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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Disease Control and Prevention ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Public Sector Accounting Analysis ; Public Sector Accounting Management ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The PULSE web-based tool facilitates the management of a PULSE assessment. Since the assessment process may take up to six months and involves many experts to perform tasks (like scoring and quality assurance), the PULSE Tool enables the process to be managed easily in a logical, methodical way. It guides the Assessment Team Leader and other experts through the assessment lifecycle such that no important step can be overlooked. The PULSE Tool is available 24*7 and also contains a communications module that keeps all the experts informed of progress. The PULSE Handbook contains all the details and definitions of the assessment process. This manual assumes that users are at least familiar with the handbook and the assessment process. In the introductory paragraphs that follow, important concepts that pertain to use of the PULSE Tool will be reiterated for the convenience of users
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Impacts ; Economic Policy ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Green Growth
    Abstract: There is growing awareness globally about the potential impacts of climate change on financial stability. Climate-related financial risks can be broadly grouped into two categories: (i) climate physical risks, which are financial risks stemming from the gradual and abrupt impacts of climate change (primarily droughts and floods in the case of Morocco, as highlighted by the ongoing severe drought event and recent floods), and (ii) climate transition risks, which are financial risks that can result from the transition to a low-carbon economy, for example, due to changes in climate policy, technology, or market sentiment. The purpose of this report is to better understand the impact of these climate risks on Morocco's banking sector. This includes understanding the banking sector's exposure to sectors and regions that are vulnerable to climate physical and transition risks, as well as a quantification of climate impacts on banks' balance sheets under different scenarios. This report also takes stock of the Moroccan banking sector's current risk management practices and the supervisory response to climate-related financial risks
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Bhutan ; Domestic Revenue Administration ; Early Childhood Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Expenditure Management
    Abstract: Despite Bhutan's distinctive geographical and economic challenges, Bhutan has maintained a relatively high average real GDP growth rate of 8.8 percent over FY00-01-FY09-10, which is greater than the average of South Asian countries as well as low and middle-income economies. Bhutan's mountainous topography and dense network of rivers offer vast hydropower potential, which the country has been harnessing since the mid-1980s with the commissioning of the Chhukha Hydropower Project in 1986. However, due to a slower rate of growth of hydropower capacity, real GDP growth in Bhutan declined over the last decade, averaging only 3.5 percent, which was lower than the growth rates of regional peers and middle-income economies. Bhutan maintained a relatively strong fiscal position prior to COVID, but the situation has deteriorated recently. Bhutan's revenue to GDP ratio averaged at around 30 percent of GDP over FY10-11 and FY21-22, supported by revenue from hydropower projects and sizable external grants. However, revenue was on a declining trend that was further exacerbated by the onset of COVID-19. The pandemic necessitated an expansionary fiscal stance and led to delays in the commissioning of new hydropower projects. In the aftermath of the pandemic, despite a rapid phasing out of extraordinary outlays and containment in current expenditures, the government continued to provide fiscal support to boost economic activity by frontloading the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP) covering 2018-2023, resulting in a rise in capital expenditure. Consequently, the fiscal deficit widened from around 2 percent in FY18-19 to 6.7 percent of GDP in FY20-21 and further to 8.4 percent in FY21-22, the highest in over a decade. A Fiscal Sustainability Analysis (FSA) based on the MTMF assumptions indicates that fiscal consolidation is critical to ensure fiscal sustainability. The fiscal situation significantly worsens if capital expenditures are maintained at current levels of 18.1 percent of GDP rather than reducing them to 10.2 percent in the medium term as assumed in the MTMF. The fiscal outlook depends crucially on the commissioning dates of the hydropower projects. Bhutan needs to prepare for contingent scenarios and create fiscal buffers that could protect the country from negative shocks
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Economic Growth and Planning ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Pakistan is at a critical decision point. While there have been recent important examples of reform progress, economic policies over past years and decades have had overall negative impacts on sustainability, productivity, and investment. As Pakistan has fallen behind its peers, progress with poverty reduction has ceased. Human development outcomes remain dire, while the benefits of growth have accrued disproportionately to a narrow elite. Amid continued rapid population growth and a youth bulge, a growing number of young Pakistanis are frustrated by the lack of opportunities, with prospects for young women especially bleak. Pakistan is among the countries most impacted by climate change, and recent events, including the 2022 floods, have highlighted the urgent need for investment in climate resilience. The economy is now, again, sustained by a short-term International Monetary Fund (IMF) program, inflation is at record highs, the rupee has depreciated sharply, while foreign exchange reserves remain at uncomfortably low levels. Recent policy measures (including the restoration of exchange rate flexibility, subsidy reforms, and movements towards fiscal constraint) have supported economic stabilization, but the underpinning drivers of Pakistan's economic fragility remain to be addressed. This note presents critical policy shifts required to move beyond the current low equilibrium towards sustainable and inclusive economic development and poverty reduction. This note summarizes the accompanying series of policy notes. It: (i) outlines Pakistan's current development challenge; (ii) identifies the critical constraints to faster development progress; (iii) describes the major policy shifts that will be required to address current constraints; and (iv) presents broad principles to guide implementation of required reforms
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Education Equity ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Policies ; Infrastructure Economics ; Private Sector Management ; Public Finance Management ; Regional Urban Development ; Renewable Energy ; Sustainable Land Management
    Abstract: This report presents a review of the intergovernmental fiscal transfer reforms program (IGFTRP) and its performance since 2015, as part of a broader Public Expenditure Review (PER) that aimed to explore avenues for improving efficiency effectiveness in cross cutting areas of service delivery. The report is based on extensive documentary review, analysis of available data on local government (LG) finances, fieldwork in selected LGs and consultations with national ministries, departments, and agencies (MDAs) involved in the management of the IGFTRP. Ministry of Finance, Planning, and Economic Development (MoFPED) provided data in various forms, and some data was publicly available at its website. It also includes data analysis on aspects of LG financing outside the IGFTRP system, but with implications to its delivery. These aspects include LG Own Source Revenues (OSR), Other Government Transfers (OGT) and External Finance that are captured by LG budgets and reports (available on the MoFPED website)
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Matching Grants ; Mutual Funds ; Science and Technology Development ; Tech Incubator Program for Startup ; Technology Innovation ; Tips
    Abstract: This report investigates the case of a Korean public-private matching grant program called the Tech Incubator Program for Startup (TIPS). Launched in 2013, the program provides a package of support to selected startups, including matching grant for research and development (R and D) and mentorship, for up to three years. After ten years in operation, TIPS is particularly well suited to answer the question of whether public funding can help startups innovate and subsequently improve their performance. Using a dataset that includes 1,650 startups that applied for TIPS between 2013 and 2020, this research analyzes the effects of TIPS on recipients' performance and offers empirical evidence to inform entrepreneurship policy. The results show that TIPS positively affected startup performance one year after selection in terms of innovation input and output, although it did not have a significant effect on revenue or research collaboration activities. The report concludes with five lessons derived from Korea's policy experience in designing and implementing TIPS: (i) a well-designed coordination mechanism may serve as a viable public-private partnership model for fostering innovative startups, (ii) a co-investment model can crowd in private investment and achieve a multiplier effect by reducing the risk of investment in early-stage startups, (iii) complementary supports that target different stages of the startup lifecycle are needed, (iv) patient capital and continuity in entrepreneurial policy with a long-term view are key to nurturing a vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystem, and (v) constant engagement with beneficiaries through data collection and monitoring enables the development of a dynamic monitoring and evaluation mechanism
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Support ; IDA ; Jobs ; Labor Markets ; Reform ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This evaluation is the first stage of the Independent Evaluation Group's assessment of the World Bank's support for more, better, and more inclusive jobs through International Development Association (IDA) financing, and it assesses the implementation of IDA-supported interventions directly supporting its jobs objectives across the three Replenishment cycles from fiscal years 2015 to 2022. Supporting the creation of more, better, and more inclusive jobs is critical towards achieving the goals of poverty reduction and shared prosperity in countries. This is especially true for countries that are eligible for International Development Association (IDA) financing. Since 2014, IDA has included jobs as a special theme, and subsequent IDA replenishments have had what this evaluation calls an 'IDA jobs strategy.' This strategy included explicit objectives, a series of policy commitments to achieve them, and results indicators to track them. This evaluation represents the first stage of the Independent Evaluation Group's assessment of the World Bank's performance in supporting more, better, and more inclusive jobs through IDA financing. It assesses the implementation of IDA-supported interventions that directly supported its jobs objectives across the three Replenishment cycles from fiscal years 2015 to 2022. The evaluation answers two questions: (i) To what extent IDA's strategy on jobs was grounded in sound analytics, adaptive, and operationally relevant (ii) To what extent the strategy has been translated into relevant and effective jobs interventions that directly address the objectives of more, better, and more inclusive jobs The scope of the evaluation is limited to the three main channels for achieving IDA jobs objectives: acting on labor demand, increasing labor supply, and improving labor market flexibility and geographic mobility. The report offers recommendations for further strengthening of the IDA jobs agenda towards the objective of supporting more, better, and more inclusive jobs
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomic Performance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Expenditure ; Public-Private Partnership ; Revenue Mobilization ; State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs)
    Abstract: The Lao PDR is facing unprecedented macroeconomic challenges, which jeopardize hard-won development gains. Over the past two decades, the country attracted considerable foreign investment and fostered regional integration, which contributed to a long period of high economic growth. Many human development indicators improved during the period 2000-2019, including child and maternal mortality, school enrolment, income poverty, and gender equity. However, economic growth was predominantly driven by large-scale investments in capital intensive sectors, such as mining and hydropower, which created few jobs and entailed environmental costs. Moreover, many public investments were financed by external debt, gradually jeopardizing debt sustainability and macroeconomic stability. Long-standing structural vulnerabilities have been exacerbated by the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and adverse global macroeconomic conditions. Since 2021, the national currency has depreciated considerably, and inflation soared. This has had a large negative impact on living standards, with many households struggling to cope. Meanwhile, limited spending on education, health, and social protection is undermining human capital and thus economic growth prospects. Significant debt pressures, especially short-term external liquidity constraints, have pushed the country into debt distress. This Public Finance Review identifies priority reforms to restore macroeconomic stability and boost prosperity. The objective of this review is to assess recent macro-fiscal performance, evaluate emerging fiscal risks, and propose policy reforms to secure fiscal sustainability, restore macroeconomic stability, and promote shared prosperity. This report is comprised of five chapters covering the main aspects of fiscal management: chapter 1 evaluates recent macroeconomic performance while placing fiscal policy in the broader macroeconomic context. Chapter 2 assesses domestic revenue mobilization efforts and scope for reforms to enhance tax collection. Chapter 3 investigates the size and composition of public expenditure, as well as measures to increase its efficiency and effectiveness. Chapter 4 discusses reforms of state-owned enterprises with a view to improving their financial performance, operational management, and corporate governance. Chapter 5 documents the experience with public-private partnerships and provides recommendations to maximize value for money and reduce fiscal risks
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Disaster Finance ; DRFI ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Crisis Management and Restructuring ; NCA ; North Central America
    Abstract: The objective of this feasibility study is to identify disaster risk finance and insurance (DRFI) solutions for up to 1.9 million family farmers in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study is motivated by an emerging consensus on the need to design and implement large-scale DRFI solutions to improve the financial resilience of family farmers in North Central America (NCA) and reduce their vulnerability to extreme weather events and climate risks. The feasibility study provides an initial assessment of the technical, operational, financial, and policy considerations for developing and implementing DRFI solutions for family farmers in NCA. The feasibility study considers lessons learned from existing large-scale DRFI solutions in peer countries as well as ongoing programs and pilots in NCA
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Firm-Level ; Global Statistics ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Procurement ; WBES
    Abstract: Public procurement is at the intersection between the public and the private sectors. Policy makers and practitioners are increasingly paying attention to the potential catalytic role of public procurement to promote economic growth and inclusive and sustainable development, for example through participation of SMEs and women-owned firms in this market. However, despite a growing academic literature, there is still limited evidence on the link between public procurement and firms, which this paper contributes to address in two ways. First, this paper provides guidance on how to design a high-quality firm-level survey to study public procurement from the perspective of firms. Second, this paper presents some of the statistics and stylized facts that can be generated on public procurement from the existing World Bank Enterprise Surveys data, covering more than 150 countries worldwide. To sustain evidence-based policies in public procurement, firm-level survey data can be a valuable source of information on public procurement market. In particular, it can capture dimensions such as views and perceptions of firms that cannot be observed from e-government procurement data, it allows to study firms that never entered the public procurement market, and it provides data for countries that have not adopted an eGP system yet. Together with legislative and institutional reviews, and the analysis of transactional procurement data, firm-level survey data can be used to identify weaknesses of a public procurement system and inform reform efforts. This paper is part of a broader effort to continuously expand the available data, statistics, and tools for evidence-based policy making in public procurement
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; ESG Integration ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Government Pension Fund ; Investments ; Pension Funds ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; Social Funds and Pensions ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report describes the ESG integration practices at GPF as a practical example of how a pension fund can integrate ESG considerations into its investment practices and processes. The report focuses on the incorporation of ESG issues into our investment analysis and decision-making process. Other elements of responsible investing such as active ownership and ESG disclosure practices whilst also key to GPF's overall approach, are not discussed in detail in this report. The report is a product of technical co-operation between teams from GPF and the World Bank. The report starts by providing some background information on GPF, including its investment philosophy and an overview of ESG investment philosophy before detailing the GPF ESG Score methodology. It then describes how the GPF ESG Score methodology is applied to equity and fixed-income investments, followed by an overview of how GPF ensures that ESG considerations are integrated into the selection, appointment and monitoring of external managers. It concludes with some reflections on the landscape of responsible investment and identifies areas where GPF expects to improve its investment process in the coming years
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Mobility and Transport Connectivity
    Keywords: Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financing ; Infrastructure ; Mobility ; Road Pricing ; Transport ; Urban Development
    Abstract: The document is structured into five chapters. Chapter 2 provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical framework surrounding road pricing. It outlines the fundamental principles and characteristics of road pricing, while exploring the relationship between social equity and road pricing. Additionally, it addresses potential implementation challenges that may arise. The subsequent chapters offer summaries of international experiences in interurban pricing (Chapter.3) and urban pricing (Chapter 4). In the case of interurban pricing, a broad spectrum of approaches is examined, including traditional methods, concession tolls, and the latest trends in variable pricing within the European Union. Lastly, chapter 5 highlights the key trends in road pricing and provides recommendations based on the evidence presented throughout the document. This chapter serves to offer valuable insights for decision-makers, drawing from the comprehensive studies presented within the document
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Private Sector Development, Privatization, and Industrial Policy
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Business Environment ; Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fragile States ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development
    Abstract: This Private Sector Assessment Report on the Republic of Yemen is delivered as part of the Private Sector Technical Assistance project. The goal of the project is to understand the dynamics of the country's private sector during conflict; identify constraints to trade, investment, and finance; and propose recommendations for inclusive private sector entry, survival, and growth. The report also includes an overview of the financial sector's impact on the private sector, especially on the latter's resilience during conflict. Finally, the report provides structural and policy recommendations that, once implemented by the authorities on both national and subnational levels, would prepare the Yemeni private sector to participate in the country's post-conflict recovery and reconstruction
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Ecosystem Restoration ; Environment ; Environmental Protection ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financing Needs ; Nature Loss ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Private Sector Investment
    Abstract: Ecosystem restoration is critical to the global ambition of halting and reversing nature loss. Tremendous efforts have been deployed globally to conserve the remaining rainforests, grasslands, rivers and lakes, reefs and mangroves, and other ecosystems that are critical for safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem services that humanity depends on. However, the extent of environmental degradation is such that recovering the productivity of ecosystems where it has been lost is equally important - for nature, communities, and economic sectors. While restoration is often viewed as the purview of the public sector, this report demonstrates opportunities for private sector investment. It aims to shift the perception that restoration finance is limited to grant funding from domestic and international public sources only. Drawing on case studies, it highlights the investment drivers and entry points for private finance in restoration projects. The financing models presented also point to opportunities for replication and scaling. This report is a product of the Finance Task Force of the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, an initiative led by the United Nations Environment Program and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The United Nations Decade aims to drive the restoration of one billion hectares of degraded land between now and 2030. The role of the Finance Task Force, chaired by The World Bank, is to catalyze action that can contribute to unlocking the capital needed to meet the United Nations Decade's goals
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Consumer Protection ; Consumer Protection Law ; Corruption and Anticorruption Law ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Capability ; Financial Consumer Protection ; Law and Development ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The 2022 Global State of Financial Inclusion and Consumer Protection (FICP) Report is an update to the 2013 and 2017 FICP reports. These surveys aim to provide a timely source of global data to benchmark efforts by financial sector authorities to improve the enabling environment for financial inclusion and consumer protection. To date, this is the only longitudinal and global survey of this nature. As such, this report serves as a valuable resource to shape the World Bank's country engagements, a reference document for regulators and supervisors and, finally, a tool for both public and private sector actors with an interest in knowing the developments in this sector. The Survey questionnaire covers key topics related to financial inclusion and financial consumer protection (FCP) and aligns with international guidance to financial sector authorities in these areas. Because the report aims to capture both a snapshot as well as trends over time, the survey questionnaire has been modified over the three cycles to reflect the changing policy and regulatory landscape of financial inclusion and consumer protection
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: Energy ; Energy Efficiency ; Energy Production and Transportation ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Human Development and Gender ; Private Sector Development
    Abstract: In December 2021, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) published Cambodia's Long-Term Strategy for Carbon Neutrality (LTS4CN), which outlines the country's vision in achieving a carbon-neutral economy by 2050. As part of the long-term strategies to achieve net-zero emissions, the RGC set targets for decarbonizing the transportation sector through a combination of measures, including electrifying 70 percent of motorcycles, and 40 percent of cars and urban buses by 2050. It also aims to have 30 percent of mode share by public transport in cities by 2050
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; CPGA ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Preparedness ; Natural Disasters ; Primary Response ; Risk ; Social and Livelihood Support ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Crisis preparedness is cral to preventing shocks from becoming crises. Investments in ex ante preparedness are especially relevant in countries like Nepal that face high levels of exposure and vulnerability to a range of risks. In seeking to identify opportunities to strengthen the Government of Nepal's (GoN's) capacity to prepare for crisis events in an effective and timely manner, this Technical Annex presents findings from the application of the Crisis Preparedness Gap Analysis (CPGA) diagnostic in the country. It provides details on findings and entry points across the five componnts of crisis preparedness. For a summary, please refer to the accompanying CPGA Nepal Briefing Note. Following a brief description of the CPGA methodology, the Technical Annex presents a summary of findings from each CPGA component alongside identification of entry points and opportunities to strengthen crisis preparedness in the country. To provide a holistic assessment of preparedness, the CPGA focuses on five core components of crisis preparedness. These are (i) Legal and Institutional Foundations, (ii) Understanding and Monitoring Risks, (iii) FinancialPreparedness, (iv) Primary Response, and (v) Social and Livelihood Support
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Climate Development ; Economic Growth ; EMDES ; Energy Transition ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Space ; Inclusive Recovery ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Sustainability ; Transformation
    Abstract: This report makes the case for a big investment push for EMDEs' sustainable recovery and development, assesses the magnitude and composition of such investment, presents actions needed for an energy transition, looks at the role that innovations and state capacity can play in facilitating GRID, and proposes actions that governments, the private sector, MDBs, the IMF, and donors can undertake to mobilize financing at the large scale needed. The report summarizes the insights derived from the meetings of the High-Level Advisory Group (HLAG) on Sustainable and Inclusive Recovery and Growth, jointly led by Mari Pangestu, Ceyla Pazarbasioglu, and Nicholas Stern, and composed of experts from research institutions, the private sector, and governments, as well as senior World Bank Group and IMF staff members. The work of the HLAG, and thus this report, focuses on EMDEs and delves in greater depth into climate investment and financing, particularly for energy transition, as it is a less researched area. While doing so, it recognizes that policy and investment decisions in high-income countries, which accounted for only 16 percent of the global population in 2019 and yet for 32 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions (World Bank 2023a, 2023b), will be critical to whether the Paris Agreement goals can be reached. It also recognizes that these countries must play a key role in contributing financially to EMDEs' transition to low-carbon economies
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; COVID-19 ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Systems ; Transition ; Vulnerabilities
    Abstract: This report provides an assessment of the stability of the financial systems of selected Pacific Island Countries (PICs) in the context of COVID-19 and emerging risks. The report brings together an analysis of information provided by the central banks of the PICs covered by this study over the last two years. The purpose of the study is to assess the financial stability and vulnerabilities and to provide technical guidance to the PIC authorities to assist in their financial sector policy response. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the financial systems of the PICs. Chapter 2 presents an analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on the financial systems of the PCIs and the policy responses to the pandemic. Chapter 3 looks at the challenges of transitioning from the pandemic to normal policy settings. Chapter 4 provides a set of bespoke policy recommendations with the aim of enhancing the ability to deal with financial sector risks and vulnerabilities. Finally, Chapter 5 puts forward recommendations for the assessment of climate and environmental related risks on the PICs. The report finds that the pandemic has negatively impacted economic growth in the PICs, challenging financial stability. Due to various relief measures adopted by governments in the region, and the lagged economic impact of the pandemic, the PICs' financial sectors do not yet fully reflect the risks to bank profitability and asset quality, which could materialize over 2022-23. Response and
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Accountability ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; National Reform ; Performance Indicators ; Public Expenditure
    Abstract: The World Bank is supporting Can Tho City (CCT) of Vietnam to conduct an analysis of its current public financial management (PFM) arrangements and national legal framework in comparison to good international practices. The main objective of this activity is to inform the design and implementation of a robust PFM reform agenda for the city in 2023-2025. The activity is performed under the framework of the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) Trust Fund for Sub-National Public Financial Management Reform, effective April 2020. This sub-national public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) assessment aims to measure the PFM performance of CCT. The assessment will be used by CCT in planning improvements to the administration of its services. It will also facilitate discussions by CCT and development partners with the central government on possible reforms in country PFM system to enable better allocation of resources which would ultimately assist CCT and other sub-national governments (SNG) in the discharge of its functions
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Carbon-Neutral ; Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Policy ; Household Incomes ; Housing Finance ; Inflation ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Investment
    Abstract: Economic activity bounced back in Q1 2023 with the removal of mobility restrictions and a surge in spending on services. However, growth momentum has slowed since April, indicating that China's recovery remains fragile and dependent on policy support. China's GDP growth is projected to rise to a 5.6 percent in 2023, led by a rebound in consumer spending. The economic recovery offers an important opportunity for policymakers to refocus their efforts on achieving China's longer-term development objectives. Structural reforms remain crucial to solidify the recovery and achieve the longer-term goals to (i) become a high-income country by 2035 through productivity-led and environmentally sustainable growth; (ii) peak carbon emissions before 2030 and become carbon-neutral by 2060; and (iii) share the gains from economic growth more equally among the population
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Employment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Sector and Social Assistance ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; PER ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Spending ; Social Assistance ; Western Balkans
    Abstract: Kosovo has gained a creditable reputation for prudent macro-fiscal management; yet necessary structural reforms and related fiscal pressures lie ahead. The country's track record includes consistently high output growth rates, prudent fiscal deficits supported by fiscal rules, and one of the lowest public debt levels among peers. The Government was able to successfully weather the COVID-19 crisis and mitigate the impact of the ongoing inflationary crisis caused by the Russian invasion of Ukraine thanks to its healthy fiscal accounts and stable financial sectors. At the same time, however, the overlapping external shocks have highlighted the inherent volatility that mirrors Kosovo's structural limitations - especially in health, energy, and education - and accentuates gaps in both human and physical capital. The objective of this Public Expenditure Review (PER) is to help the government identify means for improving the structure and quality of public services, enhance the equity of government spending, and take a holistic view of policies that will affect financing needs over time. To do so, the PER has analyzed fiscal issues that have not been explicitly detailed in, or are in the process of being incorporated into, the medium-term expenditure framework and the economic reform program. The most notable issues include the urgently needed energy investments, the ramifications of the new law on public salaries on the budget, the sustainability of the untargeted social protection system, and possible pathways of the cost of pensions in light of expected changes to eligibility criteria, and the health spending and health financing conundrum. The PER also looks back at past World Bank PER recommendations and their implementation record, in the attempt to shine a light on measures that remain valid and could still be implemented
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Challenges ; Inclusive Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; PER ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Expenditure Review
    Abstract: The Union of the Comoros is a small-island country in Eastern Africa that recorded a modest economic expansion and suffered from various fiscal challenges during the last decade that had an impact on long-term growth. Limited fiscal space to address development needs explains the country's low human capital and poor quality infrastructure, which in turn hamper efforts to increase productivity and private sector growth. In addition, due to low performing State-owned enterprise (SOEs) and weakening economic performance, Comoros faces significant fiscal risks. The analysis presented in this PER supports the efforts of the government of Comoros to enhance public expenditure efficiency, create fiscal space, and limit fiscal risks. The analysis is designed to focus on public investment management (PIM) and public financial management (PFM), identify reforms that could yield fiscal and efficiency gains, and assess the governance of SOEs
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Access to Finance ; Digitalization ; E-Finance and E-Security ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Inclusion ; Legal Framework ; Payment Infrastructure
    Abstract: The Gambia's economy continued to recover in 2022, albeit at a subdued pace in a sluggish global economic environment. Real GDP increased by 4.3 percent (1.8 percent in per capita terms) in 2022, unchanged from 2021, when economic growth was recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic following a sharp deceleration to 0.6 percent in 2020. On the supply side, growth was supported by improved agricultural production, which benefited from a relatively rainy season. A deceleration of growth in industry and subdued growth in the services sector explain The Gambia's weak growth performance. Rising world commodity prices and trade disruptions weighed on the economy, as the country is a net importer of oil and food commodities and has experienced negative terms of trade. Growth in industry was affected by rising prices and limited availability of manufacturing and construction inputs. Weak growth in services was linked to a weaker-than-expected recovery in tourism, which, although the number of arrivals increased, was not sufficient to offset weak growth in other subsectors. On the demand side, growth was driven by increased public consumption and infrastructure investment, while private consumption slowed, and exports contracted. Economic growth was 1.3 percentage points (ppts) below initial projections, owing to the spillover effects of Russia's invasion of Ukraine
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Consistency ; Equity ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Health Financing ; Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Impartiality ; UHC ; Universal Health Coverage
    Abstract: The report offers decision support on fair processes for policy choices relating to health financing for universal health coverage (UHC). It opens by making the case for why fair processes matter for health financing. It argues that procedural fairness contributes to fairer outcomes, strengthens the legitimacy of decision processes, builds trust in authorities, and promotes the sustainability of reforms on the path to UHC. The report then describes key health financing decisions with an impact on equity in service coverage and financial protection, where issues of procedural fairness are particularly important. Next, it offers principles and criteria for designing and assessing the processes around these health financing decisions and provides suggestions for how to make them fairer. Finally, the report examines country experiences with diverse instruments that can be used to operationalize principles and criteria for fair processes in health financing decision-making
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Capital Markets ; Capital Markets and Capital Flows ; Climate Change ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Inclusion ; Poverty Alleviation ; Resilience ; Shared Prosperity ; Sustainability ; Sustainable Finance
    Abstract: This annual report, which covers the period from July 1, 2022, to June 30, 2023, has been prepared by the Executive Directors of both the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)-collectively known as the World Bank-in accordance with the respective bylaws of the two institutions. Ajay Banga, President of the World Bank Group and Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors, has submitted this report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2185
    Keywords: Alignement Tools ; Climate Change Mitigation ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; G-20 ; Sustainable Finance
    Abstract: The first action in the G-20 Sustainable Finance Roadmap proposes six high-level principles for the development and global coordination of approaches to align investments with sustainability goals. "Alignment approaches" are national and international frameworks for the financial sector that aim to monitor global sustainable finance flows and ensure that they are contributing to the temperature goals of the Paris Agreement, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and other international sustainable finance objectives. These approaches increasingly leverage "alignment tools," which include but are not limited to (a) taxonomies (or classifications) of private sector activities that can be labeled as achieving environmental and social objectives; (b) certifications and labels that confirm that products or services have met environmental, social, and governance (ESG) standards; (c) disclosure frameworks that guide private sector entities to manage and report on their ESG performance; and (d) transition frameworks that help the private sector design a credible shift to low-carbon technologies and practices. The tools can then be applied in different ways-ranging from national-level regulations to voluntary private sector-led initiatives, to corporate-level practices. The tools can be applied by investors and finance providers for different purposes at different levels: at the "asset level" (as in determining whether a project or activity is compatible with a relevant sustainable finance taxonomy or due diligence framework); the "entity level" (as inwhether a corporate or financial institution has a robust low-carbon transition plan and adheres to the International Labour Organization (ILO) Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work); or "portfolio level" (as in whether an index is aligned with a credible temperature objective or supports poverty reduction). The G-20 Voluntary Principles for Developing Alignment Approaches provide a common foundation for ensuring these alignment approaches are robust and consistent
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2186
    Keywords: Catalysts ; FICP ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Education ; Financial Inclusion and Consumer Protection ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Financial Sector ; Financial Structures
    Abstract: The Global State of Financial Inclusion and Consumer Protection (FICP) Report, 2022 - which is an update to the 2013 and 2017 iterations of the Global FICP Survey report - details the key findings and provides a source of global data to benchmark efforts by financial sector authorities to improve the enabling environment for financial inclusion and consumer protection. To date, this is the only longitudinal and global survey of this nature. As such, this report serves as a valuable resource to shape the World Bank's country engagements, a reference document for regulators and supervisors and, finally, a tool for both public and private sector actors with an interest in knowing the developments in this sector. The Survey questionnaire covers key topics related to financial inclusion and financial consumer protection (FCP) and aligns with international guidance to financial sector authorities in these areas. Because the report aims to capture both a snapshot as well as trends over time, the survey questionnaire has been modified over the three cycles to reflect the changing policy and regulatory landscape of financial inclusion and consumer protection
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2201
    Keywords: Access of Poor To Social Services ; Access To Finance ; Access To Services ; Digital Divide ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; G20 ; Inclusive Cities ; Information and Communication Technologies ; National Urban Development Policies and Strategies ; Poverty Reduction ; Roles of Stakeholders ; Sustainability and Resilience ; Urban Development
    Abstract: In both G20 and non-G20 countries alike, cities have a crucial role to play in the achievement of national development goals. Already, cities generate more than 80 percent of global GDP and, with a share of the global population that is projected to reach nearly 70 percent by 2050, up from the current share of around 57 percent, the global importance of cities will only grow further in the decades ahead. However, whether the cities of tomorrow can fulfil their potential as drivers of national economic development will depend, to a large extent, on how inclusive they are - that is to say, the extent to which they are able to provide all their residents with quality access to services, markets, and spaces. This is because not only is inclusion in and of itself important, but because more inclusive cities are also both more prosperous and more resilient cities. At the same time, many policies that contribute to inclusive urban development carry important co-benefits for both climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as vice versa. In this context, this report addresses four important questions: (a) What is an inclusive city (b) How inclusive are cities in G20 member and guest countries, as well as in other countries, globally today (c) What instruments should policymakers draw-on to make the cities of tomorrow more inclusive or, to put it more succinctly, what can policymakers do to make their cities more inclusive And, finally, (d) What are the roles of different stakeholders - city leaders and their associated local governments; national governments, including their ministries of finance; the private sector; civil society organizations; and others - in the effective wielding of these instruments or, to put it more bluntly, who needs to do what
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Food Security ; Food Systems ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Stability ; Value Chains
    Abstract: Sierra Leone's economy experienced overlapping setbacks during 2022, as external spillovers from the Russian invasion of Ukraine aggravated domestic macroeconomic vulnerabilities. This led to high levels of inflation, a substantially weaker currency, greater imbalances in public finances, and lower foreign exchange reserves. GDP growth slowed in 2022 (from 4.1 percent in 2021 to 3.5 percent) bringing the average GDP growth since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic to only around half of the pre-pandemic trend. High global energy and fertilizer prices coupled with a weaker currency translated into accelerating inflation which rose from 12percent in 2021 to 27 percent in 2022, and further to over 50 percent by August 2023, threatening the welfare of households and worsening food insecurity and poverty
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  • 31
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2162
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Accommodation and Tourism Industry ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Commercial Sectors ; Domestic Private Financing ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Green Growth ; Industry ; Infrastructure ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Private Sector Investment ; Social Sectors
    Abstract: In March 2023, the Second Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA2) identified USD 411 billion worth of investments required for Ukraine's reconstruction. The World Bank Group's new report "Private Sector Opportunities for a Green and Resilient Reconstruction in Ukraine", developed in cooperation with Ukraine's government, assesses the potential for private financing to meet these needs under both a status quo scenario and a scenario with reforms and other sectoral interventions
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2185
    Keywords: Central Banks ; Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Risk Management ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Portfolio Management ; RAMP ; Reserve Advisory and Management Partnership ; Strategic Asset Allocation (SAA)
    Abstract: This survey report represents a collaborative effort between Reserve Advisory and Management Partnership (RAMP) and central banks worldwide to advance the understanding and practice of reserve management. The cooperation of all central banks involved is greatly appreciated, and we anticipate that the findings obtained from this survey will make a valuable contribution to the ongoing success and resilience of central bank reserve management
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Governance ; Climate Resilience ; Economic Diversification ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Sector and Social Assistance ; Health Costs ; Natural Capital ; Poverty Reduction ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Republic Of Congo ; Sustainable Growth
    Abstract: The Republic of Congo (RoC) CCDR is a new World Bank core diagnostic report that integrate climate change and development considerations. It is intended to help the country prioritize the most impactful actions that can boost adaptation and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while delivering on broader development goals. The CCDR builds on data and rigorous research and identify main pathways to reduce climate vulnerabilities and GHG emissions, including the costs and challenges as well as benefits and opportunities from doing so. The report highlights that RoC could reduce poverty in rural areas by 40% and in urban areas by 20% by 2050 by implementing more ambitious reforms to promote economic diversification and climate resilience. It also concludes that business as usual is not an option. Economic losses could reach up to 17% of GDP by 2050 if reforms to diversify the economy and attract more climate investments are not taken. Climate impacts could also increase total health costs from USD 92 million in 2010 to USD 260 million by 2050. The report identifies four priorities to promote sustainable growth in the country: (i) stronger and greener infrastructure and services in electricity, transport, water, and sanitation can deliver transformative results; (ii) More climate-ready education, health systems and social services can save lives and bring critical resources to the poorest; (iii) More investments in natural capital including climate smart agriculture and greater forest management along will help create jobs while reducing carbon emissions; (iv) better climate governance to leverage carbon markets. The forest contributes to USD 260 million in timber exports and store over 44 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions. Protecting and valorizing the forest is critical to turn the country's natural capital into wealth. The report emphasizes that the private sector has a critical role to play in mobilizing financing for an ambitious set of reforms and investments in the context of tight fiscal space. This will require raising awareness on risks and opportunities from climate change, and innovative solutions and financial sector reforms
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Policy ; Fiscal Spending ; Governance ; Government Revenue
    Abstract: Bulgaria has traditionally adhered to fiscal discipline and prudent fiscal policy since the introduction of its currency board arrangement in mid-1997. After a gradual decline in the 2000s, public debt has remained among the lowest in the European Union (EU), hovering in a narrow band between 17 and 29 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) for the last 10 years. The low level of public debt has been supported by relatively low fiscal deficits or even surpluses in some years. This has helped the fiscal system absorb recent shocks relatively unscathed and provided sufficient fiscal space to address emerging crises and limit the scarring on economic activity, the labor market, and incomes. This report provides fresh evidence on Bulgaria's fiscal landscape and some of the key issues that fiscal policy may need to address going forward. To start with, the report looks at opportunities to increase revenue collection with two special focuses - the value-added tax (VAT) compliance gap and health taxes (excises on tobacco and alcohol products). Social spending effectiveness in reducing headline poverty and child poverty in particular also requires urgent attention from policy makers. An updated fiscal incidence analysis shows that Bulgaria's fiscal system has a limited impact on overall poverty; neither is it effective in addressing child poverty, as it reduces it by just 0.3 percentage points
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Post-Pandemic ; Public Debt ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Tourism ; Travel-Dependent
    Abstract: This publication is the inaugural edition of the future publication series on Pacific Economic Update (PEU). It consists of two parts. Part A analyzes the recent economic developments in Pacific Islands. Based on these developments, the PI EU summarizes the outlook for the region's economies and risks to this outlook. Second, the PEU provides an in-depth examination of a public debt issues in the Pacific and proposes policy recommendations to address public debt related challenges. The PEU is intended for a broad set of audience, including regional forums, policy makers, business leaders, international donors and the community of analysts and professionals engaged in the economies of Pacific Island countries. In dealing with the challenges of rising inflation, tepid recovery from the pandemic and global slowdown, the PICs should strike a balance between supporting livelihoods and reducing future public debt risks. The need for fiscal support during the current environment of high inflation and tepid economic recovery is understandable as it provides the much needed relief for vulnerable households and businesses to navigate the crisis. Nonetheless, these support measures create significant fiscal burdens, and are unsustainable, particularly if the high energy and food prices persist longer than envisaged. Most PICs already face low capacity to finance unexpected shocks which would be further tested by a natural disaster event. Therefore, PICs should tread a delicate balance between fiscal support measures and achieving fiscal sustainability. Any forthcoming fiscal support should be well-targeted, time-bound, and deficit-neutral. Over the medium-term, fiscal efficiency gains and ongoing donor support is critical to finance key development challenges and climate adaptation. Revenue-based fiscal consolidation measures could include improving the efficiency of tax collections and eliminating tax exemptions. On the expenditure side, PICs have limited room to sharply cut spending given the expected modest growth and ongoing development needs. Therefore, it becomes imperative to improve the efficiency of public spending, to maximize social dividends for every dollar spent. Resulting savings from fiscal consolidation measures could help build sovereign wealth funds to provide added fiscal buffers during shocks and economic downturns. Due to high vulnerability to disasters and climate change, PICs will need to seek ongoing concessional financing for critical climate adaptation and development needs
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Climate Change Impact On Debt Growth ; Country Debt Capacity ; COVID-19 Pandemic Impact On Debt ; Debt Sustainability Framework ; Determining Debt Distress ; Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Economic Insecurity ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; IFC ; Inflation ; Low-Income Country Debt ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; MIGA ; World Bank Debt Data
    Abstract: This evaluation, requested by the Committee on Development Effectiveness of the Executive Board of the International Development Association (IDA), is intended to provide input and insight into the upcoming World Bank-International Monetary Fund (IMF) review of the Low-Income Country Debt Sustainability Framework (LICDSF) currently planned for fiscal year 2023. The sharp rise in debt stress among low-income countries and a changing global risk landscape leading up to and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic have pushed concerns with debt sustainability to the top of the global policy agenda. This evaluation assesses the World Bank's inputs into the LIC-DSF and how it uses LIC-DSF outputs to inform various corporate and country-level decisions. Main findings and recommendations include: (i) Expectations of the World Bank in taking the lead on long-term growth prospects should be clarified. (ii) Recently increased attention to debt data coverage should be sustained and extended; greater attention is needed to assess data quality. (iii) The DSA should be more directly and consistently used to inform priorities for the identification of fiscally oriented prior actions in development policy operations and SDFP performance and policy actions. (iv) The World Bank should continue to give increasing attention in the LIC-DSF to the long-term implications of climate change, in terms of both growth and fiscal requirements of adaptation and mitigation
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Federalism ; Fiscal Performance ; Implementation Gaps ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Resources ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Financial Management ; Revenue Sharing
    Abstract: The World Bank Nepal Fiscal Federalism Update aims to report annually on the progress of fiscal federalism in Nepal and identify implementation gaps. This first such update reviews the progress on fiscal federalism since the publication of the Federalism Capacity Needs Assessment (FCNA) in 2019
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Pandemic ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Spending
    Abstract: Cambodia's economic recovery solidified in 2022 with real growth accelerating to 5.2 percent. After shifting to "living with COVID-19" in late 2021, the economy is firmly on a path to recovery and has now returned to its pre-pandemic growth trajectory. Initially led by the strong performance of export-oriented manufacturing, growth drivers are rotating to the services and agriculture sectors. Meanwhile, the agriculture sector is benefitting from improved access to regional markets, thanks to newly ratified bi-lateral and regional free trade agreements. Weakening external demand is, however, starting to weigh on the country's economic recovery. Despite weakening goods export performance, the current account balance is improving, thanks to the rebound in the travel and tourism industry and remittances, while the oil price shock eased. The economic recovery and good revenue administration underpinned an across-the board improvement in domestic revenue collection. The authorities continued to provide cash transfers for poor and vulnerable households, although the worst of the pandemic is now behind us. In this regard, the Cambodian authorities have extended the COVID-19 cash transfer program, with an additional budget. To enhance the long-term resilience and competitiveness of the economy, efforts are needed to further promote export product diversification
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Policies ; Shocks
    Abstract: Real GDP expanded by 17.7 percent in 2022, with per capita incomes surpassing the pre-pandemic levels. On the supply side, accommodation, transport, and commerce explained 60 percent of growth. On the demand side, exports (mainly tourism) and private consumption accounted for growth. The rebound in economic activity in 2022 was accompanied by a reduction in poverty (0.8 percentage points), despite the spike in inflation. Headline inflation reached 7.9 percent (y/y) in December 2022 after inflationary pressures emerged in 2021, fueled by high international oil and food prices and global supply chain disruptions due to the war in Ukraine. Higher food prices and low agricultural production, driven by the five year long drought, intensified food insecurity
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Decntralization ; Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Investment ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The latest Taking Stock report shows that Vietnam's economic growth slowed from 8% in 2022 to 3.7% in the first half of 2023. It forecasts a moderate growth of 4.7% in 2023, gradually accelerating to 5.5% in 2024 and 6.0% in 2025. However, the economy faces external and domestic headwinds. Vietnam has ample fiscal space and a proactive fiscal policy supporting short-term demand, removing barriers to the implementation of public investment, and addressing infrastructure constraints can help the economy achieve these targets and promote long-term growth. The report's special chapter studies Vietnam's public investment management and how it can contribute to the goal of becoming a high income economy. To harness the power of public investment, the report recommends that Vietnam sustain its level of investment, improve the quality of the proposed project, and address deficiencies in public investment management and inter-governmental fiscal institutions
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Deficit ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Public and Municipal Finance ; SOE ; Unemployment
    Abstract: Eswatini's economy has been characterized by persistent low growth, high fiscal deficits, and unprofitable state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Without significant reform, the country is unlikely to achieve its socioeconomic aspirations, and poverty and unemployment are likely to remain high. These problems are exacerbated by the difficult external environment, with subdued global demand and volatile international prices. In this context, the government of Eswatini recognizes that the country needs a series of policy reforms to unleash the potential of the private sector. It also needs to improve the efficiency of SOEs in strategic sectors, which deliver services to many businesses and households. This report is divided into two parts. Part 1 discusses recent economic developments in the global and domestic economy and assesses Eswatini's short and medium-term prospects. Part 2 reviews the role that SOEs can play in the government's efforts to enhance economic performance. It assesses both their contribution to the economy and their limitations to suggest directions for reform
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2206
    Keywords: Digital Government Strategy ; Digitization Policy ; E-Governance Transition ; E-Government ; Electronic Registries ; European Commission ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Sustainable Digital Transformation
    Abstract: This report, which is funded by the EU under the Support to Public Sector Management Reform Project in BiH, presents an assessment of e-services and key enablers that underpin an efficient and user-centric digital government in the RS, including recommendations for further development. The assessment was conducted at the request of and in close collaboration with the RS Ministry of Scientific and Technological Development, Higher Education and Information Society (MNRVOID). The report is meant to inform the RS Government's future reform plans in the area of digitization
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  • 43
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 40504
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Adaptation to Climate Change ; Conflict and Development ; Disaster Risk Management ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fragility, Conflict and Violence ; Gap Analysis ; Gfdrr Portfolio ; Innovation ; Labor Markets ; World Bank Financing
    Abstract: This portfolio review, led by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery's (GFDRR) Disaster-FCV Nexus thematic area, aims to contribute to the GFDRR's overarching objective to help low- and middle-income countries understand and reduce their vulnerability to natural hazards and climate change. More specifically, the report aims to i) assess financing trends in World Bank (WBG) Disaster Risk Management (DRM) activities in Fragility, Conflict and Violence (FCV) countries over the fiscal year (FY) period 2012-2022, ii) understand key challenges for operational teams; identify and disseminate lessons and best practices, and iii) recommend ways to inform the GFDRR's work on the Disaster FCV Nexus and integrate the nexus into WBG operations. The primary audience for this portfolio review is WBG task teams and managers, but it may also interest current and possible new donors to the GFDRR
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Anti-Money Laundering ; Biodiversity ; Climate Change ; Climate Smart Agriculture ; Decarbonization ; E-Finance and E-Security ; Energy ; Energy+ ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Forest Ecosystems ; Green Growth Finance ; High-Income Country ; Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) ; Low-Carbon ; Net Zero ; Resilient Cities
    Abstract: This report explores how climate action, in line with Romania's goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2050, interacts with the country's growth and development path. It further suggests priority actions to reduce carbon emissions and build resilience, while supporting inclusive economic growth and poverty reduction. This is the first Climate Country and Development Report (CCDR) to cover a European Union member state and a high-income economy
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  • 45
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Equity and Development ; Female Economic Participation ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Governance ; Gender Disparity ; Gender Inequality ; Human Rights ; Institutional Barriers To Economic Empowerment ; Poverty Reduction ; Women and Girls Opportunity
    Abstract: This thematic note is part of a broader mixed-method study on gender inequalities in Madagascar, which intends to illustrate the key gender gaps in the country and shed light on the unique challenges that young Malagasy women face in their educational, professional, and family trajectories. Due to the persistence of financial, social, and institutional barriers, Malagasy women and girls encounter significant disadvantages across all dimensions of well-being and are unable to access opportunities in an equal manner with men and boys in the country. They are largely constrained in their ability to accumulate human capital in education and health, and to participate in economic opportunities; and they face severe limitations in agency and decision-making, particularly with respect to family formation. Women and girls also appear to be disproportionally affected by the impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, which further widen preexisting gender gaps and amplify vulnerability to poverty, violence, and discrimination. This thematic note provides in-depth insights into the status of women and girls' economic opportunities in Madagascar and proposes several strategic lines of action to enhance women's economic empowerment. This note is accompanied by the overview of all study findings and three thematic notes that present in-depth insights in the following key dimensions: education, health, and agency
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  • 46
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Education Equity ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Policies ; Private Sector Development ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Finance Management
    Abstract: Mauritius's economy has grown dramatically since the country's independence in 1968, and its rapid development offers a powerful example for developing economies worldwide. However, growth dynamism has waned in recent years. In addition, Mauritius was hard-hit by the COVID-19 pandemic and headwinds from Russia's war in Ukraine. Nevertheless, Mauritius has shown strong resilience, and with an economic recovery now well underway, the government has an opportunity to implement structural reforms to boost inclusive growth and sustainably regain high-income status. Reorienting the country's fiscal policy will be critical to this effort, to better align revenues and expenditures and to strengthen macroeconomic stability, which played a major role in Mauritius's economic success. Mauritius's transition to a knowledge-based economy will also require a robust competitive environment and sustained investment in human capital and innovation. This report identifies opportunities to enhance the impact of fiscal policy on macroeconomic stability and accelerate the transition toward greener, more resilient, and knowledge-based growth. The recommended reforms are designed to prioritize investment in productive assets while continuing to meet the social needs of an aging society in a cost-effective manner and strengthening resilience against climate change and other shocks. The report also identifies opportunities to leverage Mauritius's low-carbon growth potential in line with the focus of its most recent budgets
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Armed Conflict ; Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Economic Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Middle East ; Money and Banking ; Recession
    Abstract: Lebanon is hit by yet another crisis: the spillover effects of the conflict in the Middle East. While the country remains mired in political and institutional vacuum, and a crippling socioeconomic crisis for over four years, it has now been hit by another large shock: fear that the current conflict centered in Gaza could escalate further into Lebanon. By 2022 and early 2023, the economy was able to find a temporary bottom following years of sharp contraction, thanks to tourism and sizeable remittances. The temporary bottoming out helped the exchange rate to also stabilize temporarily. With the onset of the current conflict, Lebanon's economy is projected to be back in recession in 2023. This special focus assesses the impact of the current conflict and its spillovers on Lebanon's economy. Assuming that the current situation of containment of military confrontation to the southern borders persists, the economy is estimated to contract in 2023, primarily due to the shock to tourism spending
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Catastrophe Risk Financing Strategy ; Disaster Risk Insurance ; Disaster Risk Strategy ; Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Hazard Risk Management ; Insurance and Risk Mitigation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Disaster Preparedness ; Ukaid ; Urban Development
    Abstract: The objective of this report is to make recommendations for the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica (GoCD) for the formulation of a country-specific comprehensive disaster risk financing (DRF) strategy, based on the assessment of the legislative, financial management, fiscal, and insurance market environment in Dominica. The key activities of the present review are twofold: (a) to review the existing data that would inform the quantification of Dominica's contingent liabilities to natural hazards, as well as current practices in DRF and (b) to conduct a review of the existing public financial management (PFM) and insurance market with respect to DRF by reviewing laws, regulations, practices, existing protocols and systems, and macroeconomic conditions. This report is envisioned to be used as a planning tool for the potential development of a comprehensive DRF strategy that would equip the Ministry of Finance and Investment (MoF) with information and instruments to manage contingent liabilities posed by natural hazards. This report presents recommendations for a cost-effective DRF strategy in Dominica, drawing heavily on international experience, country-specific information, and similar conditions in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) with limited fiscal space. These complementary resources for a national DRF strategy are based on a preliminary fiscal risk analysis and a review of the current budget management of disasters in Dominica. The report benefits from the international experience of the World Bank and the approach outlined in its operational DRF and insurance framework, which has assisted several countries worldwide, including in the Caribbean (Belize, Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Jamaica, and so on) in the design and implementation of sovereign catastrophe risk financing strategies. This report tailors the approach to the institutional, social, and economic context of Dominica
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Expenditure Efficiency ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Inclusive Growth ; PER ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Expenditure
    Abstract: The Republic of Congo is the third-largest crude oil producer in Sub-Saharan Africa after Nigeria and Angola and is heavily dependent on oil production and oil exports. With a population of 5.5 million, Congo is a lower middle-income economy, endowed with abundant natural resources. The economy is heavily dependent on oil production, which accounted for 45 percent of GDP, 75 percent of government revenue, and 95 percent of exports of goods during the height of oil prices (2010-14). Besides crude oil, Congo is endowed with a wealth of mineral resources, including reserves of potash, phosphate, iron, and copper, which remain largely untapped. Much of the country is covered with tropical forests of softwoods and hardwoods (over 65 percent of the country's total surface area), a fragile ecosystem that removes carbon from the atmosphere and stores it, thus helping to slow global warming. This Public Finance Review (PFR) aims to support the implementation of the National Development Plan. This PFR provides analysis and advice to the government on two objectives: (i) to increase expenditure efficiency to support inclusive growth in a sustainable manner, and (ii) to boost mobilization of broad-based revenue to finance the development objectives envisaged in the new National Development Plan. This PFR is performed as part of the World Bank Group's broader efforts to support the enhancement of fiscal management in Congo. A public finance review rather than a public expenditure review was undertaken because revenue mobilization is critical for Congo to restore fiscal sustainability. The PFR complements recently completed and ongoing analytical pieces on Congo's fiscal management, including the Tax Administration Diagnostic Assessment Tool analysis (2019); Debt Management Performance Assessment (2021); the Republic of Congo Economic Updates (2019 and 2020); the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment (2023, and the Public Expenditure Review on Human Development (2022). This PFR, therefore, focuses on areas that are not addressed by these analytic reports
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Clean Energy ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Energy ; Energy Finance ; Energy Transition ; Environment ; Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Low-Income Countries ; Middle-Income Countries ; Paris Agreement ; Power Sector ; Renewable Energy
    Abstract: The Scaling Up to Phase Down approach is a contribution by the World Bank to the ongoing debate on how to accelerate energy transition in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs)-as called for by the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change-while simultaneously widening access to the reliable and affordable energy that underpins countries' development goals. The approach is intended to be a bridge between the challenges facing World Bank clients who are seeking to transition their power sectors and the development partners supporting their efforts. The energy transition is the process of shifting the global energy system away from the consumption of fossil fuels and toward low-carbon technologies in order to support international goals of limiting climate change. In the next decade, much of this transition will first occur in the power sector because solutions using newer technologies have the potential to become cost competitive with appropriate interventions, and also because the power sector is a powerful pathway for decarbonizing other sectors-most notably transport, buildings, and industry. The power sector is therefore the focus of this report. The power sector transition will advance energy efficiency and decarbonize the energy supply by expanding renewable energy and strengthening electricity networks in order to integrate renewable energy, demand-side management, and end-use electrification. In LICs and MICs, this transition aims to meet the rapidly growing demand for energy in a way that supports inclusive development consistent with net-zero global emissions by mid-century, and builds resilience to the changing climate. A just transition in the power sector should address the needs of workers and communities who are affected by the shift away from fossil fuels; provide modern energy access to millions of people; and protect vulnerable customers from unaffordable energy prices. For the first time, the World Bank has outlined a vision for how the international community can support LICs and MICs to overcome critical barriers that are paralyzing the power sector transition. Drawing on findings of the first set of Country Climate and Development Reports produced by the World Bank, and decades of engagement with energy sector development, this approach distills understanding of the unique challenges that LICs and MICs face in undertaking this transition at the scale and pace required to meet their development and climate needs. The approach may help both World Bank clients and development partners in preparing a roadmap to catalyze and sustain a virtuous cycle that unleashes urgently needed investment in power sector transition. Chapter 1 explains that the capital-intensive nature of clean energy investments, combined with the lack of access to affordable capital, have a disproportionate and distorting effect on the power sector transitions of LICs and MICs. Even where renewable energy has the potential to provide a more affordable energy supply and improve energy security and health, the up-front capital costs that must be borne leave LICs and MICs locked into using costly fossil fuels. Chapter 2 discusses additional barriers to the scaling up of clean energy and the concomitant phasing down of coal. The commitment of governments will be essential in order to foster the policies, regulations, and institutions needed to prepare a pipeline of projects that can attract private capital. This chapter argues that concessional finance is essential in order to overcome the barriers to investments of private capital at the necessary levels. Chapter 3 discusses how public and concessional support must be deployed with a disciplined approach in order to scale up clean energy and energy efficiency. Chapter 4 explains the need to phase down the use of unabated coal, and the instruments to do so in a manner that manages losses and protects the most vulnerable. Chapter 5 concludes the paper with a discussion of how larger and sustained volumes of concessional capital could be more effectively structured within country-based programmatic approaches and technology demonstration partnerships in order to scale up the financial resources and political momentum for transitioning the power sector
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Education Finance ; Education Reform and Management ; Education System ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Learning Losses ; Pandemic
    Abstract: Commodity windfalls and private consumption have sustained Indonesia's growth despite a difficult global environment, but signs of normalizing domestic demand are emerging. Inflation is easing at a faster pace than markets anticipated. Indonesia's external vulnerabilities remain moderate. The fiscal stance has normalized reflecting faster fiscal consolidation, anchored by a broad-based rise in revenues and prudent public spending. Softening inflation and resilient capital flows have led Bank Indonesia (BI) to ease its pace of monetary tightening. The outlook remains stable as the economy normalizes following the post-pandemic recovery. While this is a robust outcome given levels of global uncertainty, Indonesia still faces declining productivity growth like other emerging market economies. Policy makers are encouraged to build on recent reforms and adopt further market-friendly policies and reduce constraints to competition to accelerate productivity growth. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has put tremendous efforts into mitigating the learning disruption caused by COVID-19. This study provides new evidence of learning loss in math and language, comparing data on grade 4 student learning before and after the COVID-19 pandemic-induced school closures across Indonesia. In line with international literature on COVID-19 - induced learning losses, students' future earnings and Indonesia's future productivity will be negatively affected if no action is taken. This study highlights the urgency of addressing learning loss by stimulating political commitment for learning recovery and prompting deliberate actions, with adequate resources to complete them
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Basic Education Financing ; Education ; Education Sector Strategy and Lending ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Policies ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Funding ; Public Spending ; Zanzibar
    Abstract: Since 2015, because of healthy economic growth and a strong commitment to strengthening human capital, Zanzibar has made significant progress in the provision of good quality basic education services. Government spending has risen and has supported ambitious plans to provide inclusive and equitable access to quality education and skills training. Since 2015, sector targets for increasing access to public services were largely met in education, and in some instances surpassed. Yet despite these significant successes, the basic education sector continues to face challenges in providing good-quality services and reaching the marginalized