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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Madagascar urbanization review
    Keywords: Verstädterung ; Stadtentwicklung ; Stadtplanung ; Politische Planung ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; City Development Strategies ; Environment ; Government Capacity ; Integrated Approach ; Sustainable Urban Growth ; Urban Development ; Urban Policies ; Urbanization ; Madagaskar
    Abstract: The Madagascar Urbanization Review aims to: - Contribute to the 2019 National Policy for Urban Development (Politique National de Developpement Urbain), the main policy document outlining the priorities for cities in Madagascar. - Serve as a diagnostic tool to identify the key barriers to sustainable and equitable urban growth in the country - Offer a set of recommended investment priorities and their sequencing, to support governments in making informed decisions on the future development of cities. - Promote an integrated approach to urban development and improve government capacity. - Promote an integrated approach to urban development and improve government capacity. - Help city leaders and national policy makers to: i. Think strategically about the opportunities offered by urbanization; ii. Address key bottlenecks that are holding back the potential benefits of urbanization; iii. Develop plans to address cities' most pressing issues; and iv. Build consensus between the national and local levels to drive the urban policy agenda
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy Study
    Keywords: Anchoring and Mooring ; Energy ; Energy Resources Development ; Energy Yield ; Environment ; Environment and Energy Efficiency ; Floating Solar Photovoltaics ; FSPV Ecosystem ; HSE ; Inverter ; Power Plants
    Abstract: This report builds a compelling case for India to look beyond land and institute an ecosystem that supports the installation and operationalization of floating solar photovoltaics (FSPV) power plants. Since these plants are installed on the underutilized surfaces of large water bodies, no land needs to be diverted from other uses. The installation of FSPVs also spurs job creation and catalyzes the development of a domestic value chain as some of the components, such as floaters, need to bemanufactured close to installation sites. They also provide a range of other benefits as they generate relatively more power than ground-mounted solar plants (due to the cooling effect of water) and better utilize shared infrastructure such as transmission systems, wherever available
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Damages ; Earthquake ; Environment ; Grade Methodology ; Herat Province ; Natural Disasters
    Abstract: Following the Herat province (Western Afghanistan) earthquake sequence of October 7 to 15, 2023, the World Bank carried out a remote desk-based assessment of the physical damages using the Global RApid post-disaster Damage Estimation (GRADE) methodology. The objective of the assessment is to develop a model-based estimate of the direct physical (economic) damages to residential buildings (houses), non-residential buildings (e.g., education, health, worship, commercial, industrial assets) and infrastructure (e.g., transport, power, water, telecommunications), and to evaluate the spatial distribution of damages in order to support the development of a roadmap for recovery and reconstruction. This report summarizes the key findings of the assessment
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Cyclonic Storm ; Environment ; Grade Methodology ; Natural Disasters ; Rakhine State ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Extremely severe cyclonic storm Mocha made landfall as a Category 4-equivalent cyclone in the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale on Sunday May 14, 2023, at 07:07 UTC (14:07 local time) around Sittwe city, the capital of Rakhine State, Myanmar. Given the fragile and conflict-affected situation with limited access in Myanmar, the World Bank has adopted the Global RApid post-disaster Damage Estimation (GRADE) methodology to estimate damages arising from Cyclone Mocha. GRADE is a remote, desktop analysis to estimate damage to capital stock. This report summarizes the results of the GRADE conducted to assess damages following the impact of Extremely severe cyclonic storm Mocha in Myanmar during May 2023
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Food Security ; Fragile Recovery ; Pollitical Challenges ; Water Resources ; Water Security
    Abstract: Somalia has remained on a strong economic reform path despite the various global and exogenous shocks that have continued to buffet the economy. Recurrent climate-related shocks, such as cycles of droughts, floods, locusts' infestation, higher international commodity prices, as well as increased insecurity and conflict, have interrupted the country's growth trajectory. However, this has not deterred the country's commitment to continue advancing reforms to strengthen key economic institutions and promote macroeconomic stability and recovery. As a result, Somalia has continued to make progress toward meeting the conditions for achieving the heavily indebted poor country (HIPC) completion point in December 2023. Within the framework of resilience, the eighth edition of the World Bank's Somalia economic update series provides an in-depth analysis of recent economic developments and growth outlook and makes a case for integrating climate change with Somalia's growth agenda. This report highlights macroeconomic policies and reforms that promote inclusive growth and institutional building including enhancing fiscal space for development priorities while strengthening expenditure controls; strengthening financial integrity; integrating Somalia into the global financial system; and improving debt management
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Environment ; IDA19 ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Rating System ; Resilience ; RRS
    Abstract: In response to the growing recognition that measuring inputs, such as climate finance, is not enough to capture the impacts of investments, the World Bank Group developed the Resilience Rating System (RRS). Developed over a two-year, multi-sectoral consultative process through close collaboration with internal and external actors, the RRS methodology aims to guide investment decisions and improve climate resilience in project design and outcomes. The methodology report is publicly available. The RRS evaluates and rates investment projects from C to A+, based on their resilience attributes in two complementary dimensions. The resilience of rating considers a project's design, reflecting the confidence that it will achieve its expected objectives and maximize development benefits in the face of climate and disaster risks. The resilience through rating considers a project's outcomes and reflects its contribution to improving climate resilience in the broader community, sector and systems, and to driving transformational adaptation. Combining the two dimension ratings provides an overall project rating, from CC to A+A+
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Environment ; Environmental Protection ; Policies ; Pollution ; Solid Waste ; Waste Management ; Water Supply and Sanitation
    Abstract: Today the world faces unprecedented challenges in waste management while the state of the municipal waste management sector globally is a matter of concern. To reverse current trends related to waste generation, pollution, and resource management, active collaboration between the various waste actors including governments, civil society, and the private sector will be required along with sustained behavior change. This compendium is designed to help decision-makers - including policy makers, policy professionals, and practitioners-investigate, understand, and respond to waste management challenges in their communities through interventions considering a behavioral science lens. The document contains short case studies that uncover and highlight where and what behavioral tools were applied along three main challenges, that is, getting people to generate less waste, getting people to use waste services, and getting people to be more sustainable with their waste
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Decarbonization ; Energy ; Energy Transition ; Environment ; Gas Security ; Renewable Energy ; Urban Development
    Abstract: Since February 2022, geopolitical events have made clear Europe's need to diversify its energy sources and avoid excessive dependence on fossil fuel imports. The drop in Russian natural gas flows to Europe in 2022 marked the single largest supply shock in the history of global gas markets. It caused a significant increase in prices of electricity and heating services for consumers across the continent. With Europe's high reliance on imported natural gas, reestablishing energy security is a paramount objective. But how security can be achieved is subject to many uncertainties. Although Central Asia is not as dependent on gas imports as other parts of the World Bank's Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region, it has not been spared an energy crisis. Chronic underinvestment and the harshest winter conditions in decades resulted in significant blackouts in power and heating during the winter of 2022/23. -- This report analyzes the implications of the 2022/2023 energy crises over the short and long term, observing possible energy scenarios through 2060 in the Bank's ECA region and examining three key questions: -- What is the state of energy security in ECA in the wake of recent geopolitical events? -- What will it take to decarbonize the ECA energy system? -- What are the main uncertainties?
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Artisanal Coastal Fleet ; Blue Cabotage ; Blue Economy ; Blue Tourism ; Coastal and Marine Environment ; Environment ; Investment Projects ; STP
    Abstract: The Democratic Republic of Sao Tome e Principe (STP) is the smallest independent island state in Africa, having gained independence in 1975, following the Seychelles. STP has a predominantly young population. However, as an island micro-state, the country faces many development problems specific to islands and small countries, such as weak governance capacity, the inability to provide basic services to the population, and a lack of adequate infrastructure (ports, electricity, airports). Additionally, high production and distribution costs of goods and services, including food products, exacerbate the poverty level of the population. The virtually nonexistent corporate structure and undiversified, highly dependent economy make the country vulnerable to exogenous shocks. To address these challenges, STP developed and adopted a Transition Strategy for the Blue Economy in December 2019. This strategy aims to establish the coherence of public policies linked to oceanic resources with the policies of other sectors, such as fisheries and aquaculture, tourism, and energy. The purpose of this paper is to consolidate the analysis of the three investment projects prioritized for inclusion in the National Investment Plan for the Blue Economy. While the report does not imply endorsement of these projects by the World Bank and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), its primary objective is to illuminate the drivers of cost and benefit associated with the priorities already identified by the government of Sao Tome e Principe
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Finance ; Inlcusive Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Resilience
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) examines Liberia's development trajectory through the lens of the country's vulnerability to climate change. It identifies Liberia's development risks and opportunities, models various scenarios of climate impact and intervention, and proposes ways to strengthen resilience and finance climate actions that support Liberia's development aspirations of inclusive growth and poverty reduction
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: Energy ; Energy Efficiency ; Energy Production and Transportation ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Human Development and Gender ; Private Sector Development
    Abstract: In December 2021, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) published Cambodia's Long-Term Strategy for Carbon Neutrality (LTS4CN), which outlines the country's vision in achieving a carbon-neutral economy by 2050. As part of the long-term strategies to achieve net-zero emissions, the RGC set targets for decarbonizing the transportation sector through a combination of measures, including electrifying 70 percent of motorcycles, and 40 percent of cars and urban buses by 2050. It also aims to have 30 percent of mode share by public transport in cities by 2050
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: Demographics and Aging ; Economic Development ; Economic Growth and Planning ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Human Development and Gender ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Rural Development ; Rural Development Strategy and Policy ; Urban and Rural Development ; Urban Development ; Urban Economic Development
    Abstract: This report begins with an Executive Summary, which introduces the territorial development approach and the rationale for applying it in Lesotho's development context before going on to summarize key takeaways and recommendations. It is followed by four chapters: chapter 1, Introduction, lays out the country context, presenting in brief Lesotho's economic and demographic situation, population projections, governmental structure, and poverty profile and the government's goals. Chapter 2, territorial development framework and analysis in Lesotho, discusses the territorial development approach, its objectives, and the challenges it aims to address before presenting a customized 2 by 2 territorial framework for Lesotho and explaining how it can be applied. Chapter 3, analyzing Lesotho's Challenges through a Territorial Lens, lays out a spatial analysis centering on four development challenges: economic opportunities, internal connectivity and regional integration, access to basic services, and climate preparedness. To highlight the challenges, the chapter includes 4D heat maps linked to density, distance, disparity, and disaster risk. It also summaries case studies and real-life applications of the territorial development approach in Lesotho. Full case studies are in an annex. Chapter 4, recommendations, covers guiding principles and recommendations based on the territorial development approach and analysis
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: CHVA ; Climate and Health ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Climate Change and Health ; Climate Change Impacts ; Environment ; Health Risks ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Vulnerability
    Abstract: The objective of this Climate and Health Vulnerability Assessment (CHVA) is to assist decision-makers in Colombia with planning effective adaptation measures to deal with climate-related health risks. This assessment includes sub-national considerations for health-related climate action (see Annex A for the methodology). Sub-national considerations are given for Colombia's 32 departments (see Figure 1). It also incorporates data from a Climate and Health Economic Valuation conducted by the World Bank to estimate of the potential economic costs of health impacts arising from projected changes in temperature and precipitation (see Annex B for the methodology). The findings from this CHVA are organized under four sections. Section I characterizes the climatology in Colombia, highlighting observed and projected climate exposures relevant to health. Section II describes key climate-related risks to health, including nutrition and food security, vector-borne diseases (VDBs), water-borne diseases, increasing temperatures, air quality, and zoonotic diseases. Section III analyzes the adaptive capacity and readiness of Colombia's health system to prevent and manage climate-related health risks. Recommendations are discussed in Section IV
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Disaster Management ; Earth Observation ; Environment ; ICT Applications ; ICT Data and Statistics ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Natural Disasters ; Natural Hazards ; World Settlement Footprint (WSF)
    Abstract: Earth observation is a crucial source of accurate and up-to-date information of Earth's natural and manmade environments that are critical when planning for, responding to, and mitigating the effects of natural hazards. Satellites that regularly collect images of the entire globe combined--with machine learning algorithms to process them more efficiently--have the potential to provide timely, standardized, verifiable, and scalable information. This report focuses on the use of Earth observation to identify built-up areas exposed to natural hazards. It describes the World Settlement Footprint (WSF) suite of derived datasets, developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA), the Google Earth Engine team, and the World Bank. These gridded datasets capture the extent of built-up areas from 1985-2015 and again for 2019, estimated building heights, impervious surfaces, and estimated population. Earth observation derived information is particularly useful for standardized and recurring World Bank operations. The report looks at several World Bank operations, and the key insights provided through analysis incorporating the various WSF suite products
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; CPGA ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Preparedness ; Natural Disasters ; Primary Response ; Risk ; Social and Livelihood Support ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Crisis preparedness is cral to preventing shocks from becoming crises. Investments in ex ante preparedness are especially relevant in countries like Nepal that face high levels of exposure and vulnerability to a range of risks. In seeking to identify opportunities to strengthen the Government of Nepal's (GoN's) capacity to prepare for crisis events in an effective and timely manner, this Technical Annex presents findings from the application of the Crisis Preparedness Gap Analysis (CPGA) diagnostic in the country. It provides details on findings and entry points across the five componnts of crisis preparedness. For a summary, please refer to the accompanying CPGA Nepal Briefing Note. Following a brief description of the CPGA methodology, the Technical Annex presents a summary of findings from each CPGA component alongside identification of entry points and opportunities to strengthen crisis preparedness in the country. To provide a holistic assessment of preparedness, the CPGA focuses on five core components of crisis preparedness. These are (i) Legal and Institutional Foundations, (ii) Understanding and Monitoring Risks, (iii) FinancialPreparedness, (iv) Primary Response, and (v) Social and Livelihood Support
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Law ; Gender Based Violence ; Gender Equality ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Nonextractive Sectors ; Resilience
    Abstract: Papua New Guinea has abundant resources in the form of oil and mineral wealth. But a complex set of factors, including systemic gender inequality, underinvestment in non-extractive sectors, and fragility compounded by vulnerability to disasters caused by natural hazards act as barriers to sustainable and inclusive growth of the country. This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) report assesses the relevance and effectiveness of World Bank Group support to Papua New Guinea between fiscal year FY08 and FY23. It assesses the Bank Group's development effectiveness in addressing the above three core themes, namely: (i) lack of investment in Papua New Guinea's non-extractive sectors and their poor performance, (ii) the economic exclusion of women and gender-based violence (GBV) issues associated with it, and (iii) unmitigated risks of disaster from natural hazards, and violence, and conflict. The report answers three specific questions. The first explores the extent to which the Bank Group adapted its engagement in line with key constraints, including in relation to development partners, changes in country context, and lessons from experience. The second focuses on the results of Bank Group support and explanatory factors for results under each them, answered by applying a gender lens where relevant. The third question explores the extent to which the Bank Group successfully identified and addressed conflict, violence, and disaster from natural hazards risks. The report offers key lessons to inform the World Bank Group's future engagement with the country: (i) Data gaps need to be addressed to inform sound policy making and effective programming in Papua New Guinea. (ii) Declining governance quality and increasing bilateral aid will require the World Bank to reassess how it supports key policy reforms to achieve development impact, including through using DPOs. (iii) The Bank Group could elevate its impact on gender equality and GBV by shifting from a project-centric approach to a strategic country engagement approach. (iv) The negative effects that compound and interrelated risks pose to achieving development aims need to be addressed more comprehensively
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Ecosystem Restoration ; Environment ; Environmental Protection ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financing Needs ; Nature Loss ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Private Sector Investment
    Abstract: Ecosystem restoration is critical to the global ambition of halting and reversing nature loss. Tremendous efforts have been deployed globally to conserve the remaining rainforests, grasslands, rivers and lakes, reefs and mangroves, and other ecosystems that are critical for safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem services that humanity depends on. However, the extent of environmental degradation is such that recovering the productivity of ecosystems where it has been lost is equally important - for nature, communities, and economic sectors. While restoration is often viewed as the purview of the public sector, this report demonstrates opportunities for private sector investment. It aims to shift the perception that restoration finance is limited to grant funding from domestic and international public sources only. Drawing on case studies, it highlights the investment drivers and entry points for private finance in restoration projects. The financing models presented also point to opportunities for replication and scaling. This report is a product of the Finance Task Force of the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, an initiative led by the United Nations Environment Program and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The United Nations Decade aims to drive the restoration of one billion hectares of degraded land between now and 2030. The role of the Finance Task Force, chaired by The World Bank, is to catalyze action that can contribute to unlocking the capital needed to meet the United Nations Decade's goals
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Carbon Emissions ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Digitalization ; Energy Footprint ; Environment ; GHG ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; ICT Sector ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: Digitalization is increasing rapidly worldwide, requiring more energy, and resulting in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to International Telecommunication Union (ITU) two thirds of the world's population are now online. Estimates of the internet and communication technology (ICT) sector's share of global carbon emissions vary across the literature ranging from 1.5 to 4 percent. Based on the data and estimates in this report at least 1.7 percent of global emissions stem from the ICT sector. Meanwhile, one-third of the world's population, or 2.6 billion people, remain unconnected to the internet. The large majority, about 94 percent, live in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), and less than 20 percent of LMICs have modern data infrastructure, such as co-location data centers and access to cloud computing. Connecting people in these countries will require more infrastructure and devices, which will further increase demand for scarce energy resources and drive emissions even higher if targeted interventions are not implemented. The objective of this report is two-fold. First, the report breaks down the energy and emissions profile of the sector and assesses the 30 highest emitting countries for telecommunications while providing global estimates for other ICT sector segments. The report uses a key framework for categorizing energy use and emissions, the greenhouse gas protocol corporate standard. Second, the report addresses the policy and regulatory implications inferred from this data and the examination of these issues through several country case studies
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Environment ; Mena ; Natural Disasters ; Risk Management
    Abstract: The Algeria Disaster Risk Management Diagnostic was developed as part of World Bank technical assistance to the Algerian government. The diagnostic offers a concise overview of the country's disaster risk profile, delves into the macroeconomic implications of disasters, outlines Algeria's advancements in disaster risk management (DRM), and highlights ongoing challenges within the DRM sector. This report aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of Algeria's DRM sector and identify key priority areas to enhance the country's resilience. This diagnostic was developed through a robust partnership between the World Bank and the National Delegation for Major Risks (DNRM) under the Algerian Ministry of Interior, Local Authorities and Territorial Development (MICLAT) from 2021 to 2023. It represents the culmination of an extensive review of over 500 documents, a comprehensive multi-stakeholder consultation workshop conducted in July 2021, and bilateral interviews held between March and October 2021 with the DNRM and all DRM stakeholders in Algeria. An initial version was completed in November 2021, which was further refined in 2022 and 2023 based on feedback received from Algerian counterparts through additional discussions, email correspondences, and recommendations from World Bank experts
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Business Environment ; Climate Adaptation ; Environment ; Flood Risks ; Natural Disasters ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Resilience
    Abstract: Building resilience to natural disasters is imperative for sustainable private sector development and growth in Malaysia. Floods have been Malaysia's most frequent natural disaster, accounting for 85 percent of all natural disasters since 2000. This report looks holistically at the challenges of adaptation to climate change for businesses, exploring the complementarity among the public sector, the financial sector, and the private sector efforts in managing flood risks. It does so by using a range of complementary analyses that bring together the private sector perspective drawn from a firm-level survey, the financial sector perspective based on a survey of financial institutions (both banks and insurers and takaful operators), along with macro-modelling estimates of the aggregate impacts of future floods. The report concludes with a roadmap for policy action to strengthen private sector resilience and enhance the management of flood risks for businesses, zooming in on policies for the financial sector
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  • 21
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Climate Change Impacts ; Conflict and Development ; Environment ; Vuknerability Clusters ; West Africa
    Abstract: This report advances usable knowledge on how climate change and conflict interact in the region. Its findings contribute to a growing body of research examining the links between climate change and conflict outcomes. Its objective is twofold: first, to strengthen the evidence base on the relationship between climate change and socio-institutional fragility, violence, and conflict in West Africa; and second, to develop operationally relevant vulnerability data to enable clustering of locations with similar sources of vulnerability (in terms of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity) to climate and conflict risks. In doing so, the report breaks substantial new ground. It explicitly represents the spatial distribution of climate-related conflict vulnerability and its association with a range of biophysical, social, and economic factors. It identifies the associations between different climate drivers and conflict outcomes and develops a predictive model based on machine learning to assess the extent to which climate-related variables can predict conflict outcomes. It also uses a set of in-depth case studies to examine the potential mechanisms that may mediate the climate change and conflict relationship. Finally, the report highlights why and how specific locations are vulnerable to climate and conflict risks, rather than mapping levels of climate change and conflict vulnerability across space as most existing vulnerability indices typically do. In each of these ways, the report provides useful information to design, evaluate, and assess the operational effectiveness of projects that address climate and conflict-related vulnerability
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agriculture Study
    Keywords: Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impacts ; Digital Climate Information ; Environment ; Food Systems ; Resilience ; West Africa
    Abstract: By advancing knowledge on digital climate information and agriculture advisory services ('agromet services') in support of West Africa's farmers, this report has two objectives. First, it aims to identify priority actions for promoting digital agromet services under the West Africa Food System Resilience Program (FSRP) with a focus on Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. Second, the report strives to provide insights on the required ingredients for creating viable agromet delivery models to all stakeholders involved in the production and dissemination of weather and climate information. These stakeholders include representatives from the Ministries of Agriculture (MOAs), National Meteorological Services (NMSs), Disaster Risk Management (DRM) specialists, interested parties from the private sector and civil society, and development practitioners. This report's findings were obtained through i) a benchmarking analysis of ten case studies examining existing delivery mechanisms of digital agromet services, and ii) semi-structured interviews with public institutions complemented by desk research. Case study results indicate that providers of agromet services should bundle different service types and diversify revenue streams to ensure that their offerings are impactful and viable. The report also finds that increasing levels of trust between the public and the private sector would facilitate the creation of innovative climate information delivery models based on public-private engagement (PPE). Other key recommendations to enhance agromet services include continuing to invest in the technical and human capacity of the region's NMSs, increasing collaboration between NMSs and agricultural extension services, and establishing clear regulatory frameworks on digitalization and open data
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Environment ; Natural Resource Management ; Risk and Resilience
    Abstract: This supplementary guidance note is based on the report, Defueling Conflict: Environment and Natural Resource Management as a Pathway to Peace (2022), which was funded by the State and Peacebuilding Fund. This document is intended to encapsulate the key ideas to support Risk and Resilience Assessment (RRA) teams to collect knowledge on and deepen and nuance the treatment of the environment and natural resources in RRAs. Additional examples and analyses are available in the original report
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Green Infrastructure ; Hydro Power ; Landscape Restoration ; Sustainable Land Management ; Vakhsh River ; Water
    Abstract: This report outlines the main results of a study conducted to assess the potential role of landscape restoration/nature-based solutions/green infrastructure in the Vakhsh River Basin, Tajikistan, to reduce the impacts of soil erosion on the hydropower cascade, increase agricultural productivity, improve livelihoods, and inform about investment opportunities. This assessment finds sediment sources and loadings in the Vakhsh River Basin, considers the potential correlation between soil erosion and sedimentation in hydropower reservoirs, proposes possible and cost-effective landscape restoration measures, and estimates the value of ecosystem services provided. The study also presents recommendations for implementing the proposed interventions for the Vakhsh River Basin and for scaling up to other degraded areas throughout the country
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Evaluation
    Keywords: Access To Basic Services ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impacts ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Governance Indicators ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Abstract: Between 1993 and 2013, Mozambique became one of the fastest-growing economies in Sub-Saharan Africa boosting incomes and living standards. Political and macroeconomic stability provided the foundation for robust growth led by a rebounding agricultural sector and significant donor support. Growth, however, decelerated beginning in 2016 in the face of low commodity prices, a hidden debt crisis, and natural disasters. In FY18, Mozambique was formally classified as a fragile country. The Covid-19 pandemic further eroded growth. In light of the country's evolving context, this Country Program Evaluation (CPE) reviews the World Bank Group's engagement in Mozambique over the period FY08 into FY21. The CPE assesses the extent to which the Bank Group's support was relevant to Mozambique's main development challenges and drivers of fragility as well as how Bank Group support evolved and adapted over time. The evaluation delves into four themes that are relevant to Mozambique's pursuit of the Bank Group's Twin Goals of Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity: (i) low agricultural productivity; (ii) unequal access to basic services; (iii) weak institutions and governance; and (iv) vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters. The evaluation presents findings from each of the four themes covered and distills lessons from Bank Group experience in Mozambique to inform future strategies and engagements
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; COVID-19 ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Systems ; Transition ; Vulnerabilities
    Abstract: This report provides an assessment of the stability of the financial systems of selected Pacific Island Countries (PICs) in the context of COVID-19 and emerging risks. The report brings together an analysis of information provided by the central banks of the PICs covered by this study over the last two years. The purpose of the study is to assess the financial stability and vulnerabilities and to provide technical guidance to the PIC authorities to assist in their financial sector policy response. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the financial systems of the PICs. Chapter 2 presents an analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on the financial systems of the PCIs and the policy responses to the pandemic. Chapter 3 looks at the challenges of transitioning from the pandemic to normal policy settings. Chapter 4 provides a set of bespoke policy recommendations with the aim of enhancing the ability to deal with financial sector risks and vulnerabilities. Finally, Chapter 5 puts forward recommendations for the assessment of climate and environmental related risks on the PICs. The report finds that the pandemic has negatively impacted economic growth in the PICs, challenging financial stability. Due to various relief measures adopted by governments in the region, and the lagged economic impact of the pandemic, the PICs' financial sectors do not yet fully reflect the risks to bank profitability and asset quality, which could materialize over 2022-23. Response and
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: ALDFG ; Environment ; Fishing Gear ; Marine Plastic Pollution ; Persistent Organic Pollutants ; Plastic Waste ; Pollution Management and Control
    Abstract: In recent years, marine plastic pollution has emerged as a significant global issue. At the global level, it is estimated that 80 percent of all plastic pollution found in the marine environment originates from land-based sources and the remaining 20 percent from marine sources. Abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG), colloquially known as ghost gear, contribute significantly to plastic pollution in the ocean. Estimates of the contribution to ALDFG vary based on model and estimation techniques employed, and gear loss and impacts also vary by gear type. The physical impacts of ALDFG are well-documented and not only include entanglement and capture but also ingestion. Abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear, as with other marine plastic pollution, can travel long distances via winds and ocean currents before sinking, accumulating along shorelines, or converging in large plastic patches in the oceans, such as the one in the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem (BoBLME). The problem of ALDFG is global, though it varies in nature from location to location and is dependent on various factors. The lack of comprehensive monitoring makes it difficult to determine the extent of plastic pollution from fishing vessels, namely fishing gear. The first step requires the development of measurement systems and national baseline assessments to identify gaps and interventions. These interventions may take various forms, from enabling the substitutability of gear materials, to valorizing waste materials and providing better waste management systems to incentivize behavioral change. While such interventions present significant challenges, there is a critical need to inform policy development and provide institutional and investment recommendations to minimize the stream of plastic waste from fishing and fishing-related activities
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Blue Economy ; Ecosystems and Natural Habitats ; Environment ; Knowledge Gaps ; Marine and Coastal Resources ; Policies ; Spatial Planning
    Abstract: Cambodia's coastlines make up a vital component of Cambodia's national economy, contributing to the country's growth, employment, and food security. In addition, Cambodia's coastal areas provide critical ecosystem services (ES) that provide natural protection to coastal communities against adverse impacts of climate change. The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) is increasingly recognizing this importance and taking steps to harness the potential of the Blue Economy to ensure the sustainable use of marine and coastal resources for economic growth, improved livelihoods, andjobs, while preserving the health of the ocean ecosystem. This report is intended to provide an analysis of, and subsequent recommendations for, Cambodia's sustainable Blue Economy development. Here we focus on three fundamental areas related to marine policy, Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and coastal livelihoods including blue growth sectors. We consolidate existing knowledge and data related to Cambodia's marine and coastal resources and provide recommendations to support the development of a sustainable Blue Economy for Cambodia which can serve as an input for the RGC in the development of its own national blue economy plan or strategy
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Circular Economy ; Construction ; Environment ; Environmental Economics and Policies ; Fisheries ; Packaging ; Plastic Pollution
    Abstract: The circular economy has become a priority in recent decades as policy makers seek to facilitate a transition from linear production systems to closed systems that reuse resources, reduce energy consumption and avoid the exploitation of nonrenewable resources. This regional gap analysis reveals several important trends. Key among them is a rapid rate of increase. Plastic consumption in the WACA region was estimated at 7.9 million tons in 2021; at current growth rates, this could increase to 12 million tons by 2026. The WACA region relies heavily on imported plastic-related goods from sources outside the region, such as Asia. Nigeria was found to be both the largest producer of plastic products and the biggest importer of plastic parts and products, in addition to being the WACA region's only producer of virgin plastic resin. Other notable major producers of plastics in the WACA region include Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire. The plastic landscape investigation included a spatial analysis of plastic waste generation across the WACA region. This revealed varying rates of national annual plastic generation. The spatial analysis work also led to the identification of 71 plastic waste generation hotspots across the WACA region, with a concentration in Nigeria. The plastic market analysis revealed that the three industry sectors (construction, plastic packaging, and fisheries) represented 78 percent of total plastic consumption in 2021. By 2026, the three sectors' business-as-usual plastic consumption is expected to reach 9.5 million tons, with per capita plastic waste growing from 12.5 kilograms (kg) to 17.3 kg. The largest plastics consumer of the three sectors is plastic packaging, followed by construction. The plastic packaging sector could focus on new, circular economy business models over the next five years. In this sector, plastic waste recovery and avoidance/reuse/recycling of between 2.2 and 4 million tons of plastic in a "pragmatic" 1 circular scenario would reduce CO 2 emissions between 41 and 53 percent (3.6-6.7 million tons CO 2 emissions). In the construction industry, in a pragmatic circular scenario plastic avoidance would reduce CO 2 emissions between 0.1 and 0.3 million tons, and plastic waste recovery would reduce CO 2 emissions between 0.1 and 0.2 million tons. Finally, in the fisheries sector, plastic avoidance under the pragmatic circular scenario would reduce CO 2 emissions between 0.03 and 0.05 million tons, and plastic waste recovery would reduce CO 2 emissions between 0.04 and 0.07 million tons. New circular business models can motivate these three sectors to reuse and extend the life span of plastic materials
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Circular Economy ; Environment ; Environmental Disasters and Degradation ; Marine Environment ; Plastic Pollutine
    Abstract: Plastic pollution is a worldwide environmental challenge. In coastal West Africa, about 80 percent of plastic waste is mismanaged, posing escalating challenges to people, the economy, and the coastal and marine environment. This Synthesis Paper was prepared to inform decision-makers from the region about the challenges of plastic pollution and to convey the urgent need for action
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Climate Change ; Decarbonization ; Development ; Environment ; Resilience
    Abstract: The Azerbaijan Country Climate and Development Report assesses how the country can reduce its vulnerability to climate shocks and the risks emerging from the global low-carbon transition while protecting the living standards of its people and reaping opportunities of a new climate economy. It argues that regardless of the pace of global mitigation efforts, decarbonization is in Azerbaijan's economic self-interest. It highlights that the country faces considerable risks from future physical climate impacts potentially disrupting its sectors like agriculture and others. Finally, the report shows that climate action is affordable if supported by the right set of policies - some of which are already envisaged by the country's 2022-2026 Socio-economic Development Strategy but not yet implemented like a phase-out of fossil fuels subsidies - aimed at catalyzing private sector investment in decarbonization and resilience."
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Air Pollution ; Air Quality and Clean Air ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Communities and Human Settlements ; Environment ; GHG ; Low-Carbon ; Natural Disasters ; Resilience ; Sustainable Cities
    Abstract: Sierra Leone is highly vulnerable to natural hazards whose impacts are exacerbated by unplanned rapid urbanization. The main victims of climate change risks and impacts in urban Sierra Leone are the urban poor who also bear the brunt of multiple crises such as Ebola and Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19). In response to these impacts, local councils are front and center in implementing climate action activities in Sierra Leone. Therefore, this report situates local councils at the center of climate action. By focusing at the urban and community level, it has three objectives: (i) Identify the risks and impacts of climate change, (ii) Explore what local councils are already doing, and (iii) Determine what they could do more of, or better
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: General Economy, Macroeconomics, and Growth Study
    Keywords: Adventure Tourism ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Hiking Sector ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Tourism and Ecotourism ; Travel
    Abstract: The World Bank, in coordination with the Government of Cabo Verde, has partnered with the Adventure Travel Trade Association (ATTA) to develop a research study about the current status of the adventure tourism sector in Cabo Verde, particularly the hiking segment. The purpose of this research is to understand the potential of Cabo Verde as an adventure travel destination and the island of Santo Antao as a world-class hiking hotspot. The methodology followed a four-pronged approach to incorporate the vision of travelers visiting the country, the trade industry and international tour operators, a technical expert analysis, and secondary research of the hiking sector globally. The analysis provides a roadmap to advise the country's stakeholders in taking the relevant decisions to accelerate the path to achieve this objective
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  • 34
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Agriculture Infrastructure ; Climate Change ; Climate Resilient Investment ; Energy ; Energy Infrastructure ; Energy Policies and Economics ; Environment ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Resilient Infrastructure ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Transport
    Abstract: This Compendium Volume presents a series of guidance notes and more detailed complementary technical notes that offer practical insights in support of enhancing the climate resilience of infrastructure investment projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This first introductory chapter starts with an overview of the investment conditions and climatic context in the region, followed by a description of the scope of this Compendium Volume and individual notes, target audiences, and a roadmap for users of the contents covered in this Volume
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Action ; Climate Finance ; Climate Mitigation ; Climate Policy ; Climate-Smart City ; Environment ; Low-Carbon Cities ; Low-Carbon Urbanization
    Abstract: This Climate Change and Development Report (CCDR) establishes the case for a new economic model to address Tunisia's challenging economic and social context and vulnerability to climate change. Building on extensive analyses and consultations (see Box 1 for our approach), the CCDR calls for a new model that emphasizes the role of the private sector in generating most jobs, while the state focuses on its regulating function, funding expenditures with the highest social and economic returns, and directing resources to interventions that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. The proposed model would involve major changes, such as using pricing to rationalize the consumption of resources and creating economic conditions that support private investments in climate adaptation and decarbonization. It would also involve a shift from recurrent public expenditures to public investments in adaptation and decarbonization
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: Contaminated Land ; Electrokinetic Separation ; Environment ; Excavation ; GIS ; Hotspots Mapping ; Land Remediation ; Landfarming ; Livelihood Impacts ; Natural Source Zone Depletion ; Phytoremediation ; Pollution Hotspots ; Pollution Management and Control ; Soil Vapor Extraction ; Soil Washing
    Abstract: Successive conflicts in Iraq were characterized by tactics to damage its oil and industrial assets that not only led to huge economic loss, but pollution of environmental resources (air, land, and water) on an unprecedented scale. The Damage and Needs Assessment (DNA) carried out by the World Bank Group (WBG) in 2017, estimated damages to the environmental resources at IQD85 billion (US73 dollars million) and sectoral losses because of the conflict at IQD3.5 trillion (US3 dollars billion). Further, this assessment estimated that up to 47 percent of natural forests in the country may have been destroyed and large areas of land have been contaminated by land mines and hazardous chemicals. Unless these contaminated sites (also referred as 'environmental hotspots' in this document) are identified and remediated and/ or managed appropriately as part of the broader reconstruction program of Iraq, it is likely that the negative impacts (both economic and environmental) will be felt for generations to come. In addition, creating better environmental conditions and investments in human and physical capital is crucial for the economic diversification, job creation and healthy citizens for a stable and sustainable development of post-conflict Iraq. The main objective of this report is to present a broad framework and suggested prioritization for the remediation and/or management of environmental hotspots in Iraq. The recommendations have been informed by a detailed inventory and assessment of hotspots carried out by the Ministry of Environment (MoE), Government of Iraq (GoI) with capacity building support provided through the Advisory Services and Analytical (ASA) work of the World Bank. The work involved analysis of the scale and significance of contamination in the conflict affected governorates of Al Anbar, Babil, Baghdad, Diyala, Kirkuk, Nineveh and Salah Al-Din and identifying essential elements of a program for the remediation, management of environmental hotpots in the country
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Infrastructure ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Resilience ; Urban Development ; Urban Environment
    Abstract: Cote d'Ivoire is at a crossroads. Despite good progress over the last decade, recent global economic and health shocks have aggravated existing problems including lack of fiscal space, limited access to concessional and cheap financing, and a fragile political neighborhood. But Cote d'Ivoire now has an opportunity to put its growth on a more sustainable path, both realizing the aspirations of a growing population and better adapting to the growing impacts of climate change. Climate change impacts are already affecting Cote d'Ivoire, as temperatures increase, rainfall and other weather events become more extreme and less predictable, and sea levels rise. This World Bank Group Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) shows negative impacts from climate change will reduce economic performance and over proportionally impact the poor. The report examines specific opportunities in energy, agriculture, and land use as well as urban development and interconnectivity that could render the country's development more sustainable and inclusive, raising standards of living while increasing resilience in face of climate change. Dealing with a changing climate is a national imperative, where choices need to be made for the structural transformation of the economy, transitioning from outdoor low-earning sectors such as agriculture to more value-added industrial and service activities
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access To Labor Market ; Accessibility ; Climate Change ; Disability Inclusion ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Stabilization ; Environment ; Health Services ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Inclusive Disaster Management ; Social Protection ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The impacts of climate change will be unevenly felt within and across countries partly due to social and economic inequalities. Persons with disabilities represent 16 percent of the global population and face widespread forms of social and economic marginalization yet have received little attention in prior studies of climate change and social inequality. The mortality rate of persons with disabilities in natural disasters is "up to four times higher than people without disabilities" (Stein and Stein 2021). How do the fast-moving shocks, flooding, drought, heatwaves and slower-moving social and economic effects of climate change impact persons with disabilities How can climate change adaptation efforts be disability inclusive This study examines these questions through original fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted in Uzbekistan. In November 2022, the authors interviewed persons with disabilities in three regions of the country. The resulting qualitative data afford key insights into how climate change and disability status interact to generate distinct vulnerabilities. Within the nascent field of climate change and disability studies, this report represents one of the first fieldwork-based accounts of how climate change presents heightened risks to persons with disabilities in a developing country context
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 40347
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; Economic Value of Forests ; Environment ; Forest Biodiversity ; Forests and Climate Change ; Global Environmental Committment ; Public Sector Development ; Sustainable Development Goals ; Windfire Risk Management
    Abstract: Lebanon's forest landscapes are unique in the Mediterranean region and, over the centuries, have provided multiple socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental benefits. However, societal changes have had a significant impact on these landscapes, putting them at risk of further degradation. Lifestyle changes and restrictions on access to forests and woodlands have contributed to the abandonment of traditional community use, management, and protection of forests. This neglect has left forests vulnerable to arson, vandalism, and natural disasters. This Lebanon Forest Note articulates opportunities for supporting the protection and sustainable management of Lebanon's forest landscapes. It considers the increasing pressure on natural resources due to anthropogenic activities/stresses, as well as their increased vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters, especially forest fires. The note presents a forward-looking business case for Lebanon to protects its forest ecosystem services, while increasing the socioeconomic benefits for Lebanon's sustainable development goals and global environmental commitments
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Communities and Human Settlements ; Earthquake ; Environment ; Housing and Human Habitats ; Impacts ; Infrastructure Economics ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Natural Disaster ; Syria
    Abstract: Following the magnitude (Mw) 7.8 Turkiye-Syria Earthquake on February 6, 2023 and the Mw 6.3 earthquake on February 20, 2023, the World Bank carried out a remote, desk-based assessment of the physical damages in Syria using the Global RApid post-disaster Damage Estimation (GRADE) methodology. The objective of the assessment is to develop a model-based estimate of the direct physical damages to residential buildings (houses) and non-residential buildings caused by the event, and to evaluate the spatial distribution of damages. In this report, direct physical damage is quantified using the gross capital stock, which is the replacement cost of an asset newly rebuilt based on current unit costs and construction practice, and although it does include fixed and mobile industry capital, it does not take into account transport equipment, or technological changes et cetera Reconstruction costs are expected to be proportionately higher for non-residential than residential buildings, due to the possibility of upgrades and build back better practices (because a large share of its capital stock and production technologies are outdated). Estimates of direct damages, presented in this report, do not include costs associated with humanitarian and emergency response, or the losses associated with economic flows (for example, business interruption). As of February 20, 2023, the confirmed death toll across Turkiye and Syria surpassed 47,000 deaths, with 6,599 fatalities and 14,500 injuries in Syria. In northwest Syria, this includes 4,525 reported deaths and 8,424 reported injuries, with many still trapped under the rubble. More details on the fragility and crisis dynamics and how these amplified the earthquakes' impacts are discussed in the Annex B of this GRADE report
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  • 41
    Online Resource
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    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Deforestation ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Forest Degradation ; Land Degradation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Capital
    Abstract: Niger is a fragile country, marked by a poorly diversified economy and extreme poverty. Climate change, rapid demographic growth, and weak governance are major threats to Niger's growth. These changes have led to human losses, decreased soil productivity, and increased competition for access to resources. Moreover, many rural communities have grappled with a land tenure system with often unclear and overlapping rights, a lack of land use classification and registry, and an absence of monitoring and enforcing by local institutions. It is important to note that the rapid population growth and the recent COVID pandemic have put additional pressure on food security and natural resources. Natural capital is crucial for the Nigeriens' livelihoods and food security. Degradation of cropland and pastureland is a key problem in Niger. This Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) aims to analyze critical environmental challenges that threaten sustainable economic growth in Niger and to propose actions to address them. It focuses on three government priorities that require in-depth analysis and immediate response: land degradation, deforestation and forest degradation, and climate change
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  • 42
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    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Resilient Economy ; Environment ; Green Products ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Net Zero GHG ; Transition
    Abstract: As Colombia navigates a complex path toward a richer and more equitable future, the country faces three critical climate transitions. First, it will need to transit from a climate-vulnerable to a more climate-resilient economy. Second, guided by its Long-Term Climate Strategy (LTS) and strong legal framework, which place it among the climate-goal leaders of the Latin America region, the country will need to navigate a transition to a net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions economy in the context of its stated goal for 2050. Third, in a world that will demand increasingly less of Colombia's primary exports-oil and coal-and more green products, it will need to engineer a transition in its economic model. This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) explores the opportunities for, and challenges to, achieving Colombia's development goals and its ambitious climate commitments, as well as the complementarities between the two. It explores how climate change and climate action would affect the country's growth and development and, in turn, how growth and development challenges would affect the achievement of its climate ambitions. The CCDR also investigates complementarities-specifically, how climate action could help Colombia achieve its development objectives, capture opportunities, support a just and inclusive transition, and protect its economy against longer-term risks from climate change and from the world's transition toward net zero GHG emissions
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  • 43
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Disaster Risks ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Resilience
    Abstract: Cabo Verde is a young, small, and vibrant island nation with an open economy. Rising above its daunting geographical challenges and limited endowments, the country is a story of economic success. Reforms to the rule of law and the market have prompted significant economic and social progress since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975, leading to democratic and macro-economic stability. Its robust, albeit highly volatile, economic growth has been driven by tourism, remittances, and foreign direct investment, enabled by structural reforms and social and political stability. Despite remarkable social and economic progress, Cabo Verde's development model has been showing signs of fatigue since the 2008 global financial crisis. To guide Cabo Verde in meeting these challenges, this Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) contains two modules: (1) empowering complementary engines of growth; and (2) fostering the resilience of growth to disaster and climate-related shocks. The CEM benchmarks Cabo Verde's performance against other Small Island Developing States (SIDS), structural peers (Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, and Vanuatu), and aspirational peers (Mauritius, Seychelles, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Lucia). Structural peers are countries that share similar economic characteristics and endowments, while aspirational peers are countries that have been able to grow faster and more sustainably than Cabo Verde, despite sharing similar structural conditions (Annex 1)
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  • 44
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    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate-Resilient ; Economic Impacts ; Environment ; Low-Carbon Transition ; Policies
    Abstract: Climate challenges in Indonesia are intertwined with the country's growth and development trajectories. Indonesia's Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) takes a historical look at climate and development challenges in Indonesia to: (i) present a baseline for the future low-carbon and climate-resilient journey; and (ii) develop a framework to illustrate climate-growth dynamics. The framework is centered around Indonesia's abundant supply of carbon-intensive natural resources-land and energy-matched by high demand for those resources in parts of the economy that drive growth-agriculture, urban expansion, industry, transportation, and trade. The resulting emissions have direct and indirect costs. They erode climate resilience and increase costs from climate shocks. Rising carbon content in the economy also imposes sunk costs for the low-carbon transition. Although these challenges are known, and efforts are being made to tackle them, the framework aims to link these economy-wide issues to the ongoing and future reforms that are discussed in the CCDR
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Clean Energy ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Energy ; Energy Finance ; Energy Transition ; Environment ; Finance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Low-Income Countries ; Middle-Income Countries ; Paris Agreement ; Power Sector ; Renewable Energy
    Abstract: The Scaling Up to Phase Down approach is a contribution by the World Bank to the ongoing debate on how to accelerate energy transition in low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs)-as called for by the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change-while simultaneously widening access to the reliable and affordable energy that underpins countries' development goals. The approach is intended to be a bridge between the challenges facing World Bank clients who are seeking to transition their power sectors and the development partners supporting their efforts. The energy transition is the process of shifting the global energy system away from the consumption of fossil fuels and toward low-carbon technologies in order to support international goals of limiting climate change. In the next decade, much of this transition will first occur in the power sector because solutions using newer technologies have the potential to become cost competitive with appropriate interventions, and also because the power sector is a powerful pathway for decarbonizing other sectors-most notably transport, buildings, and industry. The power sector is therefore the focus of this report. The power sector transition will advance energy efficiency and decarbonize the energy supply by expanding renewable energy and strengthening electricity networks in order to integrate renewable energy, demand-side management, and end-use electrification. In LICs and MICs, this transition aims to meet the rapidly growing demand for energy in a way that supports inclusive development consistent with net-zero global emissions by mid-century, and builds resilience to the changing climate. A just transition in the power sector should address the needs of workers and communities who are affected by the shift away from fossil fuels; provide modern energy access to millions of people; and protect vulnerable customers from unaffordable energy prices. For the first time, the World Bank has outlined a vision for how the international community can support LICs and MICs to overcome critical barriers that are paralyzing the power sector transition. Drawing on findings of the first set of Country Climate and Development Reports produced by the World Bank, and decades of engagement with energy sector development, this approach distills understanding of the unique challenges that LICs and MICs face in undertaking this transition at the scale and pace required to meet their development and climate needs. The approach may help both World Bank clients and development partners in preparing a roadmap to catalyze and sustain a virtuous cycle that unleashes urgently needed investment in power sector transition. Chapter 1 explains that the capital-intensive nature of clean energy investments, combined with the lack of access to affordable capital, have a disproportionate and distorting effect on the power sector transitions of LICs and MICs. Even where renewable energy has the potential to provide a more affordable energy supply and improve energy security and health, the up-front capital costs that must be borne leave LICs and MICs locked into using costly fossil fuels. Chapter 2 discusses additional barriers to the scaling up of clean energy and the concomitant phasing down of coal. The commitment of governments will be essential in order to foster the policies, regulations, and institutions needed to prepare a pipeline of projects that can attract private capital. This chapter argues that concessional finance is essential in order to overcome the barriers to investments of private capital at the necessary levels. Chapter 3 discusses how public and concessional support must be deployed with a disciplined approach in order to scale up clean energy and energy efficiency. Chapter 4 explains the need to phase down the use of unabated coal, and the instruments to do so in a manner that manages losses and protects the most vulnerable. Chapter 5 concludes the paper with a discussion of how larger and sustained volumes of concessional capital could be more effectively structured within country-based programmatic approaches and technology demonstration partnerships in order to scale up the financial resources and political momentum for transitioning the power sector
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Economic Investment and Savings ; Employment and Unemployment ; Energy ; Energy Efficiency ; Environment ; EU Standards ; Financial Literacy ; GHG ; Industry ; Rise
    Abstract: This report explores priorities and challenges faced by Georgia to promote green transition and support its businesses to reduce their emissions through energy efficiency. The report stresses the need for improved incentives and opportunities for business investments in energy efficiency and renewables. The report points to the importance of productivity as a driver of energy efficiency at the firm-level, as well as the importance of information and knowledge spillovers from more efficient firms to less efficient ones when these are in close-by locations and in similar sectors. The report finds that key drivers of energy efficiency upgrading include prices of energy, as these generate key incentives for businesses to upgrade their investments and organization, as well as technology adoption and quality green and general management practices. To support green transition, the report recommends a comprehensive policy package of reforms and programs, including: (i) Horizontal economy-wide policies centered around price signals and regulations, improvements to the grid infrastructure, and reliability of electricity services; (ii) Information - raising firms awareness about potential benefits of becoming more energy efficient and available energy saving. (iii) Capabilities - helping firms identify opportunities for improvement of management, organization, technology, and skills; and (iv) Finance - easing access to financial resources required for upgrading firms' technology. Finally, the report emphasizes the importance of targeting by using appropriate diagnostic and benchmarking tools to assess specific needs and readiness of businesses to upgrade and invest in energy efficiency
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Fossil Fuels Subsidies ; Hydrocarbon Prices ; Inflation ; Macroeconomic Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Non-Performing Loans ; Social Safety Nets ; Transport Sector
    Abstract: This is the tenth edition of the Republic of Congo Economic Update. Each edition of this annual report presents an overview of the Republic of Congo's (ROC) evolving macroeconomic position, followed by a detailed exploration of a specific topic. The first chapter of this year's update presents recent economic developments and macroeconomic outlook and risks. It also includes policy actions that could help strengthen fiscal and debt sustainability, contain food inflation, and sustain economic recovery. The second chapter discusses fossil fuel subsidies, which represent a significant fiscal burden in the Republic of Congo
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Governance ; Climate Resilience ; Economic Diversification ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Sector and Social Assistance ; Health Costs ; Natural Capital ; Poverty Reduction ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Republic Of Congo ; Sustainable Growth
    Abstract: The Republic of Congo (RoC) CCDR is a new World Bank core diagnostic report that integrate climate change and development considerations. It is intended to help the country prioritize the most impactful actions that can boost adaptation and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, while delivering on broader development goals. The CCDR builds on data and rigorous research and identify main pathways to reduce climate vulnerabilities and GHG emissions, including the costs and challenges as well as benefits and opportunities from doing so. The report highlights that RoC could reduce poverty in rural areas by 40% and in urban areas by 20% by 2050 by implementing more ambitious reforms to promote economic diversification and climate resilience. It also concludes that business as usual is not an option. Economic losses could reach up to 17% of GDP by 2050 if reforms to diversify the economy and attract more climate investments are not taken. Climate impacts could also increase total health costs from USD 92 million in 2010 to USD 260 million by 2050. The report identifies four priorities to promote sustainable growth in the country: (i) stronger and greener infrastructure and services in electricity, transport, water, and sanitation can deliver transformative results; (ii) More climate-ready education, health systems and social services can save lives and bring critical resources to the poorest; (iii) More investments in natural capital including climate smart agriculture and greater forest management along will help create jobs while reducing carbon emissions; (iv) better climate governance to leverage carbon markets. The forest contributes to USD 260 million in timber exports and store over 44 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions. Protecting and valorizing the forest is critical to turn the country's natural capital into wealth. The report emphasizes that the private sector has a critical role to play in mobilizing financing for an ambitious set of reforms and investments in the context of tight fiscal space. This will require raising awareness on risks and opportunities from climate change, and innovative solutions and financial sector reforms
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate and Development ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Policy Framework ; Climate Resilience ; Decarbonization ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Outlook ; Economic Policy ; Environment ; Investment and Investment Climate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Indonesia has been successful in navigating the macroeconomic fallout from asynchronous global shocks. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth remains strong though the economy is yet to fully recover to its pre-pandemic trajectory. This is consistent with labor market trends, which show a recovery in labor force participation and employment but a possible deterioration in jobs quality. Inflation has been brought under control following the effects of the energy price shocks in 2022, though new pressures are emerging from food supply risks and renewed oil price rises. External pressures have risen due to tight global financing conditions, which have triggered capital outflows and currency pressures across emerging markets including Indonesia. With resilient macroeconomic underpinnings and the end of the post-COVID recovery cycle, the policy focus turns again to the growth agenda
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Policies ; Shocks
    Abstract: Real GDP expanded by 17.7 percent in 2022, with per capita incomes surpassing the pre-pandemic levels. On the supply side, accommodation, transport, and commerce explained 60 percent of growth. On the demand side, exports (mainly tourism) and private consumption accounted for growth. The rebound in economic activity in 2022 was accompanied by a reduction in poverty (0.8 percentage points), despite the spike in inflation. Headline inflation reached 7.9 percent (y/y) in December 2022 after inflationary pressures emerged in 2021, fueled by high international oil and food prices and global supply chain disruptions due to the war in Ukraine. Higher food prices and low agricultural production, driven by the five year long drought, intensified food insecurity
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  • 51
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2185
    Keywords: Alignement Tools ; Climate Change Mitigation ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; G-20 ; Sustainable Finance
    Abstract: The first action in the G-20 Sustainable Finance Roadmap proposes six high-level principles for the development and global coordination of approaches to align investments with sustainability goals. "Alignment approaches" are national and international frameworks for the financial sector that aim to monitor global sustainable finance flows and ensure that they are contributing to the temperature goals of the Paris Agreement, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and other international sustainable finance objectives. These approaches increasingly leverage "alignment tools," which include but are not limited to (a) taxonomies (or classifications) of private sector activities that can be labeled as achieving environmental and social objectives; (b) certifications and labels that confirm that products or services have met environmental, social, and governance (ESG) standards; (c) disclosure frameworks that guide private sector entities to manage and report on their ESG performance; and (d) transition frameworks that help the private sector design a credible shift to low-carbon technologies and practices. The tools can then be applied in different ways-ranging from national-level regulations to voluntary private sector-led initiatives, to corporate-level practices. The tools can be applied by investors and finance providers for different purposes at different levels: at the "asset level" (as in determining whether a project or activity is compatible with a relevant sustainable finance taxonomy or due diligence framework); the "entity level" (as inwhether a corporate or financial institution has a robust low-carbon transition plan and adheres to the International Labour Organization (ILO) Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work); or "portfolio level" (as in whether an index is aligned with a credible temperature objective or supports poverty reduction). The G-20 Voluntary Principles for Developing Alignment Approaches provide a common foundation for ensuring these alignment approaches are robust and consistent
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Manage Model
    Abstract: The Dominican Republic has made significant progress in boosting economic growth and reducing poverty, but it still faces challenges to achieve inclusive and equitable development, increase productivity, and improve the competitiveness and sustainability of primary sectors like agriculture, water, tourism, and energy. The National Development Strategy (NDS) and the National Multi-Year Public Sector Plan (NPSP) aim to address development and climate challenges and promote a green, inclusive and resilient future. The DR is highly vulnerable to climate change, which is likely to compound existing development challenges. By 2050, climate change impacts are expected to decrease labor productivity and affect health, crop yields, tourism, infrastructure capital, and natural ecosystems such as forests and coastal areas. Climate change also poses risks to the financial system such as the banking sector's heightened credit exposure to tropical cyclones and droughts. Although the DR has a small carbon footprint, the country's GHG emissions have been rising, mainly in the energy, waste, and agricultural sectors. Fostering a low-carbon growth path can support the country's climate change goals while bringing important development co-benefits. The Dominican Republic CCDR employs a version of the MANAGE model. This CCDR further extends the model to incorporate the path of emissions from key sectors (transport, energy, AFOLU), and to incorporate DR-specific climate damage functions to introduce the impact of climate change on the economy
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Air Quality ; Air Quality and Clean Air ; AQM ; Dushanbe ; Emission Reduction ; Emission Sources ; Environment
    Abstract: The Air Quality Management (AQM) system in Tajikistan needs strengthening in its key policy and institutional as well as technical aspects to reduce health impacts of air pollution in the most polluted airsheds (Dushanbe and other urban centers). The World Bank's first engagement to strengthen Tajikistan's AQM aims to develop a better understanding of the priorities and needs in addressing air pollution and to support the government of Tajikistan in identifying key air pollution reductionmeasures. This summary report and the attached presentation detail the outcomes of Tajikistan's first AQM study, which is envisioned to continue. The study provides recommendations for all components of the AQM framework based on an analysis of the current status and gaps. It provides: 1) air quality (AQ) monitoring and population exposure assessment, 2) source attribution, 3) emissions-reduction interventions, and 4) recommendations to strengthen AQM Policies. The study prioritizes fine dust particles (PM2.5) due to their significant health impacts
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