascading to all areas in the country. The analysis guided by a conceptual framework that describes the ways households, markets, and institutions (both formal and informal), and their interactions all influence gender equality and economic development outcomes. Additionally, attention is paid to intersecting identities of women and men that affect their ability to access services and opportunities, including disability status, place of residence and other socio cultural and economic factors. The assessment draws on several data sources collected using mixed methods. Available quantitative and qualitative data sources form the basis of the assessment, including surveys, national and institutional reports and broader feminist and economic literature. Robust stakeholder consultations, including representatives from Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ), development partners, the United Nations (UN), Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and communities grounded the analysis and provided insights into priority setting and forward-looking strategies
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Law ; Gender Based Violence ; Gender Equality ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Nonextractive Sectors ; Resilience
    Abstract: Papua New Guinea has abundant resources in the form of oil and mineral wealth. But a complex set of factors, including systemic gender inequality, underinvestment in non-extractive sectors, and fragility compounded by vulnerability to disasters caused by natural hazards act as barriers to sustainable and inclusive growth of the country. This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) report assesses the relevance and effectiveness of World Bank Group support to Papua New Guinea between fiscal year FY08 and FY23. It assesses the Bank Group's development effectiveness in addressing the above three core themes, namely: (i) lack of investment in Papua New Guinea's non-extractive sectors and their poor performance, (ii) the economic exclusion of women and gender-based violence (GBV) issues associated with it, and (iii) unmitigated risks of disaster from natural hazards, and violence, and conflict. The report answers three specific questions. The first explores the extent to which the Bank Group adapted its engagement in line with key constraints, including in relation to development partners, changes in country context, and lessons from experience. The second focuses on the results of Bank Group support and explanatory factors for results under each them, answered by applying a gender lens where relevant. The third question explores the extent to which the Bank Group successfully identified and addressed conflict, violence, and disaster from natural hazards risks. The report offers key lessons to inform the World Bank Group's future engagement with the country: (i) Data gaps need to be addressed to inform sound policy making and effective programming in Papua New Guinea. (ii) Declining governance quality and increasing bilateral aid will require the World Bank to reassess how it supports key policy reforms to achieve development impact, including through using DPOs. (iii) The Bank Group could elevate its impact on gender equality and GBV by shifting from a project-centric approach to a strategic country engagement approach. (iv) The negative effects that compound and interrelated risks pose to achieving development aims need to be addressed more comprehensively
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Demographics ; Family Planning Research ; Female Education ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; High Fertility Rates ; High Population Growth ; Human Capital ; Mortality ; Population Policies ; Women's Agency
    Abstract: Tanzania has managed to sustain its growth momentum despite the intensifying effects of climate change. While Tanzania's economy continues to expand, recent growth has been concentrated in sectors that employ few workers from poor households, limiting its impact on poverty. The Bank of Tanzania (BoT) has implemented an effective monetary policy designed to curb inflation and alleviate mounting short-term demand pressure on foreign exchange. While Tanzania's recovery continues to accelerate, several serious threats cloud its economic outlook. Key risks include the slow or incomplete implementation of structural reforms, the damaging effects of climate change on the agriculture and tourism sectors, and the possibility of a global recession caused by fiscal and monetary policy tightening in advanced economies and major EMDEs. To mitigate these risks, policymakers must accelerate structural reforms as part of a sustained effort to attract greater private investment and spur resilient and inclusive private-sector-led growth. Over the longer term, one of the country's key challenges will be to complete its structural economic transformation, which will require creating a more favorable business climate to support the growth of the industrial and services sectors while boosting agricultural productivity. Another key long-term growth challenge will be achieving more balanced and inclusive growth
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: r02
    Keywords: Development Effectiveness ; Gender ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; IEG Implementation ; Poverty Impact Evaluation ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Progress Towards Outcomes ; World Bank Self-Assessment ; World Bank Strategy
    Abstract: The Management Action Record (MAR) provides Management's annual self-assessment of World Bank Group (WBG)-wide progress in implementing recommendations from the Independent Evaluation Group's (IEG) major evaluations to deliver outcomes in key priority areas. The MAR is an important vehicle for monitoring the uptake of IEG evaluations; it aims to ensure that recommendations lead to targeted actions that help shape the WBG's strategic directions, improve its development effectiveness, and ultimately help countries achieve their development goals. This year's MAR report provides updates on 59 recommendations from 22 IEG evaluations issued between FY19 and FY22, covering a diverse range of areas of strategic importance to the WBG. Building on progress achieved over the previous reporting cycles since the 2020 MAR Reform, this year's MAR process featured enhanced candor in the self-assessment, a broader evidence base, and a widening of the teams involved in providing feedback to IEG for richer reporting. During this year's MAR update cycle, Management continued its more intensive engagement approach, with more touchpoints, to enhance the MAR's learning focus and build understanding between evaluators and technical staff. This has included the facilitation of dozens of evaluation-specific working meetings with IEG, involving over 130 participants from across the WBG, with representation from all relevant WB Global Practices, IFC, and MIGA regional and industry teams
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2201
    Keywords: Access To Employment ; Access To Public Transportation ; Bus Ticket Price ; Communities and Human Settlements ; Curriculum and Instruction ; Disability ; Early Childhood Development ; Gender ; Motorized Transport ; Traffic Congestion ; Urban Development ; Urban Mobility Trends
    Abstract: The Metropolitan Areas of Cordoba, Mendoza, Salta and Neuquen-Cipolletti were the focus of this analytical work. These metropolitan areas represent urban centers of different sizes and regions of the country, as they are in the Central, Cuyo, North and Patagonia regions, respectively. They also have a heterogeneity of characteristics in terms of population, mobility patterns, infrastructure, public services, and institutional frameworks, among other aspects relevant to the analysis. In short, they synthesize many of the multiple challenges faced by Argentine cities in terms of mobility. However, the data available to most transport planners in Argentina, including these four metropolitan areas, is inadequate to understand exactly how travel patterns have changed in recent years, what their drivers are, and what persistent changes might look like in the future. A World Bank report on Buenos Aires (2022) laid the analytical framework for replicating such a study in other cities, drawing on other data sources and using alternative tools to support a more comprehensive diagnosis of urban mobility
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Adult Literacy ; Agency ; Education ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gender Barrier To Education ; Gender Bias in Education ; Girls Primary Education
    Abstract: This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note discusses in detail the status of girls' and women's education in Madagascar and proposes several strategic lines of action to assist girls and young women in completing schooling. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: health, economic opportunities, and agency
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Climate Impact on Girls ; Education ; Education For All ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Economics ; Gender Bias in Education ; Girls Life Choices ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development ; Systemic Gender Gaps ; Women and Girls Health ; Women's Agency ; Women's Economic Opportunity
    Abstract: This Overview presents the findings from the mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, illustrating the key gender gaps in the country and shedding light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. On the basis of the research findings, the Overview presents key gender gaps in Madagascar and proposes four strategic lines of policy recommendations to (i) assist girls and young women in completing school education, (ii) improve women's and girls' access to professional health care and prevent teenage pregnancy, (iii) enhance women's economic opportunities, and (iv) improve women's and girls' voice and agency through the elimination of all forms of gender-based violence. Four thematic notes accompany this Overview and present detailed findings in the four key dimensions: education, health, economic opportunities, and agency
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Debt ; Fiscal Developments ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Inflation ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy ; Social Protections and Labor ; Women's Economic Power
    Abstract: Jordan's real growth registered 2.4 percent in 2022 and has accelerated to 2.7 percent in H1-2023, compared to a pre-COVID-19 (2012-2019) average of 2.4 percent. Growth was supported by the services sector, agriculture sector, in addition to a robust contribution from agriculture. Inflation decelerated significantly in 2023, supported by favorable base effect, monetary policy tightening and lower global commodity prices. External imbalances have narrowed, supported by a string recovery in tourism activity and travel receipts. Central government fiscal balance was supported by economic growth and revenue-enhancing reforms, whereas total expenditure grew at a slower pace. Despite these positive developments, entrenched structural constraints weigh on labor market outcomes, as labor force participation continues its gradual decline driven by a fall in both male and female participation. Jordanian female labor participation remains among the lowest in the world. Debt-to-GDP ratios continues to rise from already elevated levels with persisting pressures from the electricity and water sectors. The global and regional environments remain challenging. In particular, the conflict in the Middle East has the potential for material economic spillovers on the Jordanian economy, including through its impact on tourism activity. The "In Focus" section highlights the role of women and their increased economic participation as central to Jordan's development agenda. The piece takes a life cycle approach and follows the journey of girls and women from birth through education and into the labor market. It sheds light on two of the main barriers to women's increased participation in the economy: childcare and public transportation. A comprehensive institutional renovation, together with enabling policies and a clear signal regarding the role of women, are all crucial in removing barriers and facilitate the integration of women into the labor force
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  • 14
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Access To Reproductive Health ; Child Marriage ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gender and Health ; Gender Disparities in Education ; Gender Gap ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Girls Agency ; Human Rights ; Land Rights ; Law and Development
    Abstract: Gender gaps in Togo cut across many dimensions. Inequality starts in childhood, when girls are disadvantaged in access to schooling because of prevalent social norms and gender roles. It continues into adolescence, when a larger share of girls starts dropping out of school, unable to continue education because of a number of factors, including child marriage, adolescent pregnancy, and time use patterns shaped by gender norms. In adolescence and adulthood, women face the constraints of limited education and economic opportunities, restrictive gender roles that leave women little time for participation in the labor force, financial inequities, high levels of acceptance of violence against women, health risks, and a lack of agency and decision-making capacity. High prevalence rates of child marriage and adolescent fertility not only increase health risks for women but also reduce the amount of time they have to fully participate in education and in economic opportunities. This background paper to the Poverty and Gender Assessment Togo (2022) highlights the importance of addressing gender disparities to achieve continued poverty reduction in Togo
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Domestic Violence ; Gender ; Gender and Rural Development ; Gender and Social Policy ; Gender Norms ; Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) ; Law and Development ; Prevalence of Gender-Based Violence ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development ; Social Norms ; Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) ; Women's Labor Force Participation
    Abstract: The economy of Chile, with a total population of approximately 19.493.185 by 2021, is undergoing an adjustment phase after a remarkable expansion in 2021, with real gross domestic product (GDP) growth dropping to 2.4 percent in 2022 due to normalized consumption and contractionary policies. This economic adjustment is predicted to continue during the first half of 2023, as consumption is expected to fall further amid weakened household liquidity and labor market. The Chilean economy is based on the exploitation of agricultural, fishing, forest, and mining resources. Chile has made several improvements in gender parity, but violence against women remains a significant problem in the country. As the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the problem of gender-based violence, women's labor force participation rate reduced by 10 percentage points as well as several other indicators have been affected negatively
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Law and Justice Study
    Keywords: Discrimination ; Female ; Gender ; Gender and Health ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Social Policy ; Genital Mutilation ; Human Rights ; International Law ; Law and Development ; Violence Against Women ; Women's Rights
    Abstract: Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is a development issue and am extreme form of violence against women and girls that affects more than 200 million women in the world. FGM/C is a harmful practice proven to impact the physical and mental health of affected women and girls from the moment of the cutting, with prolonged and irreversible consequences during their entire lives. FGM/C is at the confluence of domestic violence, child abuse and sexual assault and a serious violation of human rights. Studies show that FGM/C has economic and social consequences and a high obstetric cost although a comprehensive study on the exact extent of these economic, health and social costs is still to be carried out. Beyond the data and the statistics, researchers have shown that FGM/C deprives women of sexual satisfaction, sexual health and psychophysical wellbeing. The Compendium of International and National Legal Frameworks on Female Genital Mutilation (the Compendium) was prepared to contribute to this urgent and important development debate with the understanding that the knowledge of the law is an important empowerment tool to end FGM/C. It provides a survey of the key international and regional instruments as well as domestic legislation as they relate to the prohibition of FGM/C. The Compendium consists of topical chapters (international legal frameworks; regional legal frameworks; consensus documents and national legal frameworks) with hyperlinks to source documents, such as United Nations conventions, regional treaties, and national legislations. The Compendium is a working document intended as a reference tool for anyone interested in the topic of FGM/C (development practitioners, lawyers, community leaders, academics, researchers, students, et cetera
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Accommodation and Tourism Industry ; Economic Empowerment of Women ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Poverty ; Gender and Social Development ; Gender Equity and Tourism ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Global Gender Equity ; Industry ; Informal Tourism Economy ; Tourism Development
    Abstract: This report is the result of an assessment of the gender dimensions of current tourism development in Cabo Verde. The report's recommendations aim to ensure the project has a gender-responsive approach that positively impacts gender equality in the tourism and blue economy sectors. The report was drawn up to understand what constraints are preventing increased economic empowerment of women in the tourism sector in selected sites, assess the nature of these constraints, and propose recommendations and actions that would fit under the project
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Access To Education ; Employment ; Freedom of Expression ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Social Development ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Restrictions ; Women
    Abstract: Through various decrees from the Interim Taliban Administration (ITA), women and girls have been systematically excluded from public and political domains, and restricted in their freedom of expression, access to education, and some forms of employment. As the restrictions continue to mount, it is increasingly important to safely consult with women and girls on their needs and priorities. The Afghanistan gender monitoring survey (AGMS) is intended to provide a snapshot of women's own perceptions of their situation and to bring the voices of Afghan women into data collection efforts to inform the humanitarian-development response. The AGMS interviews were conducted in September and October 2022. This first round of data collection will provide an important baseline from which to assess the additional impacts of the December bans. This report presents the main results of the AGMS, conducted by the World Bank
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Employment ; Empowerment ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Education ; Girls ; Women ; Womens Education
    Abstract: This advisory services and analytics (ASA) study focuses on the empowerment of South Sudanese girls and women. The report provides a cohesive overview of the barriers to empowering girls and women in South Sudan, as well as evidence-based programs and strategies that have been successful in the country and other similar fragile contexts. Focusing on both global and country-specific evidence, which has been informed by a desk review, the report also focuses on successful strategies and programs to understand what is being done and what works worldwide for women and girls. This ASA builds on several programs currently in place for South Sudan, providing synergies across various sectors. The findings from this ASA will be particularly impactful for an emerging operation in South Sudan that focuses on the empowerment of women. Specifically, this ASA will create synergies with the South Sudan Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Project, given that its target population is also girls and women. This report will attend to strategies to empower women from the social and economic perspective and its support to the institutional environment to facilitate this. Further, the South Sudan Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Project may benefit from the findings and recommendations from this ASA, especially from an economic perspective, as it embarks on implementation and seeks to empower women in South Sudan
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Benefits ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender Equality ; Gender-Based Violence ; Women's Employment
    Abstract: High commodity prices and the removal of COVID-19 restrictions spurred economic recovery in 2022. The government continued with fiscal consolidation to safeguard macroeconomic stability. Higher commodity prices contributed to higher inflation and stronger external balances. Economic growth is projected to slow down in 2023 due to lower global demand, supply constraints due to planned maintenance in extractive facilities and the delayed reopening of the Porgera gold mine. Further fiscal consolidation can become more challenging. As a step toward unleashing these economic benefits, the government can modernize the Employment Act and address gender-based violence (GBV) through increased enforcement of commitments and scaling-up interventions. Successful private sector initiatives that address GBV at the workplace, providing anti-harassment training and support services to those affected by GBV can be scaled-up. Similarly, interventions supporting women's employment through targeted outreach, skilling or access to networks can be sustained and expanded
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Empowerment ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender Equity ; Gender Gaps ; Women and Girls
    Abstract: As gender equity becomes more central to social and economic development, practitioners are increasingly focused on women and girls' empowerment as a sustainable way to enhance well-being and close gender gaps. The operational approach to women and girls' empowerment can guide practitioners in systematically translating the concept of empowerment into project designs. While World Bank projects are fairly effective at providing women and girls with the resources they need to reach their desired achievements, interventions that affect agency and context are much more scarce. This literature review is intended to provide a curated set of examples of interventions that aim to affect the context and agency factors impeding women's and girls' empowerment. The paper starts from the assumption that practitioners are increasingly convinced of the importance of addressing the three pillars of empowerment, but they are unfamiliar with evidence-based context and agency interventions. Information about effective initiatives is dispersed, often leaving task teams to start from zero rather than drawing on prior experience. This paper sorts through the literature and presents some of the most effective examples of agency and context interventions in developing countries
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  • 22
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2190
    Keywords: Education and Work ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Education ; Gender Based Violence ; Gender Equality ; Gender Norms ; Human Rights ; Informal Trading ; Labor Markets ; Labor Standards ; Law and Development ; Poverty ; Social Protections and Labor ; Teenage Pregnancies ; Women and Girls
    Abstract: Gender equality is a key foundation of inclusive and sustainable economic development that can translate into long-term and effective poverty reduction. While gender equality matters on its own as a human right, it also offers instrumental value for individuals, households, and societies at large. Global evidence consistently shows that empowering women and girls reduces poverty incidence and food insecurity, boosts economic growth and productivity, and enhances investments in children's human capital. Angola, a country where a third of the population lives in poverty and economic output is heavily dependent on its oil sector, stands out in Sub-Saharan Africa for its particularly large gender disparities, especially when compared to countries of same income levels. Family formation, education, and labor market decisions are intrinsically interwoven and connected, which in the case of Angola leads to extreme demographic pressure on an already weak public service system. To begin tackling these significant gender disparities, well-designed and targeted policies are needed. But there are significant knowledge gaps when it comes to understanding the key barriers facing Angolan girls and young women in accessing education and transitioning to the labor market. This report presents insights gained from the voices of young women and girls, their parents, and key informants through a series of interviews carried out in Luanda, home to a quarter of the country's population, in 2022. Based on these in-depth interviews with low-income young women in Luanda, this report points to the multiple challenges they face across their life cycle - challenges relating to the dimensions of education, family formation, and work. It also shows how those dimensions in a woman's life are deeply interconnected - and how they are determined by structural constraints including poverty and vulnerability, gender norms, corruption and lack of transparency in access to services and opportunities, and violence in public and private spheres
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2190
    Keywords: Commercial Properties ; Gender ; Gender and Economics ; Law and Development ; Property Taxes ; Residential Properties ; Tax Law ; Women
    Abstract: This knowledge note provides new evidence on property ownership and taxation patterns across genders in Sao Paulo (Brazil), the largest city in the Americas, with 12 million inhabitants. We exploit microdata on all commercial and residential properties to document the share of total property and property wealth owned by women, the geographic distribution of female-owned properties, and the implications of this data for property taxes in the city
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: CDD Livelihood Projects ; Economic Growth ; Ecosystem Approach ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Kdrdip ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Women ; Women's Economic Empowerment
    Abstract: This paper aims to answer two important questions: how traditional CDD livelihood projects can adjust or adopt practices to strengthen women's economic empowerment outcomes, and how government and other development actors can employ an ecosystem approach to develop coordinated and sustainable local economic development on a larger scale. To answer these questions, the paper draws on a mixed-methods study of the Kenya Development Response to Displacement Impacts Project (KDRDIP), a traditional CDD livelihood program, along with an analysis of other WEE programs in the region and worldwide. The paper offers useful recommendations and insights for practitioners and policymakers
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 7800
    Keywords: Adolescent Pregnancy ; Child Marriage ; Economic Inclusion ; Education ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Gender ; Health ; Livestock and Animal Husbandry ; Trade Facilitation ; Violence Against Women ; Women and Girls ; Women's Leadership
    Abstract: This gender assessment has been prepared as an input for the preparation of the World Bank's Country Partnership Strategy for Mozambique (2023-2027). However, this assessment is not limited to areas of the World Bank's current country engagement; rather, it seeks to provide a general overview of the key challenges and opportunities facing Mozambican women and girls across different dimensions of their lives. The assessment adopts a life-cycle approach identifying key inflection points in the lives of women and girls that either limit or facilitate their empowerment. The assessment is based on a desk review of available studies, reports, and data from Mozambique, and draws on global evidence, largely from the Africa region
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Equity and Development ; Female Economic Participation ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Governance ; Gender Disparity ; Gender Inequality ; Human Rights ; Institutional Barriers To Economic Empowerment ; Poverty Reduction ; Women and Girls Opportunity
    Abstract: This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note provides in-depth insights into the status of women and girls' economic opportunities in Madagascar and proposes several strategic lines of action to enhance women's economic empowerment. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: education, health, and agency
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Contraceptive Use ; Cutting ; Education ; Female Genital Mutilation ; Gender ; Gender and Health ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Poverty ; Gender-Based Violence ; Girls Education Status ; Maternal Health Access ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Development ; Women's Access To Health Services ; Women's Agency ; Women's Economic Opportunity
    Abstract: Evidence shows that Guinean women and girls face important barriers across all dimensions of well-being that prevent them from having access to opportunities on an equal footing with men. The poor agency of women and girls, as reflected in the high prevalence of discriminatory legal and social norms, translates into gaps in health, education, employment, and entrepreneurship, ultimately undermining their capacity to fulfill their potential and imposing important societal costs. This report presents a summary of the key challenges facing Guinean women and girls relative to men and boys. The report has a particular focus on early family formation, a common phenomenon in the country with important implications for girls' and women's well-being and opportunities in life. On the basis of this diagnostic and a review of evidence of what works, the report proposes some strategic lines of action to address the existing constraints and effectively empower Guinean women
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Atlas Region ; Earthquake ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Female Labor Force ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Disasters ; Poverty ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Tourism ; Women's Economic Empowerment
    Abstract: The Moroccan economy is recovering. Following a sharp deceleration in 2022 caused by various overlapping commodity and climatic shocks, economic growth increased to 2.9 percent in the first semester of 2023, driven primarily by services and net exports. Inflation has halved between February and August 2023, but food inflation remains high. Lower commodity prices havealso contributed to a temporary narrowing of the current account deficit. The response to recent crises and the unfolding reform of the health and social protection systems are exerting pressures on public spending. However, the government is managing to gradually reduce the budget deficit
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: Environment ; Gender ; Gender and Environment ; Inclusive Development ; Materials Management ; Plastic Pollution Reduction ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions ; Vulnerable Women Inclusion ; Waste Disposal and Utilization ; Waste Management
    Abstract: This report focuses on the role of key stakeholders (policy makers, waste management practitioners, civil society, informal workers' organizations, and the private sector) in contributing to pollution reduction in South Asia while also enhancing livelihood prospects for informal waste workers-the most vulnerable of whom tend to be women. The report also demonstrates how reducing pollution and enhancing livelihood prospects are commercially sound strategies for companies and investors. Through examining the role of women in South Asia's plastic waste management systems and the challenges they face the report provides recommendations for collaborative action to improve and safeguard women's livelihoods in this sector More specifically, it examines the role of women in South Asia's plastic waste management systems and the challenges they face and provides recommendations for collaborative action to improve and safeguard women's livelihoods in this sector. Plastic pollution requires 'upstream' (waste prevention, such as reuse and repair) and 'downstream' (waste management, including recycling) solutions (Pew and SYSTEMIQ 2020). Upstream and downstream solutions fall under the broad definition of 'materials management'. The report focuses primarily on the 'downstream' aspect and key vulnerable actors, who face an imminent threat of displacement, but highlights the need to better understand and engage with vulnerable actors within upstream solutions as well
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  • 30
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Child Marriage ; Fertility Decision Making ; Forced Marriage ; GBV Prevention ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Law ; Gender-Based Violence (GBV) ; Human Rights ; Law and Development ; Limitations On Decision-Making ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note provides in-depth analysis of the limitations that Malagasy women and girls encounter in respect to their agency and proposes several strategic lines of action to improve women's and girls' voice and decision-making and to eliminate all forms of GBV. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: education, health, and economic opportunities
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  • 31
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access To Healthcare ; Adolescent Health ; Climate Change and Health ; Female Sexual Health ; Gender ; Gender and Health ; Gender-Based Violence ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Maternal and Girls Health ; Reproductive Health ; Violence Against Women and Girls ; Vulnerable Populations
    Abstract: This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note provides in-depth insights into the status of women's and girls' maternal, sexual and reproductive health in Madagascar and proposes several strategic lines of action to improve access to professional health care by Malagasy women and girls and prevent teenage pregnancy. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: education, economic opportunities, and agency
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Empowerment ; Equity and Development ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender Equality ; Poverty Reduction ; WGE ; Women and Girls ; World Bank Projects
    Abstract: Gender equality has long been central to the World Bank's twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. More recently, women's and girls' empowerment (WGE) has become a priority in the Africa region in the context of the region's demographic transition. There has been a proliferation of World Bank projects with development objectives that include "empowerment", yet there remains a lack of consensus around its definition and operationalization. This note lays out a pragmatic Operational Approach to enhancing women's and girls' empowerment in World Bank projects. It is not intended to provide a new definition of empowerment or to present a new framework. Instead, the objective of the note is to translate widely accepted empowerment concepts into an operational approach to WGE that Bank Task Team Leaders (TTLs) can use in their project and ASA work. The approach includes: (i) a systematic way to analyze constraints to achieving WGE in the context of lending or analytical products; (ii) a list of potential intervention areas within the three empowerment pillars that can be integrated into World Bank projects; and (iii) guidance on how to incorporate the operational approach to WGE into project design
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Adolescent Well-Beng ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Drop-Out Rate Reduction ; Economic Growth ; Education ; Energy and Environment ; Financial Sector and Social Assistance ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gendered Adolescent Health Trends ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Secondary Education ; Water Resources Management ; Youth Health ; Youth Well-Being
    Abstract: This report focuses on the trends of adolescent and youth well-being in Tanzania, identifying how and why well-being has or has not changed over time. The report conceptualizes well-being holistically. Well-being can be defined as one's ability and opportunity to learn, make decisions, live a healthy life (physically and mentally), be well-nourished, express agency, have peace of mind, and ultimately be economically empowered. Well-being can be accumulated over time and is a composite of multiple aspects that affect the life one lives and the quality of that life. In many ways, how to live a good life and whether one is living this good life has been a key question asked across countries, and there are multiple frameworks that have been used to measure well-being. For the purposes of this study, six domains of well-being are recognized: (1) education and learning, (2) bodily integrity, (3) health, (4) psychological well-being (peace), (5) voice and agency, and (6) economic empowerment and skills. These domains are interconnected, and, also considered is the idea of peace of mind, without which, there is no wellness
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Adolescent Health ; Agriculture ; Education Indicators and Statistics ; Fiscal Consolidation ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gender Gaps ; Greening Agriculture ; Inflation ; Labor Markets ; Low Labor Force ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Western Balkans
    Abstract: In the context of weakening global demand, growth in the Western Balkans decelerated over the course of 2022 and into 2023. Against the background of the lasting effects of shocks from Russia's invasion of Ukraine, sticky inflation, and tighter financial conditions, global demand has been weakening, and this has a divergent impact across the Western Balkans (WB6). On the one hand, the slowdown in global demand contributed to weaker-than expected performance of industrial production in the whole European Union (EU) region and in the WB6. On the other hand, global demand has proved more resilient in services and, for travel, with twice as many people traveling globally during Q1 2023 as in the same period in 2022 (UNWTO). This has particularly benefited Albania, Kosovo, and Montenegro, where services exports have reached new record highs. In contrast, weakening global demand for goods has weighed on Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), North Macedonia and Serbia. On the demand side, private consumption remained in general an important growth driver, despite rising price pressures. Reforms are needed to consolidate the recovery toward sustainable growth, while negotiations with the EU hold the potential to bolster prospects in the Western Balkans. As the WB6 agriculture sector is undergoing a major structural transformation, efforts to green agriculture are also important to ensure access to the EU market and for the competitiveness of agriculture, rural development, and food and nutrition security. Most WB6 countries have recently included agriculture greening in their development strategies. Historically, the environmental footprint of the WB6 agriculture sector has been relatively low. But this has been more an unintended outcome of still high rurality and low farming intensity rather than a result of public policy and expenditure choices. Agricultural public expenditures, while substantial in terms of amounts and adequate to influence agricultural production, have not yet prioritized financing of greening and climate-smart agriculture. It is important for the WB6 countries to accelerate greening of their agriculture by learning from the EU's green transition and better utilization of the existing public funds available for agricultural development
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Keywords: Economic Opportunity for Women ; Endowment ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Poverty ; Gender Gap ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Human Rights ; Poverty Reduction ; Women's Agency
    Abstract: Achieving inclusive growth and maximizing poverty reduction in the Dominican Republic requires closing existing gender gaps: from early childhood to working age, and further still into old age. Using a lifecycle approach, this gender Assessment attempts to uncover, better understand, and deliver some policy recommendations for the main challenges in this area, with a focus on the three main dimensions of endowments, economic opportunity, and agency
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access To Justice ; Barriers ; Discrimination ; Gender ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Social Policy ; Gender Identity ; Law and Development ; Law and Justice Institutions ; Legal Framework ; LGBTI ; Sexual Orientation ; Social Analysis ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI) people face significant social and legal vulnerabilities and disparities in accessing justice. LGBTI people are more vulnerable to bias, discrimination, harassment, and violence due to their real or perceived Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics (SOGIESC). Despite some legal protections, few LGBTI people report cases of violence and other bias-motivated incidents to the police, and even fewer complaints proceed to court. The barriers that LGBTI people experience in accessing justice are rooted in societal homophobia, transphobia, their own fear to report incidents, a disconnect between formal laws and their implementation, and a lack of skills and knowledge among personnel in key justice institutions to effectively respond to the needs of LGBTI people. In most countries, including in the Western Balkans, government responses to discrimination and violence against LGBTI people are inadequate, as highlighted by previous research undertaken by the World Bank. The lack of safe reporting structures and inaction when cases are reported dissuades LGBTI people from engaging with the justice system, which limits their ability to have their rights fully protected. This report is organized in four parts. Part A provides the rationale for the research and outlines the research methodology. Part B includes an examination of the Serbian legal framework, the experience of Serbian LGBTI people accessing justice mechanisms, circumstances where LGBTI people in Serbia face discrimination or exclusion from justice based on their Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI), and a broader examination of the structural barriers to Serbian LBGTI people accessing justice. Part C outlines a collection of policy actions to address the barriers to access, the agencies best suited to steward the reforms, and anticipated timelines. Finally, the stakeholders who were interviewed and the questionnaires and survey instruments used to collect information, experience, and practices from the different stakeholders are included in the Annex section
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Demography ; Employment ; Gender ; Growth ; Labor Supply and Labor Demand ; Living Standards ; Productivity ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The report is organized in four chapters. Chapter1 describes trends in growth, productivity, demography, employment, and living standards to inform the analysis of labor supply and labor demand carried out in the chapters that follow. The chapter starts by depicting aggregate trends in economic growth and living standards of the Tunisian population, the drivers of growth (e.g. remittances and migration, FDI, exchange rate, productivity, et cetera), and broad structural changes in terms of job creation and labor productivity growth. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the composition of the labor market and how it has changed over time, including demographics and labor force participation, employment and employment composition in terms of type of job, industrial sector, occupation both at the aggregate level and for different population groups based on gender, age, educational level, and geographical location. It turns the spotlight on two groups that face particular difficulties in accessing the labor market, namely women and youth, and advances hypotheses regarding key barriers to their engagement in the labor market. Chapter 3 shifts the focus to one of the most relevant dimensions that characterize the Tunisian labor market, namely the distinction between the public sector, formal and informal employment. The chapter investigates how individual characteristics are correlated with the probability of working in different types of employment; it provides an overview of recent trends in wages and of conditional wage gaps along a number of dimensions (men/women, public/private, formal/informal employment); and it illustrates how wage workers with different characteristics, in particular different educational endowments, benefit from the labor market. Finally, building on the findings of Chapter 1, Chapter 4 examines recent trends in the patterns of structural and spatial transformation along the employment and firm dimension. It provides an overview of the firm landscape in terms of size, industrial sector, geographical area as well as recent trends in firms' performance, dynamics, labor decisions and capital investments, as well as constraints and opportunities firms face
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  • 38
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Gender ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Infrastructure ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Participation in Infrastructure
    Abstract: The report is a unique investigation into how private investors perceive gender inequality and its importance for their investments. It examines perceptions of private investors and lenders related to gender equality and inclusion of women and girls in infrastructure services and facilities in emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs). As disclosure of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) information and sustainability reporting becomes more common in the private sector, understanding why and how gender inequalities matter within the sphere of social sustainability and inclusion is becoming increasingly important. The analysis below is based on original semi-structured interviews conducted with investors and lenders in the private sector that routinely invest in or finance infrastructure projects in EMDEs. It aims to understand: (i) how the investor community perceives the intersection between infrastructure and social sustainability and inclusion, particularly with respect to the inclusion of women and girls; (ii) what social issues investors and lenders feel are important; (iii) what actions they take in including women and girls in infrastructure projects and the challenges they face in doing so
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Equity and Development ; Gender ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Poverty ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: The Poverty and Gender Assessment examines the structural challenges to securing a robust and inclusive recovery from the pandemic and sustained progress in poverty reduction and gender equality in The Gambia. It leverages a diverse set of data sources to understand the nature of poverty and household welfare, and highlights constraints to and opportunities for poverty reduction. The report discusses the recent increase in poverty in The Gambia due to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the important progress registered prior to the pandemic in improving key non-monetary indicators of welfare such as school attendance, maternal and child health, and access to water and electricity. Finally, it presents evidence on the link between education and jobs for men and women, gender disparities in labor market outcomes, and the challenges faced by the agricultural sector during a period of increased climate volatility
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Gender ; Inequality ; Poverty Reduction ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Small and Medium Size Enterprises
    Abstract: The report focuses on sectoral choice as one of the contributors to the gender gap in firm performance. It explores the difference in profits among female entrepreneurs who cross over into male-dominated sectors (MDS) compared to those who remain in traditionally female-concentrated sectors (FCS). The report provides a snapshot of the factors associated with being a female entrepreneur who crosses over to MDS, including the most salient cross-country ones that are associated with breaking into and surviving in these sectors. Based on this analysis, it offers evidence-based programs and policies which can support women to cross over into more profitable sectors and contribute to their business performance more generally. The studies in this report were conducted across three regions and in ten countries (Sub-Saharan Africa: Botswana, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Guinea, in Latin America and the Caribbean: Peru and Mexico, and in East Asia and Pacific: Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Indonesia). The report also draws from the findings of the global multi-country future of business survey of entrepreneurs carried out through a social media platform
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Mining, Oil and Gas
    Keywords: Energy ; Gender ; Women's Empowerment
    Abstract: In every mining region across the globe, there are a multitude of entities primarilyfocused on progressing the interests of women in mining. At the national level,the most notable interest group is that of Women in Mining (WIM) organizations.Although WIM organizations share a common vision, their objectives and formsvary. WIM organizations generally evolve organically and are structured, managed,and financed in accordance with their membership composition, location, context,and purpose. Most are independent but welcome coordination and joint initiativeswhile others are organized under the umbrella of an industry association or abusiness. In a single country, several WIM organizations may exist that are or aren'tlinked to one another, or there may be only one WIM organization in the wholecountry, both instances occur. As our research findings show, regardless of the form,the number of WIM organizations has been steadily increasing over the last decade
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Gender ; Psychology ; Social Development
    Abstract: While a range of public programs in Mexico exist to incentivize communities to conserve and manage forest natural resources, a gender gap persists in the use of these initiatives. The experiment discussed in this report was commissioned by the climate investment funds' (CIF) evaluation and learning (E and L) initiative to understand how to improve outreach to and encourage women to engage in productive natural resource management (NRM) programs. Following an earlier behavioral diagnostic study, the World Bank and local partners conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the effectiveness of behaviorally informed additional outreach and engagement measures for NRM programs in Mexico. This report summarizes the findings of a field experiment commissioned by the CIF E and L initiative, with additional financing from the forest carbon partnership facility (FCPF). The experiment was designed to help identify promising strategies to improve outreach to women in order to encourage them to engage in productive natural resource management programs. This report presents the methodology used for the intervention and experimental design. It provides an analysis of the results at the locality and individual level. Finally, it provides conclusions and policy recommendations
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  • 43
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Keywords: Covid-19 ; Education ; Education For All ; Environment ; Gender ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Natural Resources ; Natural Resources Management ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Sustainability
    Abstract: The Performance and Learning Review (PLR) summarizes progress in the implementation of the World Bank Group (WBG) Country Partnership Framework (CPF) for Cambodia for Fiscal Year (FY) 2019-2023 (Report No. 136500-KH). The CPF, discussed by the Board of Executive Directors on May 30, 2019, proposed a joint WBG program of assistance covering three focus areas: (i) promoting state efficiency and boosting private sector development; (ii) fostering human development; and (iii) improving agriculture and strengthening sustainable use of natural resources. A cross-cutting theme of strengthening governance, institutions and citizen engagement underpins reforms in all three focus areas. These areas address the key development challenges identified in the 2017 Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) (Report No. 115189-KH) and are aligned with the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC)'s Rectangular Strategy Phase IV and the National Strategic Development Plan 2019-2023 and remain relevant to support Cambodia's post COVID-19 recovery
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; Energy Sector ; Gender ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Urbanization
    Abstract: The arrival of a new government provides an opportunity to reinvigorate the reform agenda to deliver inclusive growth for the Somali people. Since the establishment of the Provisional Constitution in 2012, Somalia has made commendable progress on many fronts. Macroeconomic stability has been maintained, high levels of indebtedness are being addressed through the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, several sector laws and institutions have been established, and a poverty reduction strategy paper has been developed - the ninth National Development Plan (NDP9). However, much remains to be done and the time has come to mark the next milestone in Somalia's development trajectory through advancing reforms anchored in the HIPC process. The objective of the collection of policy notes is to provide sector-specific policy advice for the leadership of the new government, drawing on the expertise of the World Bank Group. This overview chapter synthesizes the advice across the sector policy notes and is organized in four sections. The first section outlines the current context. The second section presents the framework for organizing the policy notes. The third section summarizes the advice, and the fourth section concludes
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Business Environment ; Gender ; Gender and Economics ; Investment Climate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Women
    Abstract: The private sector has been at the forefront of economic transformation, job creation, and poverty reduction around the world for the past three decades. In developing countries, the private sector provides over 90 percent of jobs. According to a World Bank Group survey of the poor getting a job or starting a business is the most effective way out of poverty. As the global economy seeks to repair the economic scars from the COVID-19 pandemic, with strained public resources, countries will have to rely even more on the private sector to mobilize the investment needed for recovery. The World Bank Group Investment Climate (IC) team works with regional teams and client countries to develop regulatory reform programs to support private sector development in five workstreams. The areas of work include identifying and designing reforms to improve the regulatory environment for firms along all phases of the business life cycle - formalization and entry, operations, expansion, and exit. Investment Climate programs are implemented through the full range of WBG instruments, both lending and advisory. This guide provides a framework for policy makers and economic development practitioners to use to design effective regulatory reforms addressing the entire life cycle of a firm. In all areas of regulation, the IC team emphasizes the equal importance of refining the rules to create a foundation for reform and improving implementation to provide a truly level playing field for businesses
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: Gender ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: This report assesses recent progress in poverty reduction in Zanzibar. It is based on Zanzibar's last three household budget surveys and considers the period between 2009 and 2019, with a focus on the last four years of this decade: 2015-2019. Poverty - based on household consumption - fell by 9 percentage points over the decade before the COVID-19 pandemic: it dropped from 34.9 to 25.7 percent. However, the pace of poverty reduction was slow relative to population growth and as such, the number of poor dropped by only 27,000. The drop was fastest in urban areas and because poverty levels were already lower than in rural areas, the gap between rural and urban poverty widened, driven by differences between the islands of Unguja and Pemba. Simulations suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic increased urban poverty increased by 1.8 percentage points in 2020-21 while rural poverty dropped by 0.8 percentage points
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Gender ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Human Migrations and Resettlements ; Human Rights ; Law and Development ; Poverty Impact Evaluation ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: The Management Action Record (MAR) provides Management's annual self-assessment of WBG-wide progress in implementing recommendations from IEG's major evaluations to deliver outcomes in key priority areas. The MAR is an important vehicle for monitoring the uptake of IEG evaluations; it aims to ensure that recommendations lead to targeted actions that help shape the WBG's strategic directions, improve its development effectiveness, and ultimately help countries achieve their development goals. This year's MAR report provides updates on 55 recommendations from 18 IEG evaluations issued between FY18 and FY21, covering a diverse range of areas of strategic importance to the WBG. Building on progress achieved over the previous reporting cycles since the 2020 MAR Reform, this year's MAR update introduces several new features to strengthen its outcome orientation, learning focus, and grounding in higher quality evidence. During this year's MAR update cycle, Management has introduced a more intensive engagement approach to enhance the MAR's learning focus and build understanding between evaluators and technical staff. This has included the facilitation of 23 evaluation-specific working meetings, involving over 120 participants from across the WBG, with representation from all relevant WB Global Practices and IFC regional and industry teams. This year's MAR report has improved the quality of evidence provided to show action and progress in achieving outcomes in response to evaluations, using sentinel indicators to demonstrate a delta change, where possible, since the evaluation period
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Disability ; Disaster Management ; Gender ; Natural Disasters
    Abstract: This report presents a qualitative review of inclusive approaches to disaster risk management (DRM)-a part of the first stocktaking exercise that the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) conducts to assess lessons learned and generate knowledge to help mainstream inclusive approaches and strategies across GFDRR activities. The findings are based on a literature review, analysis of portfolio data, and internal consultations with World Bank task team leaders of GFDRR-funded activities. The reviewed literature includes GFDRR project documentation and knowledge products, World Bank operational documents and research findings, and relevant publications from other scholars and organizations. The stocktaking exercise emphasizes gender, disability-inclusive DRM, citizen engagement, and community participation. It will help create a framework for GFDRR engagement on inclusive DRM and inform development of an inclusive DRM work plan for implementation beginning in fiscal year 2022. As such, GFDRR's work in these areas reflects its commitment to the World Bank Group's Gender Strategy 2016-2023 (World Bank Group 2015), the Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework (World Bank 2018), and the Strategic Framework for Mainstreaming Citizen Engagement in World Bank Group Operations
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Gender ; Gender and Social Policy ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Rights ; Mental Health
    Abstract: The objective of this assessment is to provide background information about GBV issues, policies, programming, and gaps in Malawi, for the purpose of assisting the World Bank (WB) to 1) consider how to directly support efforts to address GBV in Malawi; 2) inform strategies for integrating attention to GBV in development programming; and 3) understand the extent of GBV response programming. In addition to providing an overview of data on the scope of GBV in Malawi, the assessment investigates: legislative and policy protections related to GBV; systems and coordination mechanisms in place for addressing GBV in Malawi; and GBV response and prevention programming. The assessment analyzes key gaps across these areas of investigation based on inputs from key stakeholders as well as the desk review and concludes with several recommendations for WB to consider assisting in addressing these key gaps
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  • 50
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Gender ; Gender and Economics ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Women play a significant role in the Blue Economy sectors, such as in fisheries, aquaculture, processing and trading of marine products, waste management, coastal tourism, conservation activities, and coastal disaster-risk reduction, among others. However, gender norms often prevent women from developing and contributing their full potential in the Blue Economy. Women tend to have fewer opportunities to access education and skills-building activities and have low ownership, access, and control over key productive resources that are basic to their livelihoods. In the labor market, women are present less than men. Women are also affected by Gender-Based Violence (GBV). These risks jeopardize long-term sustainability objectives since women are key players in coastal and marine communities and provide households' subsistence, particularly in women-headed households. International efforts have shown that more systematically and effectively integrating women in coastal economies along with addressing disparities has decreased gender gaps. These efforts have also delivered an increase in women's income, improvements in local livelihood activities, and brought positive impacts to marine life conservation. Thus, addressing gender gaps is key for women's development, and that of their families, communities, and the economy, as well as the progress and sustainability of the Blue Economy
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Gender
    Abstract: Cities are engines of growth, job-creation, and innovations. Cities are economic powerhouses and innovation hubs with large markets that can attract investments, knowledge, skilled personnel and lead to innovations thereby generating economic opportunities. Globally, lack of consideration for diverse population needs in urban planning and design has constrained women's access to socioeconomic opportunities. Historically, cities across the world have been designed to fit the needs of able-bodied men rather than that of women, girls, sexual and gender minorities, and people with disabilities (PWDs). Indian cities need gender-responsive urban mobility and public spaces so that benefits of city-led economic growth can be more equitably distributed. This toolkit is intended to bridge the knowledge gaps between policy making and program implementation for gender-responsive urban mobility and public space in India. While central and state governments are committed to the goals of gender equality and women's empowerment, they often need more practical tools and knowledge of how to translate their intentions into actions and to formulate programs to meet such policy objectives. This toolkit is intended to be a practice guide towards introducing gender equality and women's empowerment principles in designing urban mobility systems and public spaces so that they mitigate rather than reinforce gender inequalities. The toolkit is divided into two volumes, with the first volume focused on high level guidance for policymakers, while the second provides a 'How-to' guide including practical tools for implementing agencies
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Access of Poor To Social Services ; Access To Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Gender ; Gender and Social Policy ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: Despite Ghana's growth in the last several decades, regional, demographic, and social inequalities have exacerbated marginalization and exclusion, leaving vulnerable groups exposed to exogeneous economic and social shocks. With Coronavirus (COVID-19) and the resultant economic slowdown, the poverty level is likely to rise in 2021 to 30.9 percent, compounding further inequalities and vulnerabilities and expanding pressure on public funds to respond. To assess the progression of these exclusion disparities, the World Bank has developed the Social Sustainability and Inclusion (SSI) profile. This SSI note is meant to deepen analysis and provide a snapshot of the social sustainability and inclusion landscape in Ghana
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