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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Food Security ; Fragile Recovery ; Pollitical Challenges ; Water Resources ; Water Security
    Abstract: Somalia has remained on a strong economic reform path despite the various global and exogenous shocks that have continued to buffet the economy. Recurrent climate-related shocks, such as cycles of droughts, floods, locusts' infestation, higher international commodity prices, as well as increased insecurity and conflict, have interrupted the country's growth trajectory. However, this has not deterred the country's commitment to continue advancing reforms to strengthen key economic institutions and promote macroeconomic stability and recovery. As a result, Somalia has continued to make progress toward meeting the conditions for achieving the heavily indebted poor country (HIPC) completion point in December 2023. Within the framework of resilience, the eighth edition of the World Bank's Somalia economic update series provides an in-depth analysis of recent economic developments and growth outlook and makes a case for integrating climate change with Somalia's growth agenda. This report highlights macroeconomic policies and reforms that promote inclusive growth and institutional building including enhancing fiscal space for development priorities while strengthening expenditure controls; strengthening financial integrity; integrating Somalia into the global financial system; and improving debt management
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Environment ; IDA19 ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Rating System ; Resilience ; RRS
    Abstract: In response to the growing recognition that measuring inputs, such as climate finance, is not enough to capture the impacts of investments, the World Bank Group developed the Resilience Rating System (RRS). Developed over a two-year, multi-sectoral consultative process through close collaboration with internal and external actors, the RRS methodology aims to guide investment decisions and improve climate resilience in project design and outcomes. The methodology report is publicly available. The RRS evaluates and rates investment projects from C to A+, based on their resilience attributes in two complementary dimensions. The resilience of rating considers a project's design, reflecting the confidence that it will achieve its expected objectives and maximize development benefits in the face of climate and disaster risks. The resilience through rating considers a project's outcomes and reflects its contribution to improving climate resilience in the broader community, sector and systems, and to driving transformational adaptation. Combining the two dimension ratings provides an overall project rating, from CC to A+A+
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (172 pages)
    Series Statement: Climate Change and Development
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Digital Tools ; E-Commerce ; Green Digital Transformation ; Green Gas ; Low Emissions
    Abstract: Climate change is unfolding amid the greatest information and communication revolution in human history. From e-commerce and social media to smart manufacturing and precision farming, digital technologies have become prevalent in all aspects of economic and social life. Digital technologies also have the potential to shape climate change action. Green digital transformation can help countries adapt effectively to the impacts of climate change and create greener growth pathways. Doing this means combining a focus on digital transformation and inclusion with a strategic and sustainable use of digital technologies to address climate change. Green Digital Transformation: How to Sustainably Close the Digital Divide and Harness Digital Tools for Climate Action illuminates the channels through which digital technologies intersect with climate change, and it proposes a path to low-emissions applications of digital technologies to help countries mitigate and adapt to climate change
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Green Infrastructure ; Hydro Power ; Landscape Restoration ; Sustainable Land Management ; Vakhsh River ; Water
    Abstract: This report outlines the main results of a study conducted to assess the potential role of landscape restoration/nature-based solutions/green infrastructure in the Vakhsh River Basin, Tajikistan, to reduce the impacts of soil erosion on the hydropower cascade, increase agricultural productivity, improve livelihoods, and inform about investment opportunities. This assessment finds sediment sources and loadings in the Vakhsh River Basin, considers the potential correlation between soil erosion and sedimentation in hydropower reservoirs, proposes possible and cost-effective landscape restoration measures, and estimates the value of ecosystem services provided. The study also presents recommendations for implementing the proposed interventions for the Vakhsh River Basin and for scaling up to other degraded areas throughout the country
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; COVID-19 ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Systems ; Transition ; Vulnerabilities
    Abstract: This report provides an assessment of the stability of the financial systems of selected Pacific Island Countries (PICs) in the context of COVID-19 and emerging risks. The report brings together an analysis of information provided by the central banks of the PICs covered by this study over the last two years. The purpose of the study is to assess the financial stability and vulnerabilities and to provide technical guidance to the PIC authorities to assist in their financial sector policy response. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the financial systems of the PICs. Chapter 2 presents an analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on the financial systems of the PCIs and the policy responses to the pandemic. Chapter 3 looks at the challenges of transitioning from the pandemic to normal policy settings. Chapter 4 provides a set of bespoke policy recommendations with the aim of enhancing the ability to deal with financial sector risks and vulnerabilities. Finally, Chapter 5 puts forward recommendations for the assessment of climate and environmental related risks on the PICs. The report finds that the pandemic has negatively impacted economic growth in the PICs, challenging financial stability. Due to various relief measures adopted by governments in the region, and the lagged economic impact of the pandemic, the PICs' financial sectors do not yet fully reflect the risks to bank profitability and asset quality, which could materialize over 2022-23. Response and
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Fiscal Adjustment ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Health Care ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Revenue Mobilization ; Social Protection ; Spending Trends ; Taxes, Transfers and Equity
    Abstract: Having implemented a substantial fiscal response to COVID-19, Thailand's government now faces the medium-term challenge of reducing elevated deficit and debt levels, and the structural challenge of meeting rising spending needs, including those associated with an aging population, while maintaining fiscal sustainability. In this context, this Public Revenue and Spending Assessment sets out revenue and expenditure choices that will help to ensure a more inclusive and sustainable economy. This will require raising revenue, improving the efficiency of public spending, and ensuring that revenue and spending policy measures support the most vulnerable and are responsive to climate-related challenges. Within this overall framework, the report provides several recommendations to improve the quality of spending in the health, education, and social protection sectors, as well as a detailed assessment of fiscal policies that will contribute to the achievement of climate mitigation and adaptation goals
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Climate Change ; Decarbonization ; Development ; Environment ; Resilience
    Abstract: The Azerbaijan Country Climate and Development Report assesses how the country can reduce its vulnerability to climate shocks and the risks emerging from the global low-carbon transition while protecting the living standards of its people and reaping opportunities of a new climate economy. It argues that regardless of the pace of global mitigation efforts, decarbonization is in Azerbaijan's economic self-interest. It highlights that the country faces considerable risks from future physical climate impacts potentially disrupting its sectors like agriculture and others. Finally, the report shows that climate action is affordable if supported by the right set of policies - some of which are already envisaged by the country's 2022-2026 Socio-economic Development Strategy but not yet implemented like a phase-out of fossil fuels subsidies - aimed at catalyzing private sector investment in decarbonization and resilience."
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Agriculture Infrastructure ; Climate Change ; Climate Resilient Investment ; Energy ; Energy Infrastructure ; Energy Policies and Economics ; Environment ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Resilient Infrastructure ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Transport
    Abstract: This Compendium Volume presents a series of guidance notes and more detailed complementary technical notes that offer practical insights in support of enhancing the climate resilience of infrastructure investment projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This first introductory chapter starts with an overview of the investment conditions and climatic context in the region, followed by a description of the scope of this Compendium Volume and individual notes, target audiences, and a roadmap for users of the contents covered in this Volume
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Infrastructure ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Resilience ; Urban Development ; Urban Environment
    Abstract: Cote d'Ivoire is at a crossroads. Despite good progress over the last decade, recent global economic and health shocks have aggravated existing problems including lack of fiscal space, limited access to concessional and cheap financing, and a fragile political neighborhood. But Cote d'Ivoire now has an opportunity to put its growth on a more sustainable path, both realizing the aspirations of a growing population and better adapting to the growing impacts of climate change. Climate change impacts are already affecting Cote d'Ivoire, as temperatures increase, rainfall and other weather events become more extreme and less predictable, and sea levels rise. This World Bank Group Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) shows negative impacts from climate change will reduce economic performance and over proportionally impact the poor. The report examines specific opportunities in energy, agriculture, and land use as well as urban development and interconnectivity that could render the country's development more sustainable and inclusive, raising standards of living while increasing resilience in face of climate change. Dealing with a changing climate is a national imperative, where choices need to be made for the structural transformation of the economy, transitioning from outdoor low-earning sectors such as agriculture to more value-added industrial and service activities
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Access To Labor Market ; Accessibility ; Climate Change ; Disability Inclusion ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Stabilization ; Environment ; Health Services ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Inclusive Disaster Management ; Social Protection ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The impacts of climate change will be unevenly felt within and across countries partly due to social and economic inequalities. Persons with disabilities represent 16 percent of the global population and face widespread forms of social and economic marginalization yet have received little attention in prior studies of climate change and social inequality. The mortality rate of persons with disabilities in natural disasters is "up to four times higher than people without disabilities" (Stein and Stein 2021). How do the fast-moving shocks, flooding, drought, heatwaves and slower-moving social and economic effects of climate change impact persons with disabilities How can climate change adaptation efforts be disability inclusive This study examines these questions through original fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted in Uzbekistan. In November 2022, the authors interviewed persons with disabilities in three regions of the country. The resulting qualitative data afford key insights into how climate change and disability status interact to generate distinct vulnerabilities. Within the nascent field of climate change and disability studies, this report represents one of the first fieldwork-based accounts of how climate change presents heightened risks to persons with disabilities in a developing country context
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Resilient Economy ; Environment ; Green Products ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Net Zero GHG ; Transition
    Abstract: As Colombia navigates a complex path toward a richer and more equitable future, the country faces three critical climate transitions. First, it will need to transit from a climate-vulnerable to a more climate-resilient economy. Second, guided by its Long-Term Climate Strategy (LTS) and strong legal framework, which place it among the climate-goal leaders of the Latin America region, the country will need to navigate a transition to a net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions economy in the context of its stated goal for 2050. Third, in a world that will demand increasingly less of Colombia's primary exports-oil and coal-and more green products, it will need to engineer a transition in its economic model. This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) explores the opportunities for, and challenges to, achieving Colombia's development goals and its ambitious climate commitments, as well as the complementarities between the two. It explores how climate change and climate action would affect the country's growth and development and, in turn, how growth and development challenges would affect the achievement of its climate ambitions. The CCDR also investigates complementarities-specifically, how climate action could help Colombia achieve its development objectives, capture opportunities, support a just and inclusive transition, and protect its economy against longer-term risks from climate change and from the world's transition toward net zero GHG emissions
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Disaster Risks ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Resilience
    Abstract: Cabo Verde is a young, small, and vibrant island nation with an open economy. Rising above its daunting geographical challenges and limited endowments, the country is a story of economic success. Reforms to the rule of law and the market have prompted significant economic and social progress since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975, leading to democratic and macro-economic stability. Its robust, albeit highly volatile, economic growth has been driven by tourism, remittances, and foreign direct investment, enabled by structural reforms and social and political stability. Despite remarkable social and economic progress, Cabo Verde's development model has been showing signs of fatigue since the 2008 global financial crisis. To guide Cabo Verde in meeting these challenges, this Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) contains two modules: (1) empowering complementary engines of growth; and (2) fostering the resilience of growth to disaster and climate-related shocks. The CEM benchmarks Cabo Verde's performance against other Small Island Developing States (SIDS), structural peers (Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, and Vanuatu), and aspirational peers (Mauritius, Seychelles, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Lucia). Structural peers are countries that share similar economic characteristics and endowments, while aspirational peers are countries that have been able to grow faster and more sustainably than Cabo Verde, despite sharing similar structural conditions (Annex 1)
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate and Development ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Policy Framework ; Climate Resilience ; Decarbonization ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Outlook ; Economic Policy ; Environment ; Investment and Investment Climate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Indonesia has been successful in navigating the macroeconomic fallout from asynchronous global shocks. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth remains strong though the economy is yet to fully recover to its pre-pandemic trajectory. This is consistent with labor market trends, which show a recovery in labor force participation and employment but a possible deterioration in jobs quality. Inflation has been brought under control following the effects of the energy price shocks in 2022, though new pressures are emerging from food supply risks and renewed oil price rises. External pressures have risen due to tight global financing conditions, which have triggered capital outflows and currency pressures across emerging markets including Indonesia. With resilient macroeconomic underpinnings and the end of the post-COVID recovery cycle, the policy focus turns again to the growth agenda
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Policies ; Shocks
    Abstract: Real GDP expanded by 17.7 percent in 2022, with per capita incomes surpassing the pre-pandemic levels. On the supply side, accommodation, transport, and commerce explained 60 percent of growth. On the demand side, exports (mainly tourism) and private consumption accounted for growth. The rebound in economic activity in 2022 was accompanied by a reduction in poverty (0.8 percentage points), despite the spike in inflation. Headline inflation reached 7.9 percent (y/y) in December 2022 after inflationary pressures emerged in 2021, fueled by high international oil and food prices and global supply chain disruptions due to the war in Ukraine. Higher food prices and low agricultural production, driven by the five year long drought, intensified food insecurity
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Capital Markets ; Capital Markets and Capital Flows ; Climate Change ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Inclusion ; Poverty Alleviation ; Resilience ; Shared Prosperity ; Sustainability ; Sustainable Finance
    Abstract: This annual report, which covers the period from July 1, 2022, to June 30, 2023, has been prepared by the Executive Directors of both the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA)-collectively known as the World Bank-in accordance with the respective bylaws of the two institutions. Ajay Banga, President of the World Bank Group and Chairman of the Board of Executive Directors, has submitted this report, together with the accompanying administrative budgets and audited financial statements, to the Board of Governors
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Manage Model
    Abstract: The Dominican Republic has made significant progress in boosting economic growth and reducing poverty, but it still faces challenges to achieve inclusive and equitable development, increase productivity, and improve the competitiveness and sustainability of primary sectors like agriculture, water, tourism, and energy. The National Development Strategy (NDS) and the National Multi-Year Public Sector Plan (NPSP) aim to address development and climate challenges and promote a green, inclusive and resilient future. The DR is highly vulnerable to climate change, which is likely to compound existing development challenges. By 2050, climate change impacts are expected to decrease labor productivity and affect health, crop yields, tourism, infrastructure capital, and natural ecosystems such as forests and coastal areas. Climate change also poses risks to the financial system such as the banking sector's heightened credit exposure to tropical cyclones and droughts. Although the DR has a small carbon footprint, the country's GHG emissions have been rising, mainly in the energy, waste, and agricultural sectors. Fostering a low-carbon growth path can support the country's climate change goals while bringing important development co-benefits. The Dominican Republic CCDR employs a version of the MANAGE model. This CCDR further extends the model to incorporate the path of emissions from key sectors (transport, energy, AFOLU), and to incorporate DR-specific climate damage functions to introduce the impact of climate change on the economy
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2118
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Economic Growth ; Monetary Poverty ; Non-Monetary Poverty ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Assistance
    Abstract: In recent decades, economic growth in the Dominican Republic (DR) has been steady. However, growth has not occurred in such a way as to make the benefits widely and evenly available. In fact, although the DR economy grew faster than that of other LAC countries before the Covid-19 pandemic, its poverty rates and social outcomes remain broadly similar to them. This report seeks to explain this conundrum, as well as to expand the knowledge base to improve the effectiveness of ongoing poverty reduction policies in the DR. The Poverty Assessment draws primarily on new analytical work conducted in the DR, structured around four background notes on: (i) trends in monetary poverty and inequality, as well as the key drivers of those changes; (ii) nonmonetary poverty and its spatial dimensions; (iii) social assistance programs and their role in mitigating poverty; and (iv) climate change and its interaction with poverty. By helping to reduce the evidence gap in each of these areas, our analysis hopes to inform government policies and the national dialogue on poverty reduction. In addition, the note integrates existing analytical work and evidence produced inside and outside the Bank, including from its operations in the country
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Anti-Money Laundering ; Biodiversity ; Climate Change ; Climate Smart Agriculture ; Decarbonization ; E-Finance and E-Security ; Energy ; Energy+ ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Forest Ecosystems ; Green Growth Finance ; High-Income Country ; Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) ; Low-Carbon ; Net Zero ; Resilient Cities
    Abstract: This report explores how climate action, in line with Romania's goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2050, interacts with the country's growth and development path. It further suggests priority actions to reduce carbon emissions and build resilience, while supporting inclusive economic growth and poverty reduction. This is the first Climate Country and Development Report (CCDR) to cover a European Union member state and a high-income economy
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Energy Efficiency ; Environment ; GHG Emission ; ICT Applications ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; ICT Sector ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: This report is based on a targeted review of Singapore's approach to climate change, focusing on how the country drives energy efficiency and reduces GHG emissions in the ICT sector, particularly in data centers. It aims to reflect the various measures undertaken by the Singapore Government, present lessons learned, keytakeaways and challenges that continue to lie ahead. The information in this version is current as of end November 2023. The purpose of this report is to provide the key lessons for broad, multistakeholder consideration and dialogue forwhat countries could consider as they approach "greening" the ICT sector. It is important to note that addressing all the issues raised in this report does not guarantee a perfect, or even workable, enabling environment to meet theglobal climate change challenge. This is because the effectiveness of these measures can be affected by exogenous factors and the unique national circumstances of each country
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Deforestation ; Environment ; Forests ; GHG Emissions ; Private Sector
    Abstract: Climate action is critical for development in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The region contains countries among the most affected by climate change but least prepared to address it. This report introduces key findings of the World Bank Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs) in the region. The CCDRs help align climate and development considerations for governments and other stakeholders and help prioritize actions that enhance adaptation and resilience, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and align with broader development goals. Addressing these challenges and converting them into opportunities is crucial, including taking carefully prioritized, sustained action. Seven CCDRs have been published for MENA countries (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon1, Morocco, Tunisia, West Bank and Gaza), offering policy and investment options to harmonize climate and development objectives. Additional countries will be covered as CCDRs are finalized in the coming years
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Budget Deficit ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Non-Hydrocarbon Activity ; Oil and Gas
    Abstract: This Algeria Economic Update reports on the main recent economic developments and policies. It places them in a global and longer-term context and assesses the implications of these developments and policy changes for Algeria's economic prospects. The report is intended for a broad audience, including policymakers, business leaders, financial market participants, and the community of analysts and professionals working in/on Algeria. The report is divided into two chapters. Chapter 1 presents macroeconomic developments in Algeria over the year 2022 and the first quarter of 2023, while Chapter 2 describes the short- and medium-term outlook for the Algerian economy
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Biodiversity ; Climate Change ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Environmentally Protected Areas ; Food Prices ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Nature-Based Tourism ; Poaching ; Private Sector ; Protected Areas
    Abstract: The Rwandan economy continued to achieve strong growth in 2022 in the face of weakening external demand and restrictive monetary policies required to control inflation. Rising food prices particularly affected the poor, who devote a large share of their spending to food and appear to have faced higher food inflation than richer households did. Growth is expected to decline somewhat in 2023 and then to recover closer to historical rates over the medium term. Tourism is a major source of Rwanda's foreign exchange earnings and tends to generate a higher proportion of formal sector jobs than other sectors and could make a substantial contribution to growth. Within tourism, strengthening the provision of nature-based tourism, which accounts for eight percent of leisure and conference visitors in Rwanda would also help protect biodiversity and advance Rwanda's efforts to adapt to climate change. Nature-based tourism faces significant challenges, including potential limits on expansion of revenues from one of the primary international attractions - gorilla trekking, degradation of the natural assets that underpin the sector, risks presented by infectious diseases, habitat change and overexploitation, and the impact of climate change on tourism demand. Key measures to promote nature-based tourism will need to include expanding the network of protected areas and improving management of the natural assets within and outside protected areas and diversifying the nature-based tourism's offering while complementing efforts to diversify tourism activities. Efforts are required to enhance revenue sharing mechanisms to increase incentives for local communities to conserve natural assets and unlock new opportunities and community-led enterprises that generate revenue from tourism and sustainable management of natural resources, including forests. This is essential to address poverty, to mitigate poaching threats, other illegal activities, and reduce unsustainable exploitation of resources. It is also imperative to secure private sector participation in financing and operation of facilities by introducing innovative financing methods to secure the necessary investment, strengthening capacity and management of tourism facilities and services, and removing subsidies that contribute to environmental degradation
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Demographic Change ; Diversity ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Inclusivity ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Megatrends ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions ; Sustainable Growth ; Technological Change
    Abstract: In 2022, Brazil celebrated its 200th anniversary. What will Brazil celebrate at its 220th anniversary, in 2042? Following the recent elections there is a window of opportunity for reforms that will shape Brazil's development over the next decades. "The Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability" takes a long-term perspective on Brazil's development, exploring how prudent actions today can generate opportunities for a more prosperous, inclusive, and sustainable society over the next 20 years. The report aims to stimulate public debate about a virtuous cycle for 2042, illustrated by four alternative future scenarios. With the right reforms Brazil can become an economic powerhouse that offers opportunities for all. A more inclusive social contract can facilitate critical reforms
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Evaluation
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Development Challenges ; Economic Growth ; Food Insecurity ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Disasters
    Abstract: Somalia is today among the poorest and most fragile countries in the world, facing myriad development challenges related to ongoing conflict, climate change, food insecurity, natural disasters, and displacement. Overlapping crises related to the COVID-19 pandemic, a prolonged drought, and macroeconomic shocks from rising food and fuel costs have worsened socioeconomic conditions (World Bank 2022). Seventy-one percent of Somalis lived in extreme poverty in 2021, compared with 28 percent for Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank 2021). Average life expectancy was 57.4 years, and maternal mortality stood at 734 for every 100,000 births (World Bank 2018d). The country's Sustainable Development Goal ranking was 160th out of 163. The Somalia Country Program Evaluation (CPE) will assess the evolution of the World Bank Group's support over fiscal years (FY)13-22 and the extent to which the Bank Group adequately prepared for an eventual normalization of relations with Somalia, tailored its support to the conflict and fragility situation in Somalia and evolving circumstances and country priorities, and learned from experience. It will seek to inform the preparation of the next Somalia Country Partnership Framework (CPF) and may be relevant to broader Bank Group engagement in countries affected by fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV)
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Deforestation ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Forests ; GHG Emissions ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) proposes that Benin focuses on building a resilient economy, with investment and policy options primarily targeted at adapting to climate change risks. The dependence of Benin's economic structure on agriculture and informal employment makes its development path highly vulnerable to climate change in the absence of proper adaptation. The government and the private sector need to be better prepared to deal with climate change -- building adequate institutions and governance structures will be crucial. While all sectors will have to become more resilient, this is especially urgent for agriculture and land use, urban and network infrastructure, and human development (education, health). Mitigation efforts should focus on avoiding carbon lock-ins and reducing deforestation. Investing in renewable energy whilst expanding the population's access to electricity should be a priority for Benin. A higher share of renewable energy can bring about co-benefits for other sectors (agriculture, water, transport, and forestry). To maintain its growth trajectory, Benin needs to pay special attention to its most vulnerable people, including women. To protect the poor and vulnerable the just transition should focus on reconciling development and climate goals while addressing inequality (income and gender related), and spatial exclusion
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Resilience ; DRC ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Fragile Countries ; Low-Carbon ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) aims to support DRC's efforts to achieve its development goals within a changing climate by quantifying the impacts of climate change on the economy and highlighting policies and interventions needed to strengthen the country's climate resilience on many different levels. The report captures the interplay between DRC's development, climate challenges, and climate policies, with the objective of identifying synergies and tradeoffs. The CCDR supports the strategic vision of the Government of DRC as articulated in its 2030 National Strategic Development Plan ("Plan National Strategique de Developpement" (PNSD)) to reach middle-income country (MIC) status by 2035, and by 2050, become a diversified inclusive economy spurred by sustainable growth. It identifies the priorities needed in order to launch the most impactful, cost-effective actions to boost adaptation, build resilience, and foster low-carbon growth, while delivering on broader development goals. These are critical objectives, especially in fragile countries such as the DRC
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Health ; Social Protection ; Water and Food
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) for the West Bank and Gaza examines the social and macroeconomic impacts of climate change under three alternative scenarios that reflect different levels of climate action and divergent economic growth trajectories. The scenario analysis builds on sector-level assessments focused on the water-energy-food nexus, urban development, and the macroeconomic framework and is informed by extensive stakeholder consultations and the stated climate priorities of the Palestinian Authority (PA). The health and social-protection sectors are treated as cross-cutting factors in this analysis, reflecting the critical importance of service provision and human capital in a fragile context like the West Bank and Gaza
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  • 28
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2203
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Environment ; Health ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Migrations and Resettlements ; Human Rights ; Threat Mitigation
    Abstract: Climate change has been called the most important threat to human health in the 21st century. It is estimated that if thetemperature rises and its impact on the other climatic variablescontinues unchanged, it will kill more than 83 million people (1 percent of the world's population) in the next 80 years (Wattset al. 2020)-13 times the toll of the COVID-19 pandemic (WorldHealth Organization 2023). Historically, only pandemics or worldwars have posed such threats to human health. As a result, the issue has aroused unprecedented attention. In 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared climate changethe greatest health threat facing humanity (WHO 2021). Now, more than 195 governments have included climate change mitigation and adaptation as pillars in their multi-year plans, and government health sectors have been developing plans tomeasure and respond to the impact of climate change on health. However, recognition of the links between climate change and health remains nascent, so these efforts have not yet been accompanied by strategic and actionable approaches to measure the impacts and ground the responses. This report contributes to addressing that gap by providing a framework for understandingthe impact of climate change on human health in Colombia and by outlining the most effective actions to mitigate the threat
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Carbon Neutrality ; Climate Change ; Education Finance ; Educational Institutions and Facilities ; Energy ; Environment ; Low-Carbon ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Resilience
    Abstract: The Cambodia Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides analysis and recommendations on how Cambodia can achieve sustained development while responding to climate change and the low-carbon transition. Cambodia has high development aspirations, aiming to become an upper-middle-income country by 2030 and a high-income country by 2050. Achieving these goals will not be easy and will require a more inclusive, diversified, and productive economy. Climate change could amplify existing development challenges, with potentially sizable impacts on growth, trade, debt, and poverty reduction, as Cambodia faces one of the world's highest levels of exposure to floods and extreme heat. However, building climate resilience also offers an opportunity, not only to mitigate climate risks, but also to concurrently further development outcomes, as this report finds that adaptation measures in Cambodia have large development co-benefits. Moreover, Cambodia has made ambitious pledges in its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and in its Long-term Strategy for Carbon Neutrality (LTS4CN). Delivering these commitments will require careful policy choices to mitigate transition risks and seize development opportunities. Finally, as a small, open economy highly dependent on trade and foreign direct investment (FDI), Cambodia will be highly affected by the accelerated decarbonization and changing consumption and production patterns in the rest of the world. With the right policy choices and a vibrant private sector, this could offer opportunities for export diversification, job creation, and growth
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  • 30
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Deforestation ; Environment ; Forests ; GHG Emissions ; Political Economy ; Private Sector
    Abstract: The world faces a triple crisis of three interconnected issues-development, climate, and nature- and current levels of climate action are insufficient. Beyond the grim headlines, there are increasingly clear opportunities to achieve triple wins. To support the alignment of sustainable development priorities and actions with climate change risks and objectives, the World Bank launched the Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) in 2022. This core diagnostic tool aims to help countries prioritize the most impactful actions to boost resilience and adaptation and reduce GHG emissions, while delivering on broader development and sustainability objectives. CCDRs now cover 56 percent of the population of low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs) and 73 percent of their gross domestic product (GDP). The second set of CCDRs also includes one high-income country (HIC), Romania. A main addition of the CCDRs published since COP27 relates to tropical forests, a key dimension of the global climate change challenge. The first set of CCDRs covered only 10 percent of the world's tropical forests, but the addition of key forested countries-including Brazil, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, and the Republic of Congo-increases coverage to 56 percent. Many CCDRs (including Romania and Turkiye) also discuss the role of non-tropical forests for resilience and emission reduction. This second summary report builds on the first report published ahead of COP27. Although it is important to caveat the differences in scenarios and ambition, modeling framework, and scope of analysis, this report provides aggregated results that can help governments, private sector investors, citizens, and development partners prioritize the most impactful climate actions. It confirms-with more granularity and stronger evidence, based on more countries-key findings from the first summary report; but it also discusses new issues, such as deforestation and land degradation. It aims to inform global priorities, including the World Bank's Evolution Roadmap and Global Challenge Programs (GCP), as well as other global initiatives
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Decntralization ; Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Investment ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The latest Taking Stock report shows that Vietnam's economic growth slowed from 8% in 2022 to 3.7% in the first half of 2023. It forecasts a moderate growth of 4.7% in 2023, gradually accelerating to 5.5% in 2024 and 6.0% in 2025. However, the economy faces external and domestic headwinds. Vietnam has ample fiscal space and a proactive fiscal policy supporting short-term demand, removing barriers to the implementation of public investment, and addressing infrastructure constraints can help the economy achieve these targets and promote long-term growth. The report's special chapter studies Vietnam's public investment management and how it can contribute to the goal of becoming a high income economy. To harness the power of public investment, the report recommends that Vietnam sustain its level of investment, improve the quality of the proposed project, and address deficiencies in public investment management and inter-governmental fiscal institutions
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agriculture Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Financing ; Green Growth ; Policy Implementation
    Abstract: This report focuses on the agri-food sector in North Macedonia and investigates the potential and necessary actions for adopting a green growth trajectory. Agri-food is a key sector in need of transformation to achieve green growth in the country. The sector has great economic importance, and it is vulnerable to climate change and other environmental risks, which will compound current sector inefficiencies, including declining competitiveness. This report aims to assess: (i) the actions needed to re-focus agricultural support priorities in a manner that reflects green growth ambitions; (ii) policy financing implications; and (iii) the availability and capacity of effective policy implementation mechanisms. Finally, the potential impacts of greening agriculture support on farm efficiency are assessed and discussed
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Amazon ; Cerrado ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change Impacts ; Ecosystem ; Environment
    Abstract: Brazil is highly exposed to climate change risks. The impacts of global climate change risks and local practices on the Amazon and Cerrado biomes are of particular concern, as they provide vital ecosystem services to Brazil, the South American region, and the world. The Brazil Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) examines the implications of climate change and climate action for Brazil's development objectives and priorities. It identifies opportunities for Brazil to achieve both its development goals and its climate commitments. It lays out a combination of sectoral and economy-wide policy reforms, as well as targeted investments in near- and medium-term mitigation and adaptation measures to achieve more rapid and inclusive development with lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The idea is to maximize synergies between climate and development objectives, while addressing trade-offs among policy objectives and key transition challenges
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  • 34
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Quality and Clean Air ; Climate Change ; Cost-Effective ; Energy-Efficient ; Environment ; Indoor Air Quality ; Thermal Comfort ; Urban Development ; Urban Housing
    Abstract: This report provides evidence-based guidance on cost-effective and energy-efficient cooling and ventilation interventions to improve building-level thermal comfort and indoor air quality for a changing climate in South Asia. It focuses on Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan but also covers all the countries in the region, including Afghanistan, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. After an introduction, the report analyzes local climates and air quality issues, building types, and occupant behavior, as well as available passive and active interventions and their relevance in the region, before concluding with a set of recommendations for all building types. The report also identifies additional recommendations specific to residential and commercial buildings, along with policy and country-specific recommendations
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  • 35
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Catchment Areas ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Roads ; Vulnerability Assessment
    Abstract: The Kingdom of Lesotho is a landlocked country in southern Africa. Large pockets of the population reside along the Senqu River Valley in the south-eastern reaches of the country, and some of the roads traverse this river to connect to the mountainous areas. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns due to climate change negatively impacts Lesotho's road network. Sustained land degradation, soil erosion, and increased demand on ecosystem services threatens infrastructure and the health of Lesotho's natural ecosystems, including wetlands. The primary aim of this study was to undertake a review of existing frameworks for climate and environment vulnerability assessments for roads and to adapt these to the Lesotho context in line with Southern African Development Community (SADC) protocol on transport, the National Strategic Development Plan of Lesotho, and the South African National Roads Agency (SANRAL) Design Guidelines. The adapted climate and environmental risk framework then formed the basis for developing a climate change risk and vulnerability and assessment methodology/tool
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Ecosystem Degradation ; Ecosystems and Natural Habitats ; Environment ; Landscape ; Mazowe ; Sustainable Development
    Abstract: Productive natural ecosystems are being lost and degraded by poorly planned and managed commercial and small-scale livelihood activities in Zimbabwe, and threats will be further exacerbated by climate change. This report identifies the drivers of ecosystem degradation and assesses the value of ecosystems that are key to Zimbabwe's sustainable development. It also highlights investments that are necessary to protect the landscape and deliver ecosystem services for sustainable livelihood and climate resilience
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Impacts ; Conflict ; Environment ; Sahel ; Social Risks
    Abstract: Somalia's natural and human geography is shaped by its harsh climate. Lying at the eastern extremity of the Sahel, Somalia has an arid to semi-arid climate. The country is in the midst of a prolonged and complex climate disaster, which shows little sign of abating. It has recently endured its longest drought in four decades, now punctuated with renewed flooding. This Climate Risk Review aims to systematically summarize existing knowledge on Somalia's climate risks in an accessible and standardized form. It has developed a set of semiquantitative metrics to summarize and compare risks. It contains four chapters: Chapter 1: Climate Overview outlines Somalia's climate context and how it shapes natural and human geography and rural production systems, as well as briefly summarizes current climate policies. Chapter 2: Climate Change, Conflict, and Social Risks examines the interaction between climate, armed conflict, and social risks, both to better understand the wider context of vulnerability and to identify particularly harmful interactions. Chapter 3: Risk Summaries inventories the major biophysical climate risks across five areas: climate disasters, agriculture and livestock, natural resources, health, and infrastructure and services. For each risk, it collates current information and indicates how ongoing climate change will likely affect the intensity of that risk in future. Chapter 4: Prioritizing Adaptation Action recaps the overall findings across different risks and links these to the broader development agenda within Somalia. It identifies broad priorities and approaches for climate action in relation to policies and institutions, physical investments, and knowledge. This information is complemented by a more systematic review of adaptation options across different sectors in the report's appendix. The report is intended as a reference resource and basis for informing further analytical work. The investments and actions it highlights need to be supported by new and detailed analytical work to identify the most efficient interventions and the institutional steps needed to support them
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  • 38
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Data ; Disaster Response ; Drought ; Food Security ; Inclusive Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: This 2023 Economic Update for Mali is articulated in two chapters, plus a spotlight. The first chapter presents the economic and poverty developments observed in the country in 2022 as well as the outlook from 2023 to 2025. This chapter is followed by a summary of the macroeconomic-poverty impact analyses for Mali in the World Bank Sahel Country Climate and Development Report (2022). Chapter Two offers a deep dive on the potential from using disaster risk financing and insurance instruments to reduce adverse socio-economic impacts of climate shocks. While the analysis is about the establishment of such instruments to protect a key sector such as pastoralism, which engages around 80 percent of Mali's households, their use can be extended to other sectors such as agriculture
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Biodiversity ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Forest Institutions ; Forest Management ; Forests ; Fuels ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Land Degradation ; Landscape Restoration ; Legal Framework ; Non-Wood Forest Products ; NWFPs ; Protected Areas
    Abstract: This note synthesizes multiple reports produced under World Bank support to the Government of Armenia (GoA) in undertaking landscape restoration opportunities assessment and provides a detailed overview of opportunities and challenges in the forestry sector. Armenia is a forest-poor country; only 11.2 percent of the territory (334,100 hectares (ha) is forested, which is concentrated in three marzes: Tavush and Lori in the north and Syunik in the south. The predominant forest type is naturally grown broad-leaved mountain forest with a small area of pine forest. Estimates on the state of the forests, their extent, quality, health, and harvested volumes vary widely depending on the data sources and methodology used. Based on wood consumption data, harvesting volumes must be much higher than officially reported, while forest growth is lower than the current official estimates. These divergences, combined with limited silvicultural management and exacerbated by fires and uncontrolled grazing, mean that sustainable forest use is clearly far from guaranteed. The note has been developed through a consultative process and is expected to inform all relevant stakeholders on the status of the forest sector and opportunities to further improve it. The objective of this note is to strengthen the dialogue with Armenia on the forest sector considering the ongoing reforms and to explore how the country can reverse landscape degradation and increase its contribution to post-pandemic economic recovery
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Human Capital ; Inclusive Development ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Sustainability
    Abstract: To respond to climate change effectively, human capital needs to be at the heart of policy responses. This policy note demonstrates the impacts of climate change across the lifecycle and provides a framework of policy and program interventions to protect, build, and use human capital to minimize climate change impacts and create opportunities for more sustainable and inclusive development on a livable planet. By demonstrating the scope of impacts of climate change on people and people's potential to contribute to climate action, the note also makes a case for prioritizing human capital investments as part of countries' Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and other climate strategies
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Carbon Taxes ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience
    Abstract: Integrating climate and development is a pillar of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Climate Change Action Plan 2021-25. To advance its implementation, the WBG has launched the Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR). This new, core diagnostic tool analyzes how a country's development goals can be achieved in the context of adapting to, and mitigating against, climate change. As such, the Pakistan CCDR provides analysis and policy recommendations on how to harmonize the country's efforts to achieve further economic growth and lower poverty rates, on the one hand, with the pursuit of a climate-resilient, low-carbon, and equitable development path, on the other. In light of the devastating 2022 heatwaves and floods and the country's vulnerability profile, the CCDR puts a strong emphasis on the need for building long-term resilience. Further, it explores pathways for Pakistan to achieve deep decarbonization by 2050, and eventually reach net-zero emissions by 2070 without undermining its development ambitions. It also provides assessment on technical, financial and institutional and governance frameworks needed for these climate transitions. Most importantly, it attempts to capture the centrality of people in climate policies by assessing how climate risks affect lives and livelihoods, and ways in which governments can build resilience and address poverty, distributional and job impact of climate change and climate actions. Lastly, it sheds lights on ways for Pakistan to galvanize cooperation between public and private sectors and support from international communities
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Pollution ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Energy ; Energy and Environment ; Environment ; Green Issues
    Abstract: Serbia needs to transition to a greener growth model for internal and external reasons. Internally, Serbia's economy is still characterized by low energy and resource productivity, with significant impacts on health and the environment. As a candidate country for EU membership, Serbia also needs to react to external influences by aligning domestic policies with the EU's energy, environment, and climate legislation, while avoiding negative impacts of the EU's planned Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). This report draws from a rich analysis to provide recommendations on how the transition to greener and more resilient growth in Serbia can begin. First, environmental fiscal reforms are needed to incentivize the adoption of more environmentally friendly technologies. The implementation of carbon pricing will also enable Serbia to proactively prepare for the upcoming EU CBAM. The proceeds of carbon pricing should be reinvested in innovation and education to further accelerate the green transition. Second, institutional frameworks need to be strengthened to support the government in delivering on reforms. Third, sector-specific reforms will need to address important challenges like energy efficiency, air pollution, waste management, water, and wastewater. Importantly, the transition needs to be based on a coherent and adaptive roadmap, which mitigates the risks of 'brown' growth, protects those adversely impacted, and ensures an equitable distribution of the benefits of increased growth
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: In Jordan, natural resource scarcity and import dependence mean pronounced climate change impacts are inevitable and adapting to climate change is a pressing development priority. A new World Bank diagnostic tool, The Country Climate and Development Report explores the linkages between climate and development and identifies priority actions to build resilience and reduce carbon emissions, while supporting economic growth and reducing poverty. The report indicates that Jordan's trajectory in meeting its climate and development goals will be largely determined by policy and investment choices in five strategic sectors - water, energy, agriculture, transport and urban development. The transformation of those sectors towards a resilient and low carbon path would need to be closely coordinated along two nexuses to maximize co-benefits and to reduce potentially negative socio-economic impacts: the water-energy-food security nexus, in a context of extreme water scarcity and pressing adaptation needs, and the urban-transport-energy nexus, which is at the core of the shift towards a low-carbon growth path. Jordan will need to use a combination of avenues to leverage financing for priority climate action. Selected policy reforms to improve the management of public investment in key sectors, attract and leverage private sector financing, incentivize end-users and change behaviors, and ensure greater engagement of the financial sector will all be essential for the achievement of Jordan's climate priorities. Equally important will be the identification of additional financing for priority investments, without which the country's climate commitments may remain out of reach
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Dams and Reservoirs ; Hydrology ; Irrigation ; Irrigation and Drainage ; Water Resources ; Watershed Management
    Abstract: This assessment report presents the results of a study focused on the Sioni Reservoir watershed, which is subject to seasonal sediment loads affecting the sustainability of water for hydropower generation and irrigation. The study reveals the major causes of landscape degradation within target watershed and sediment loads to the Sioni Reservoir affecting the suitability of water for irrigation and the lifetime of the dam. The study also identifies the main interventions for landscape restoration and provides a brief analysis of the institutional and policy gaps and recommendations that are applicable for other watersheds in the region as well
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Climate change poses major risks for development in the Philippines. Climate shocks, whether in the form of extreme weather events or slow-onset trends, will hamper economic activities, damage infrastructure, and induce deep social disruptions. Adaptation to the risks of climate change, including both extreme events and slow-onset problems, is thus critical for the Philippines. Policy inaction would impose substantial economic and human costs, especially for the poor. Adaptation cannot eliminate the costs of climate change, but it can substantially reduce them. Many adaptation responses also contribute to mitigation; conversely, many mitigation measures generate local co-benefits, such as reduced air pollution. Although the Philippines is a relatively low emitter of greenhouse gas (GHG), it can contribute to global mitigation efforts through an energy transition, including a shift away from coal. The investment costs of such adaptation measures and an energy transition are substantial but not out of reach. The Philippines Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) comprehensively analyzes how climate change will affect the country's ability to meet its development goals and pursue green, resilient, and inclusive development. The CCDR helps identify opportunities for climate action by both the public and private sectors and prioritizes the most urgent development challenges impacted by climate change in the Philippines
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The five countries of Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger (the G5) in the Sahel region of Africa are among the least developed countries in the world. The now regular and growing climate shocks are causing large losses in outputs, reducing human capital accumulation, and leading to potentially devastating ecological and economic tipping points in the region. This World Bank country climate development report (CCDR) has examined the most critical actions and policy changes needed to accelerate the region's economic recovery, sustainable and inclusive development, and adaptation to the impacts of climate change. This report has three main messages. First, the opportunities for a resilient and lower-carbon development of the G5 countries are significant. They can reverse environmental degradation and maximize the benefits of climate action for the poor. Second, rapid, resilient, and inclusive growth is both the best form of adaptation to climate change and the best strategy for meeting development goals in an effective, sustainable, and productive manner. Third, the costs of inaction are far greater than the costs of action. Early and targeted action on policies and programs presented in this report can move the G5 Sahel countries towards a greener, more resilient, prosperous, and inclusive future
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy-Environment Review
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Integrating climate and development is a pillar of the World Bank Group's Climate Change Action Plan 2021-25. To advance its implementation, the Bank Group has launched a new, core diagnostic tool: the Country Climate and Development Report, a new, core diagnostic tool that analyzes how a country's development goals can be achieved in the context of adapting to and mitigating against climate change. These reports will reflect the country's climate commitments and identify ways to support their implementation through public and private sector solutions. They will capture the centrality of people in policies on climate change adaptation and mitigation, assessing how climate risks affect people, and ways in which governments can build resilience and address poverty, distributional and job impact of climate change and climate action. The Turkiye Country Climate and Development Report explores how climate action, in line with the country's mitigation goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2053 as well as its adaptation and resilience needs, interact with its growth and development path and contribute to achieving the country's development objectives, help seize opportunities offered by green technologies, protect the economy against longer-term risks such as large-scale disasters or carbon lock-in as the world transitions towards zero-carbon technologies, and support a just and inclusive transition for all
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Environment ; Environmental Economics and Policies ; Natural Resources Management ; Social Accountability ; Social Development
    Abstract: The purpose of this report is to raise awareness and initiate a discussion on the need for sovereign sustainability reporting. The proposed sovereign climate and nature reporting framework would assist sovereigns looking to attract investment by enabling them to produce comprehensive, regular, standardized, and, eventually, forward-looking disclosures of their climate- and nature related risks and opportunities. Sovereign reporting would help meet the needs of investors who are increasingly requesting such disclosures for all asset classes in their portfolios so that they can measure portfolio alignment with the Paris Agreement. This report discusses five fundamental questions regarding sovereign climate and nature reporting: (a) why is a sovereign reporting framework needed;(b) what is required to develop a reporting framework for sovereigns; (c) how is materiality important in driving a reporting framework for sovereigns; (d) what is the potential for unintended consequences; and (e) what are the recommended next steps to develop and implement a reporting framework for sovereigns Sovereign reporting needs its own approach and framework. A customized approach suited to the specifics of sovereign reporting is recommended. This could build on the core elements and underlying principles of existing corporate-focused frameworks such as the Taskforce for Climate-related Financial Disclosure (TCFD). Other frameworks such as context-based performance accounting and reporting frameworks and environmental economic approaches could also be drawn upon, such as the UN System for Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA) framework. Annex A to this report presents a draft example of a sovereign climate and nature risk and opportunities reporting framework as a starting point for discussion (noting that it is not intended as a fully developed template or blueprint)
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Carbon Policy and Trading ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Computable General Equilibrium ; Economic Growth ; Economic Theory and Research ; Environment ; Global Warming ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Policymakers in developing countries face multiple challenges related to climate change. To provide policymakers with reliable recommendations on a variety of climate related policies, the WBG has a diverse and complementary set of models. The analytics range from evaluating the aggregate, sectoral, and welfare effects of mitigation measures to assessing country-specific adaptation needs, considering the impacts of extreme weather events as well as gradual global warming. Key indicators include macroeconomic outcomes, sectoral indicators, co-benefits and poverty and distributional issues. This report summarizes the range of climate and development issues addressed by each model in the WBG suite, revealing both strengths and limitations of individual models, as well as the complementarity among models
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Pollution ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Like most countries in the world, Vietnam is increasingly seeing its development affected by climate change. With a coastline of 3,260 kilometers that includes major cities and production sites, Vietnam is highly exposed to sea-level rise. Climate change impacts on the Vietnamese economy and national welfare are already significant-about 3.2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020-and they are expected to escalate rapidly even if greater efforts are made to mitigate future climate change around the world. Vietnam has historically had very low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but over the past two decades, it has seen some of the fastest emissions growth rates in the world. From 2000 to 2015, as GDP per capita increased from USD 390 to USD 2,000, per capita emissions more than quadrupled. Vietnam's GHG emissions are associated with toxic air pollution in many of its cities today, with implications for health and labor productivity. At the UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November 2021 (COP26), the Prime Minister made several commitments, including an ambitious target of reducing emissions to net zero by 2050. Vietnam's increased attention to climate change and the environment reflects the growing economic costs of resource depletion and climate impacts, which have already started to harm trade and investment- two key drivers of the nation's robust growth and job creation in recent decades. Vietnam now faces critical questions about how to respond to climate change: How intensively should it work to adapt to previous and predicted damages caused by climate change, given the uncertainty of global mitigation efforts? How much will it cost to reduce GHG emissions? How can the private sector be mobilized to help achieve Vietnam's climate goals? Are there trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation investments? Are there trade-offs between economic growth, poverty reduction, and climate action, and how can they be managed? Which sectors and regions should be prioritized? What are the distributional implications of a low-carbon, climate-resilient growth path? The Vietnam Country and Climate Development Report (CCDR) investigates these questions. One of the first in a series of country-level diagnostics produced by the World Bank Group (WBG) under its 2021-2025 Climate Change Action Plan, the CCDR examines the adaptation and mitigation challenges faced by Vietnam. It pays special attention to policy trade-offs and provides recommendations to help policy makers prioritize among a range of options, recognizing uncertainties about future climate change impacts and the availability of technology and financing
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    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Argentina Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) explores opportunities and identifies trade-offs for aligning Argentina's growth and poverty reduction policies with its commitments on, and its ability to withstand, climate change. It assesses how the country can: reduce its vulnerability to climate shocks through targeted public and private investments and adequation of social protection. The report also shows how Argentina can seize the benefits of a global decarbonization path to sustain a more robust economic growth through further development of Argentina's potential for renewable energy, energy efficiency actions, the lithium value chain, as well as climate-smart agriculture (and land use) options. Given Argentina's context, this CCDR focuses on win-win policies and investments, which have large co-benefits or can contribute to raising the country's growth while helping to adapt the economy, also considering how human capital actions can accompany a just transition
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Electricity ; Environment ; Fiscal Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report aims to support Malawi's efforts to achieve its development goals within a changing climate by quantifying the impacts of climate change on the economy and highlighting key policies and interventions that are needed to strengthen climate resilience. The analysis includes climate modeling across multiple scenarios to account for the inherent uncertainty in climate projections; and sector-by-sector analysis and assessment of economywide impacts to identify the biggest impacts. It examines Malawi's current policy landscape and identifies needed reforms; considers how Malawi can best protect its most vulnerable households; and considers how the country can finance its ambitious development and climate agenda, including the key role of the private sector. The analysis shows that climate change will impose large costs on the economy and on already vulnerable households. If Malawi stays on its current low-growth development trajectory, climate change could reduce GDP by 3-9 percent in 2030, 6-20 percent in 2040, and 8-16 percent by 2050). The analysis also clearly demonstrates that development, as set out in Malawi's Vision 2063, provides a strong basis for strengthening resilience to climate impacts. If Malawi was to accelerate implementation of policies and programs envisioned in the Vision 2063 the development trajectory would shift to a higher growth path and climate change impacts would be significantly reduced. But the Vision 2063 development path will not be enough and building greater resilience to climate change will require doing different things and doing things differently. With additional adaptation measures, the analysis shows that not only is the impact of climate change on GDP much smaller, GDP is higher with climate change and adaptation when compared to the counterfactual with no climate impacts; losses range from -1 to 3 percent in 2030 and 2040, and 1 to 4 percent in 2050
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Peru Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides analysis and recommendations on integrating the country's efforts to achieve economic development with the pursuit of emission reduction and climate resilience. The CCDR explores opportunities and trade-offs for aligning Peru's development path with its recent commitments on climate change. Peru is highly vulnerable to climate change and needs urgent adaptation action. Peru can benefit from decarbonization policies, thanks to its mining, forestry and agriculture, and renewable energy resources. Peru has many opportunities to develop and implement comprehensive climate policies that also increase productivity and reduce poverty. A low-carbon, resilient development for Peru would require substantial institutional reforms, in addition to public and private investments
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