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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Consumer Demand ; COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Low Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Unemployment ; Youth
    Abstract: Activity in China continues to track the ups and downs of the pandemic - outbreaks and growth slowdowns have been followed by uneven recoveries. After a downturn caused by the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks and stringent public health measures in April and May, activity picked up in the third quarter as infections receded. Gross domestic product (GDP) expanded by 3.9 percent y/y in Q3, from 0.4 percent in Q2. High frequency indicators suggest another growth slowdown in the fourth quarter amid a return of high COVID-19 cases. Despite fiscal and monetary policy support, real GDP growth is expected to slow to 2.7 percent in 2022 - 1.6 percentage points lower than projected in the June China economic update. In 2023 growth is projected to recover to 4.3 percent but remain below the potential rate
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; COVID-19 ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Systems ; Transition ; Vulnerabilities
    Abstract: This report provides an assessment of the stability of the financial systems of selected Pacific Island Countries (PICs) in the context of COVID-19 and emerging risks. The report brings together an analysis of information provided by the central banks of the PICs covered by this study over the last two years. The purpose of the study is to assess the financial stability and vulnerabilities and to provide technical guidance to the PIC authorities to assist in their financial sector policy response. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the financial systems of the PICs. Chapter 2 presents an analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on the financial systems of the PCIs and the policy responses to the pandemic. Chapter 3 looks at the challenges of transitioning from the pandemic to normal policy settings. Chapter 4 provides a set of bespoke policy recommendations with the aim of enhancing the ability to deal with financial sector risks and vulnerabilities. Finally, Chapter 5 puts forward recommendations for the assessment of climate and environmental related risks on the PICs. The report finds that the pandemic has negatively impacted economic growth in the PICs, challenging financial stability. Due to various relief measures adopted by governments in the region, and the lagged economic impact of the pandemic, the PICs' financial sectors do not yet fully reflect the risks to bank profitability and asset quality, which could materialize over 2022-23. Response and
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Sustainability ; Infrastructure Economics ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; PPP
    Abstract: Public-private partnerships (PPPs) can sometimes be perceived as a means for delivering infrastructure for free. A more nuanced but still inexact view is that they are a mechanism to overcome fiscal constraints. Some argue, perhaps rightly, that often governments enter PPP contracts without fully understanding their fiscal implications. These misconceptions lead to several challenges. There is evidence that fiscal sustainability is often overlooked or ignored by countries with PPP programs, with long-term fiscal implications the governments did not understand or manage well. Governments also struggle with perceptions that they are not fully transparent about the real, ultimate costs of PPP projects. This report aims to illustrate how to improve fiscal risk management and treatment of fiscal commitments and contingent liabilities (FCCL) arising from PPP projects, to build better Infrastructure post-COVID-19. It intends to be a resource for World Bank client countries, including low income and fragile economies, to design their fiscal PPP management frameworks in a viable way that helps them develop their PPP programs while maintaining medium-to-long-term fiscal sustainability and resilience. With that in mind, Volume I highlights and contextualizes the main findings from a set of case studies that assessed the PPP fiscal risk management framework in select countries, and synthesizes the observable and qualitative results in managing the impact of crises, in particular the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on that, it also explores how this crisis has affected PPP projects and overall PPP programs, and suggests improvements to FCCL management frameworks in order to strengthen the capacity of countries to continue with their PPP programs in a sustainable fiscal manner. Volume II contains the detailed case studies on which Volume I is based
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Education ; Education Indicators and Statistics ; Education Reform and Management ; Learning Acceleration ; Learning Poverty
    Abstract: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, global learning levels were unacceptably low. In 2019, learning poverty, the share of children unable to read and understand a simple text by age 10, had reached 57 percent in low- and middle-income countries (World Bank and others 2022b). This constituted a global learning crisis. Despite significant expansion in access to schooling in most low, and middle-income countries over the past 50 years to near-universal levels for primary school, progress in improving global learning levels had stalled. This report, Learning Recovery to Acceleration: A Global Update on Country Efforts to Improve Learning and Reduce Inequalities, takes stock of what countries have done so far to recover and accelerate learning since reopening schools, and what we have learned from their experience. It follows the RAPID Framework for Learning Recovery and Acceleration, which we published with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, U.K.'s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), UNESCO, UNICEF and USAID in 2022 as a menu of policy actions based on past evidence and on policies that many countries were already implementing. To a large extent, many of the policies and interventions needed to recover from the pandemic setbacks and accelerate learning are known. One lesson is clear: political and financial commitment are vital for improving learning and reducing inequality. Effective education strategies require societies' determination to make education a priority and devote the necessary human and financial resources to end the learning crisis. Policymakers, schools, and communities must work urgently to recover learning, tackle deep-rooted systemic challenges, and build resilience to future disruptions
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Economic Uncertainty ; Gender and Development ; Gender Monitoring and Evaluation ; Gendered Impact ; Labor and Employment Law ; Labor Market ; Law and Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Women
    Abstract: The Iran Economic Monitor (IEM) provides an update on key economic developments and policies. It examines these economic developments and policies in a longer-term and global context and assesses their implications for the outlook for thecountry. The IEM's coverage ranges from the macroeconomy to financial markets to indicators of human welfare and development. Iran's economy continued to grow moderately for the third consecutive year in 2022/23, albeit at a slower pace than in the previous year. Real gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 3.8 percent in 2022/23, driven by expansions in services and manufacturing. Despite sanctions, the oil sector also expanded, aided by the tighter global oil markets. Favorable weather conditions helped the agriculture sector to marginally grow after the contractionsin previous years. On the expenditure side, private consumption was the main driver of GDP growth. Government consumption contracted to contain the budget deficit following a sharp expansionary policy in 2021/22. Meanwhile, exports and importsboth increased, and strong investment in machinery drove investments up, while construction investment marginally improved. However, the economy continuesto face growth constraints notably related to the economic sanctions, restricted access to external markets and to the latest technology, and much needed foreign investment. The Special Focus of the report highlights the scarring effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, documenting the marked deterioration in labor market outcomes. Despite sizeable government interventions to sustain the economy, in the first year of the pandemic (2021/22), approximately 1 million Jobs were lost, and labor force participation contracted by 3 percentage points. Iranian women were the most affected: two out of three jobs lost between 2019/20 and 2020/21 were previously held by women. The gendered impact of the crisis contributed to widening Iranian's women disadvantage in the labor market. Most importantly, the gains in femalelabor force participation slowly accumulated since 2011 vanished. Consistent with what is observed in other countries, women with young children were the most affected by the crisis. The combined effect of school closures and unequal intra-household allocation of care responsibilities, associated with prevailing gender norms, pushed Iranian women with children out of the labor force. Whether or not these trends will be reversed as the management of the COVID-19 pandemic is normalized and the economy recovers from the crisis remains an important policy question
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Independent Evaluation Group Studies
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Impact ; Economic Insecurity ; Economic Stabilization ; Future Crisis ; Institutional Level ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Recovery ; Strategic Level
    Abstract: In the face of the global economic crisis caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the World Bank delivered the largest crisis response in its history. This evaluation assesses the Bank Group's early response to the economic crises caused by COVID-19, and examines interventions over the 15 months from April 2020 through June 2021. The report considers two evaluation windows: the acute crisis phase (April 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020) and the incipient recovery phase (January 1, 2021 to June 30, 2021). The objective of identifying the two windows was to assess whether the Bank Group internalized learning from the first period of the crisis to address the challenges that were materializing in the (incipient) recovery phase. The evaluation assesses the relevance of the Bank Group's interventions on three dimensions: the extent to which the Bank Group targeted its early response based on clients' and sectors' needs, the extent to which the Bank Group used timely diagnostics and lessons from past crises to inform its early response, and the extent to which the early response leveraged the Bank Group's comparative advantages. The evaluation studies the quality of the Bank Group response on three dimensions: the extent to which the Bank Group early response influenced client strategies; the extent to which the Bank Group coordinated its early response among its constituent institutions and with development partners; and how well the Bank Group early response handled monitoring, safeguards, and governance. The evaluation offers two near-term recommendations to strengthen the role of the Bank Group as a crisis responder, which is now more critical than ever
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Post-Pandemic ; Public Debt ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Tourism ; Travel-Dependent
    Abstract: This publication is the inaugural edition of the future publication series on Pacific Economic Update (PEU). It consists of two parts. Part A analyzes the recent economic developments in Pacific Islands. Based on these developments, the PI EU summarizes the outlook for the region's economies and risks to this outlook. Second, the PEU provides an in-depth examination of a public debt issues in the Pacific and proposes policy recommendations to address public debt related challenges. The PEU is intended for a broad set of audience, including regional forums, policy makers, business leaders, international donors and the community of analysts and professionals engaged in the economies of Pacific Island countries. In dealing with the challenges of rising inflation, tepid recovery from the pandemic and global slowdown, the PICs should strike a balance between supporting livelihoods and reducing future public debt risks. The need for fiscal support during the current environment of high inflation and tepid economic recovery is understandable as it provides the much needed relief for vulnerable households and businesses to navigate the crisis. Nonetheless, these support measures create significant fiscal burdens, and are unsustainable, particularly if the high energy and food prices persist longer than envisaged. Most PICs already face low capacity to finance unexpected shocks which would be further tested by a natural disaster event. Therefore, PICs should tread a delicate balance between fiscal support measures and achieving fiscal sustainability. Any forthcoming fiscal support should be well-targeted, time-bound, and deficit-neutral. Over the medium-term, fiscal efficiency gains and ongoing donor support is critical to finance key development challenges and climate adaptation. Revenue-based fiscal consolidation measures could include improving the efficiency of tax collections and eliminating tax exemptions. On the expenditure side, PICs have limited room to sharply cut spending given the expected modest growth and ongoing development needs. Therefore, it becomes imperative to improve the efficiency of public spending, to maximize social dividends for every dollar spent. Resulting savings from fiscal consolidation measures could help build sovereign wealth funds to provide added fiscal buffers during shocks and economic downturns. Due to high vulnerability to disasters and climate change, PICs will need to seek ongoing concessional financing for critical climate adaptation and development needs
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: General Economy, Macroeconomics, and Growth Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Development ; Economic Growth ; Higher Value Markets ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Obstacles ; Pacific ; Policies ; Tourism
    Abstract: Over the two decades preceding the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, tourism became one of the most important drivers of economic growth across the Pacific. The COVID-19 crisis had a devastating impact on tourism activity in the Pacific, with severe and potentially durable economic and social consequences. This study takes a fresh look at tourism's role for development in the Pacific, its future after COVID-19, and the scope to foster a greener, more resilient, competitive, and inclusive sector. It complements and builds on the 2016 Pacific possible report, which assessed specific opportunities to increase arrivals in a context of rapid tourism growth, by considering the changes to the industry's model that could maximize tourism's economic, social, and environmental benefits for Pacific Islanders. It does this by: (i) taking stock of the evidence on tourism's historical contribution to development in the Pacific Island Country (PICs) and of the COVID-19 crisis' impacts, (ii) analyzing current obstacles and potential opportunities for a more competitive and sustainable Pacific tourism, focusing on selected issues key to target higher value markets, and (iii) recommending policy priorities and investment needs to (re)position the Pacific tourism model for the future and broaden its benefits, focusing on competitiveness, environmental sustainability, resilience and inclusiveness. Given the scarcity of data on Pacific tourism and frequent discrepancies across sources, one of the study's main contributions is to provide a detailed quantitative assessment of the sector and its economic impacts, for instance on jobs, poverty, and public revenue, based on an extensive data collection, cross-checking and integration exercise
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Pandemic ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Spending
    Abstract: Cambodia's economic recovery solidified in 2022 with real growth accelerating to 5.2 percent. After shifting to "living with COVID-19" in late 2021, the economy is firmly on a path to recovery and has now returned to its pre-pandemic growth trajectory. Initially led by the strong performance of export-oriented manufacturing, growth drivers are rotating to the services and agriculture sectors. Meanwhile, the agriculture sector is benefitting from improved access to regional markets, thanks to newly ratified bi-lateral and regional free trade agreements. Weakening external demand is, however, starting to weigh on the country's economic recovery. Despite weakening goods export performance, the current account balance is improving, thanks to the rebound in the travel and tourism industry and remittances, while the oil price shock eased. The economic recovery and good revenue administration underpinned an across-the board improvement in domestic revenue collection. The authorities continued to provide cash transfers for poor and vulnerable households, although the worst of the pandemic is now behind us. In this regard, the Cambodian authorities have extended the COVID-19 cash transfer program, with an additional budget. To enhance the long-term resilience and competitiveness of the economy, efforts are needed to further promote export product diversification
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Conflict ; COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Food Insecurity ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Yemen's economy has been transformed by eight years of violent conflict. War has shattered the country's already fragile economic equilibrium, touching upon virtually every aspect of life. The compounded shocks of the COVID-19 pandemic and rising global prices have only deepened the economic and humanitarian disaster precipitated by the war. Since the start of the conflict, economic analyses have tended to focus on the deterioration of macroeconomic indicators, the sharp rise in poverty and food insecurity, and the destruction of infrastructure and the capital stock, but relatively little attention has been paid to the current structure of the economy or what prospects can be envisaged for the country. Also, it is important to situate this analysis within the political economy dynamics of the country which majorly affect the economic development challenges of the country. Data constraints and the unique characteristics of Yemen's recent experience limit the effectiveness of traditional growth-analysis methodologies. This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) uses novel data-collection methods and analytical techniques, triangulating its findings with traditional approaches and direct data collection to close the economic knowledge gap. Information sources include extensive key-informant interviews, household phone surveys, and remotely sensed geospatial data based on satellite imagery, including nighttime illumination data. This CEM also combines an in-depth political economy analysis with economic development investigation
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Environmental Shocks ; Fiscal System ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty and Equity ; Poverty Reduction ; Urban Areas
    Abstract: This report relies on several data sources. The main source providing the poverty, inequality and labor figures herein is the 2019/20 Household Budget Survey (Inquerito sobre Orcamento Familiar, IOF2019/2020) conducted by the National Statistical Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, INE) starting in November 2019 and spanning 13 months. The survey's sample was drawn from the 2017 Census and allows for poverty figures to be representative at national and provincial as well as rural and urban levels. The fieldwork included data collection from 13,297 households interviewed across four quarters as in previous surveys, to account for seasonality effects like the impact on households' consumption of relatively more abundant post-harvest periods. The starting point for the analysis is chapter 1, which synthesizes progress in reducing poverty between 2014-15 and 2019-20. This chapter also looks at the regional distribution of poverty, the impact of the pandemic, multidimensional poverty, the profile of the poor, changes in the responsiveness of poverty to growth, discusses trends in non-monetary dimensions of wellbeing, and simulates future poverty trends. Chapter 2 examines the distribution of growth and inequality reduction over the period, the pandemic's impact, discusses the growth-poverty-inequality relationship, assesses the spatial dimensions of poverty, and estimates the Human Opportunity Index for Mozambique. Chapter 3 focuses on labor markets and provides insights into labor force participation, unemployment, underemployment, employment sectors, child labor, and labor market demand conditions. Chapter 4 presents a fiscal incidence analysis and information on transfers. Chapter 5 examines the relevance of environmental shocks, assesses the impact of weather events on agricultural production and night-time light radiance in urban areas. It also models poverty and distributional impacts of climate change shocks and presents findings on climate change literacy in Mozambique. Finally, chapter 6 discusses a variety of policy implications
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Cash Transfers ; COVID-19 ; Labor Market ; Pensions ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; Poverty ; Social Analysis ; Social Assessment ; Social Development ; Social Funds ; Social Protection System ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: A period of economic growth over the past decade led to a reduction in poverty and improvements in labor market outcomes in Montenegro. Substantial challenges remain, which have been aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, drawing attention to the role that social protection plays in reducing poverty and promoting human capital. This note presents a situational analysis of the social protection system in Montenegro. It assesses the extent to which the social protection system in Montenegro fulfils its purpose and proposes areas for reform in the short, medium, and long term. To this end, this note seeks to assess each category of social protection, namely: social assistance, social services, social insurance (specifically pensions) and labor market programs, in terms of program coverage, equity, sustainability and effectiveness
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; GDP ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Pandemic
    Abstract: In Azerbaijan, economic growth was 4.6 percent in 2022, driven by non-energy sectors supported by recovering demand and fiscal expansion. Inflation accelerated sharply to 13.8 percent, driven by import prices. In the medium-term, growth is expected to moderate as non-energy sector growth returns to pre-COVID levels while the energy sector shrinks further. Risks to this outlook are balanced. This Macro Poverty Outlook presents GDP, debt and fiscal forecasts and examines the implications for critical economic and social concepts such as growth, poverty reduction and macroeconomic stability
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Education Finance ; Education Reform and Management ; Education System ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Learning Losses ; Pandemic
    Abstract: Commodity windfalls and private consumption have sustained Indonesia's growth despite a difficult global environment, but signs of normalizing domestic demand are emerging. Inflation is easing at a faster pace than markets anticipated. Indonesia's external vulnerabilities remain moderate. The fiscal stance has normalized reflecting faster fiscal consolidation, anchored by a broad-based rise in revenues and prudent public spending. Softening inflation and resilient capital flows have led Bank Indonesia (BI) to ease its pace of monetary tightening. The outlook remains stable as the economy normalizes following the post-pandemic recovery. While this is a robust outcome given levels of global uncertainty, Indonesia still faces declining productivity growth like other emerging market economies. Policy makers are encouraged to build on recent reforms and adopt further market-friendly policies and reduce constraints to competition to accelerate productivity growth. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has put tremendous efforts into mitigating the learning disruption caused by COVID-19. This study provides new evidence of learning loss in math and language, comparing data on grade 4 student learning before and after the COVID-19 pandemic-induced school closures across Indonesia. In line with international literature on COVID-19 - induced learning losses, students' future earnings and Indonesia's future productivity will be negatively affected if no action is taken. This study highlights the urgency of addressing learning loss by stimulating political commitment for learning recovery and prompting deliberate actions, with adequate resources to complete them
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Adaptive ; COVID-19 ; Inclusive Recovery ; Limited Spending ; Resilience ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; SPL
    Abstract: Social Protection and Labor (SPL) Systems help individuals and societies manage risk and volatility and protect them from poverty through instruments that address the challenges of resilience, equity and opportunity. SPL systems include social safety nets, social insurance, and labor market programs. As recent events have shown, the relative emphasis among goals - resilience, equity and opportunity - can change over time, with demands put on SPL program design and delivery systems differing in each context. In relatively stable times, programs are likely to focus on human capital formation, equality of opportunity, poverty reduction, and redistribution. This was the case in Central America prior to the COVID-19 emergency, albeit with some shortcomings. The goal of shock-responsiveness (resilience) dramatically came to the fore during the pandemic, even if recognized earlier during natural disasters and now more broadly with climate change. Globally and in Central America, SPL systems had a critical role in the response to the COVID-19 emergency
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Banking Supervision ; COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Economic Stabilization ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Stability ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Macroprudential ; Microprudential
    Abstract: Over the past two years, the World Bank has been working with Pacific Island Countries (PICs) to assess the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on their financial systems and provide guidance to the PIC prudential authorities on policy issues relating to strengthening the resilience of financial systems in the region. As part of this work program, the World Bank produced a series of seven deep dive papers on a range of issues relating to financial stability in the PICs. Each paper was presented during an online workshop with the prudential authorities of the PICs and followed by a Questions and Answers session. The papers in the series are: COVID-19 and financial stability: guidance on financial system surveillance in the pandemic, COVID-19 and stress testing, micro prudential and macro prudential policy: seeking the right balance, early intervention in banking supervision, recovery planning for banks, bank resolution, and financial safety nets This volume pulls together these deep dive papers while being mindful that each paper stands on its own. Yet, an integrated approach is needed in all these policy areas, and it is vital to tailor reforms to country specific circumstances This recognizes that, even in a stable financial system there will inevitably be periods of financial stress and that there is a need to ensure that frameworks are in place to address these events cost-effectively and in ways that preserve market discipline, avoid moral hazard and minimize fiscal risks. Private
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Economic Impacts ; Employment ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Support ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Policies
    Abstract: More than three years after the first COVID-19 case was discovered in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region, it is time to take stock of the lasting effects-and opportunities-of the pandemic and identify which policies may have helped stem the economic losses suffered by households and firms. To do so, this regional report examines the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on households and firms in six countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. This volume examines: (a) the links between impacts on firms and households, in particular through the employment channel, and (b) governments' fiscal responses to the COVID crisis, through transfers, subsidies, and taxes. It identifies and explains changes in household well-being by examining the economic effects of the pandemic on labor markets. As the source of employment and wage income, businesses have a direct role in determining jobs and earnings, and, indirectly, welfare, poverty, and inequality. When faced with a shock, firms responded by adjusting employment, reducing wages, increasing prices, and reducing services provided. All of these channels directly affected households' wellbeing. For this reason, the report focuses on firms in addition to households. Governments responded through various instruments, providing transfers and subsidies and lowering the tax burden to both households and firms
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2113
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Edtech ; Education ; Education Indicators and Statistics ; Education Reform and Management ; FLC ; Foundational Learning ; Teachers
    Abstract: The FLC Progress Report showcases initiatives that have helped create tools and knowledge for countries to improve foundational learning through their educational systems. Since it is the first such report for the FLC, it will cover the transition to the FLC from the previous SABER3 program to its incarnation as the FLC umbrella trust fund. It will also examine recent and current challenges, including the slowdown in the pace of implementation during the COVID related school and ministry closures. The pandemic both stymied and shaped how the FLC initiatives worked, where we worked, and when we worked. We have had to adapt. Fortunately, implementation has picked up in the last year and technical teams have been working tirelessly to accelerate implementation
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Credit To Private Sector ; Global Commodity Market Shock ; International Economics and Trade ; Pandemic ; Poverty Reduction ; Promoting Vaccination ; Robust Growth
    Abstract: Kenya's rebound from the pandemic continued in 2022. Driven by broad-based increases in services and industry, real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased by 6.0 percent Year-on-Year (y/y) in the first half (H1) of 2022. However, the agriculture sector contracted by 1.5 percent during thesame period, and with the sector contributing almost one fifth of GDP, its poor performance pulled back GDP growth by 0.3 percentage points. Notwithstanding the strong y/y creases, GDP has seen a marked sequential slowdown since the 2021 third quarter (Q3) as base effect dissipatedand business confidence weakened because of the global commodity market shock, a long regional drought and domestic political uncertainty in the run up to the August 2022 general elections. Business confidence however picked up in the wake of a smooth transition of power following a largely peaceful presidential election. Kenya's growth prospects remain bright; however, emerging shocks are challenging the broad-based rebound. Thebaseline assumes robust growth of credit to private sector, contained COVID-19 infections, and high commodity prices favorable for Kenyan exports to boost Kenya's growth in the medium term. However, the ongoing shocks, including the long drought in arid and semi-arid areas, rising inflation, and tighter global financial conditions, create challenges for Kenya to sustain its recovery
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Domestic Economic Sectors ; Global Economic Headwinds ; Inflation ; International Economics and Trade ; Poor Households ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: While recovering from Coronavirus (COVID-19),Cambodia's economy is now facing global economic headwinds. The current account improved in the first half of 2022 as the trade deficit narrowed. Rising global energy, fertilizer and food prices prompted a surge in inflation. Rising inflation is particularly harmful to poor households. To mitigate impacts of the food and oil price shock, the authorities are planning to introduce additional social assistance measures, while extending the existing COVID19 cash transfer program until end-2022. Promoting the domestic economic sectors, focusing on the travel, tourism, and hospitality industries should help partly offset the deterioration of external demand conditions. And successful facilitation of coherent private sector leadership of the sector should help create a "crowding-in" effect, anchored to comprehensive long-term plans, catalyzed by public seed funding. It is equally important to address supply chain constraints, which include high logistics and transportation costs to boost export
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; International Trade and Trade Rules ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Trade Facilitation ; Trade Policy
    Abstract: Rwanda achieved rapid export growth in the decade before the pandemic. In addition, Rwanda has expanded business tourism by promoting the meetings, incentives, conferences/conventions, and events/exhibitions industry. Air transport services was another key export, as a growing number of international airlines are serving Rwanda. However, the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic depressed goods and especially, services exports in 2020. Sustained growth in trade will be a key driver for achieving the government's goal of becoming an upper middle-income country by 2035. While exports have increased significantly over the past two decades, Rwanda remains a less open country than the middle-income countries the government aspires to match. Regional integration can not only provide the needed economic scale for Rwandan firms to improve their productivity and competitiveness, but can also serve as a vital training ground for learning to export and produce higher-quality goods The aim of this report is to assess policy options to foster international trade, deepen regional integration, and reinforce the government diversification strategy through services. The first part of this report assesses Rwandan trade performances and trade potential in recent years, with a special emphasis on regional trade, trade in services, and the impact of the COVID-19. The second part of the report assesses the main drivers and challenges to international and regional trade in Rwanda including: i) trade policy, with special emphasis on non-tariff barriers and the African Continental Free Trade Agreement; ii) trade facilitation with special emphasis on Rwanda's trade logistic ambitions; iii) supply side trade constraints at the firm-level; and iv) specific trade challenges to trade in service and data exchanges. The third part of the report discusses potential recommendations
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  • 22
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Econometrics ; Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Economic Development ; Macroeconomic Management ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has set back the economy and fiscal balances of Sierra Leone, which are now further impacted by the war in Ukraine. Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth turned negative in 2020, while the government's efforts to reduce the fiscal deficit were undermined by the need for emergency spending. Just when the economy began to recover, the war in Ukraine caused new disruption through sharply higher food and fuel prices. Thus, the authorities face both the short-term challenge of coping with these price shocks while recovering from the pandemic, and the medium-term challenge of renewing fiscal consolidation and promoting higher economic growth. Public finances have deteriorated since the onset of COVID-19. Inflationary pressures have accelerated since mid-2021, driven first by the post-pandemic rebound in consumption, and subsequently by global supply chain disruptions since the onset of the Ukraine war, and depreciation pressures on the Leone. Small-and-medium enterprises (SMEs) can be engines of economic growth and job creation,under the right circumstances. Currently, in Sierra Leone, SMEs (along with micro-enterprises) provide livelihoods to approximately 70 percent of the population and represent over 90 percent of the domestic private sector. Access to finance for SMEs and digital finance are priorities for the government. Digital financial services (DFS) are not diversified, and mobile money remains the main driver. The payments infrastructure including the RTGS, ACH and securities settlement system needs to be upgraded. Sierra Leone lacks a modern credit reporting system. Key recommendations for greater SME access to finance are presented in this report
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Commodity Prices ; COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Economic Modeling ; Inflation ; Macroeconomic Management ; Macroeconomics ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Indonesia's economic recovery from the Corornavirus (COVID-19) pandemic comes amidst an increasingly challenging global environment. Indonesia's growth accelerated at the end of 2021 as the country stepped off from a devastating Delta wave in July-August, ending the year with 3.7 percent growth. The momentum carried into the first quarter of 2022 with the economy growing at 5 percent (yoy) and absorbing a short and sharp increase in Omicron-related COVID cases. Growth drivers since end 2021 have rebalanced gradually from exports and public consumption towards private consumption and investment. Since February, the war in Ukraine has disrupted the global economic environment with rising commodity prices and de-risking in global financial markets. The positive terms-of-trade effect has benefited Indonesia in the near-term through higher export and fiscal earnings. But the country is starting to feel the pressures of rising prices and tightening external finance
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Armed Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; COVID-19 ; Food Security ; Natural Resources ; Peace and Peacekeeping ; Post Conflict Reconstruction
    Abstract: South Sudan is at a crossroads in its recovery, reconstruction, and development. Having gained independence in 2011 after two protracted civil wars, the country twice relapsed into conflict: first in 2013 and again in 2016. While the economy began to recover following the 2018 peace deal, progress has stalled amidst a multitude of crises - including the COVID-19 pandemic, climate shocks, and dwindling oil production. At the same time, the broad-based rise in commodity prices due to the war in Ukraine have on balance affected South Sudan adversely. A decade after independence, South Sudan remains caught in a web of fragility and economic stagnation, with weak institutions, recurring cycles of violence, and ubiquitous poverty. Overall, the conflict is estimated to have cost South Sudan an accumulated loss in aggregate GDP of some USD 81 billion during 2012 - 2018, equivalent to USD 11.6 billion per year on average (80 percent of 2010 GDP). Consequently, South Sudan's real GDP per capita in 2018 was estimated at being one third of the counterfactual estimated for a non-conflict scenario. With the fragile peace deal largely holding despite challenges in implementation, the authorities initiated an ambitious reform program aimed at macroeconomic stabilization and modernization of the young country's public financial management systems. This report discusses South Sudan's economic performance since independence, with a focus on leveraging the country's endowments of natural capital - oil and arable land - to support recovery and resilience. Three messages emerge from this report. First, there is a peace dividend in South Sudan. South Sudan's real GDP per capita in 2018 was estimated at one third of the counterfactual estimated for a non-conflict scenario. Thus, maintaining peace can by itself be a strong driver of growth. Second, with better governance and accountability, South Sudan's oil resources can drive transformation. Third, South Sudan's chronic food insecurity could be reversed with targeted investments to improve the resilience of the agricultural sector
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Conflict and Development ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Economic Insecurity ; Education Reform ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Crisis Management and Restructuring ; Food Security ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Water Resources
    Abstract: Development prospects in Madagascar continue to be hampered by the country's low growth potential and exposure to frequent, deep, and persistent crises. Following a recession in 2020 that was about three times deeper than in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa, an economic recovery started in Madagascar in 2021 but was interrupted in 2022 by a sequence of domestic and international shocks. In addition to these new headwinds, the growth potential of the economy has been negatively impacted during the crisis by a retrenchment in private investment, deteriorating human capital and weakening governance. In this context, growth projections were downgraded to 2.6 percent in 2022 and to an average of 4.4 percent in 2023-2024, with the poverty rate now expected to remain close to 80 percent by 2024. This can only happen if the government kickstarts far-reaching reforms supporting private investment and job creation, better access to basic services and infrastructure, and greater resilience to shocks. Several policy priorities are highlighted as particularly urgent in this Economic Update. This report also highlights the importance of boosting public school performance following the continued deterioration in learning outcomes and advocates for a set of reforms reinforcing teachers' selection and evaluation, salary and school grant management, redress mechanism and local community engagement
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Inequality ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development
    Abstract: Mongolia made notable strides in reducing poverty from 2010 to 2014, but the pace of poverty reduction slowed significantly after the 2016 economic recession. The trend of declining inequality and inclusive growth seen in the first half of the decade changed course in the latter half. Greater urbanization and narrowing geographical disparities in poverty have meant that the poor have become increasingly concentrated in urban centers, especially Ulaanbaatar. Economic volatility and uncertainty together with restrictions on face-to-face services may have led to an increase in precautionary saving among households, particularly during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. An additional issue related to the measurement of consumption in 2020 specifically is the survey-to-survey imputation approach that was used to estimate poverty and the consumption distribution due to changes in the household socio-economic survey (HSES) questionnaire. Finally, despite significant increases, social transfers have had only modest success in reducing poverty due to targeting inefficiencies. The 2020 HSES shows that impacts to employment in 2020 were not significant until the final quarter, with workers in urban areas and in the service sector more likely to be affected. While subsequent surveys will provide a clearer picture of the longer-term impacts of the pandemic, signs of potentially lasting and unequalizing effects have emerged after 2020
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Health Indicators ; Health Insurance ; Health Shocks ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Resources
    Abstract: As the world approaches the third anniversary of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, the devastating health, economic, and societal impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic remain on every continent. COVID-19 underscored how unprepared we are for a public-health emergency of staggering proportions. And yet potentially graver health threats loom. The increasing number of acute infectious diseases combines with trends such as population aging, chronic-disease burdens, and climate change to raise the risk of syndemics-events in which two or more diseases adversely interact with each other and with political and economic conditions of inequality and poverty. The only way to prevent, prepare for, and manage these threats is by building resilient health systems to withstand shocks and improve health outcomes between crises. This report, which is filled with country examples of resilience, shows how strengthening resilience is within every country's reach, even those with low incomes. It describes the key features of resilient systems as integrated systems that are aware of threats; agile in response to evolving needs; absorptive of shocks; adaptive to minimize disruptions; and able to transform after crises, based on lessons learned. The report makes recommendations for countries to operationalize resilience based on a framework that prioritizes investments according to their impact. The most important investments center on risk reduction, including prevention and community preparedness. The second most important investments focus on disease detection, containment, and mitigation to contain outbreaks before they spread widely. The final set focuses on advanced case management and surge response during an epidemic or pandemic, making this the most expensive and least cost-effective tier. The final message of the report is urgency. Investments are needed to save lives and economies - before it is too late
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (65 pages)
    Series Statement: Latin America and Caribbean Semiannual Report
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Efficiency ; Fiscal Adjustment ; Fiscal Revenue ; Growth ; Inflation ; Personal Income Tax ; Public Spending
    Abstract: As the COVID+?19 crisis recedes, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is back to work and looking forward. Reported deaths related to the pandemic are low and have plausibly converged to global levels. Yet low vaccination rates in some countries leave them vulnerable to new variants. In most countries, gross domestic product (GDP) and employment have fully recovered their 2019 levels, although forecasted growth rates might be said to be "resiliently mediocre+?: banking systems appear sound, and rising debt burdens are manageable so far, but growth is not expected to exceed the low levels of the 2010 decade. Poverty in terms of income (monetary poverty) has largely receded with the economic recovery, but the longer+?term scars of the pandemic in terms of education and health have planted deep seeds of future inequality. Redressing these problems and undertaking the structural reforms needed to reach higher levels of growth and reduce poverty remain central on the policy agenda. The new and unwelcome entrant in the policy space is inflation. While comparable to advanced country levels and well managed by regional monetary authorities, inflation nonetheless is being propelled by forces that may give it more staying power than originally hoped. Finally, public deficits induced by the pandemic and the need to finance critical government programs and directions have opened a fiscal gap and led to constrained fiscal space. The need to close the fiscal gap, put debt on a sustainable footing, and generate fiscal space to finance necessary physical and social investments has led to a search for new revenues and in particular to pressure to increase income taxes. In looking at any tax hike, concerns center on the possible depressive effects on growth, overall progressivity, and possible incentives for informality. This report presents new evidence on these effects for value added taxes (VAT) and income taxes. It also advocates for steps to cut wasteful government spending and increase government efficiency-both to generate substantial resources and as an entry point to a broader agenda of state modernization and generating public trust
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (212 pages)
    Series Statement: South Asia Economic Focus
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Balance of Payments ; Commodity Prices ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Food Insecurity ; Inflation ; Labor Market ; Migration ; Pandemic ; Remittances
    Abstract: South Asia is facing renewed challenges. The impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on food and energy prices on domestic inflation is long-lasting. Externally, countries' current account balances deteriorate rapidly as imports rise on the back of economic recovery and rising inflation, remittances decline, and foreign capital flows out following monetary tightening in advanced economies. An economic slowdown in advanced economies and trading partners can also be a drag to the exports sector and remittances inflows, which many countries in the region depend on. These immediate challenges can translate to persistent deterrent to long-term growth and development. Higher energy prices already are changing the attitude of many countries outside the region about green transition and carbon reduction. The South Asia region is thus at a critical juncture. The theme chapter provides a deep dive into COVID-19 and migration. Migrant workers and remittances flows are important for South Asia as sources of income and means to smooth local income shocks for households, and as an important source of foreign reserves for the country. The pandemic changed the flows of migration, as some migrants had to return home and some had to stay in foreign countries due to COVID-related restrictions. The chapter studies the long-run trend of migration in the region, how COVID-19 impacted migration and remittance inflows, whether migration has (or has not) recovered, and proposes policies to address underlying problems
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  • 30
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Corruption ; COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The speed, reach, and magnitude of the Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic sent a shockwave around the globe that tested the capacity of Public Finance Management (PFM) systems to support governments' responses to crises. Fiscal transparency was not a foremost priority for decisionmakers during the crisis as they sought to put in place emergency measures with imperfect information and under rapidly changing conditions. This report, which complements existing public budgeting assessments that apply internationally recognized PFM frameworks on a regular basis, presents a comparative analysis focused upon experiences with and lessons about fiscal transparency in three countries in the Western Balkans - Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), North Macedonia and Serbia. It includes examples of good practices that were deployed in various countries within the region and beyond during their response to Covid-19. In doing so, it aims to distil lessons and provide recommendations about what could be done better in preparation for and during future emergency events
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Digital Divide ; Disease Control and Prevention ; Economic Growth ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy
    Abstract: Myanmar's economy continues to be severely tested by the ongoing impacts of the military coup and the surge in COVID-19 cases in 2021. While some real-time indicators have improved in recent months, they remain consistent with a much lower level of economic activity than prior to the February coup. Reported COVID-19 cases have fallen to low levels (and few reported cases of the Omicron variant as of early January 2022), while real time indicators of mobility, manufacturing activity, and exports are showing signs of recovering. On the other hand, indicators of conflict suggest that the security environment has deteriorated in many parts of Myanmar, including in states and regions which have historically been relatively peaceful. This has affected businesses' operations, logistics, confidence, and appetite to invest. After the sharp decline in incomes and employment observed across the economy, available indicators suggest domestic demand remains very weak. At the same time, supply-side constraints persist and some have worsened in recent months. Access to kyat liquidity, credit, and foreign currency remains severely constrained. A sharp exchange rate depreciation in September 2021 has raised import prices across the economy, including of fuel and other critical inputs to production, increasing transport costs. Electricity outages are a growing concern and internet disruptions continue to reduce the reliability of firms' and households' connectivity and ability to access information and connect with markets (see Part III: Digital Disruptions and Economic Impacts)
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  • 32
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Disaster Management ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the second of five planned rounds of mobilephone surveys, as well as the results of a companion survey funded by UNICEF. Thefirst World Bank High Frequency Phone Survey (HFPS) in Solomon Islands on thesocioeconomic implications of the coronavirus pandemic found wide rangingimpacts that deserve to be monitored as long as the pandemic continues
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Debt and Creditworthiness Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Debt Management ; External Debt ; Finance and Financial Sector Development
    Abstract: Improving debt transparency is critical for promoting debt sustainability and creditworthiness assessments, increasing the accuracy of public debt information, and protecting the interests of a diverse range of stakeholders. The importance of debt transparency, the costs associated with the lack of it, and its benefits, are extensively discussed in recent World Bank literature. One of the key factors that limits debt transparency as it relates to public disclosure and the sharing of public debt-related information, is transaction-level confidentiality and disclosure practices. Challenges to disclosure have become more evident during recent debt distress among borrowing countries, and the COVID-19 pandemic. The discussion in this paper reveals issues that arise from confidentiality and disclosure practices among lenders and borrowers; and highlights how these issues cause information asymmetries and undermine the interests of stakeholders. The paper concludes by proposing concrete and actionable recommendations for the World Bank, IMF and sovereigns
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Confidentiality ; COVID-19 ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Social Accountability ; Social Analysis ; Social Development ; Transparency
    Abstract: Launched in January 2015, the Takaful and Karama (T&K) program is among the Arab Republic of Egypt government's cornerstone social protection mitigation measures. It seeks to alleviate the adverse effects of the country's bold economic reforms aimed at addressing longstanding macroeconomic issues. Implemented by the Ministry of Social Solidarity (MoSS) and co-financed by the government and the World Bank, the T&K program is among Egypt's largest investments in human capital development. This case study summarizes the practices of the T&K program GRM to date, including lessons learned. The experiences and achievements of the T&K GRM in Karama's beneficiary assessment phase are specifically highlighted. Section two explores the GRM as part of a broader social accountability approach; section three summarizes the institutional arrangements for grievance resolution; section four discusses key results and trends regarding grievance handling; and section five concludes with a snapshot of achievements, lessons learned, areas of strength and in need of improvement, and the path forward
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Macroeconomic Management ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Buffeted by COVID-19 and Tropical Cyclone Seroja, the non-oil economy grew by 1.5 percent in 2021. A record-high budget with expenditure of nearly 90 percent of GDP bolstered government consumption. A series of fiscal and quasi-fiscal stimulus measures supported employment and incomes, thereby allowing households to maintain their consumption. On the demand side, gross capital formation shrunk while net exports expanded. The oil economy grew by 8.3 percent, bringing the total economic growth to 4.4 percent.1 The government lifted the pandemic-related state of emergency at the end of November 2021, but challenges remain. Following a relatively brisk start, the vaccination campaign has moved sluggishly in recentmonths. Nevertheless, the authorities have initiated vaccination of children and adolescents between 12 and 18 years old, while booster shots have been made available. There has been a concerning surge of Dengue Fever with 5,000 reported cases (and 54 fatalities) to date since January 2022-a more than seven-fold increase from the same period a year ago. All restrictions for inbound international vaccinated travelers to Timor-Leste havebeen rescinded. By the end of May 2022, the partly vaccinated and fully vaccinated figures in Timor-Leste stood at 85.4 percent and 73.4 percent, respectively
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Governance ; Gross Domestic Product ; Irrigation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Iraq's economy is gradually emerging from the deep recession caused by the pandemic and the plunge in oil prices in 2020. Higher oil revenues pushed Iraq's overall fiscal and external balances into a surplus in 2021. The turnaround in oil markets has significantly improved Iraq's economic outlook in the medium term. Iraq's fiscal and socio-economic fragilities underscore the urgency of wide-ranging structural reforms by the new government. Iraq's existing food security challenges have intensified with the recent surge in global commodity prices. To plug the food supply gap, Iraq has become increasing reliant on imports for more than half of its food consumption, which has increased the country's exposure to global food price and supply shocks. Subsidies and direct transfers, including recently new measures announced by Government of Iraq (GoI), partly mitigate the impact of rising global prices in the short term. However, achieving food security calls for coordinated efforts to improve domestic production including through raising the efficiency of irrigation water, reducing and rehabilitating soil degradation, improving land management, and implementing climate change adaptation and mitigation measures including the adoption of climate-smart agriculture
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Economic Growth ; Economic Recovery ; Gross Domestic Product ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This first Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) for Jamaica comes at a pivotal time. The country is seeking a return to the pre-COVID-19 path of fiscal consolidation amid a slow COVID vaccine roll-out, high inflationary pressures, and persistent structural constraints to growth.1 COVID-19 laid bare existing vulnerabilities, causing real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to contract a record 10 percent in 2020, with a near closure of most tourism activities depressing incomes for more than 40 percent of the country's workers. The government deployed countercyclical fiscal measures to stem the economic downturn, while strengthening the health sector, supporting the financial sector, and mitigating the impact on poor households through further income support. Inflation had surged to 11.8 percent as of April 2022, posing a growing threat to the purchasing power of the poor in particular. The monetary authorities have been proactive, but rising interest rates could undermine the ongoing recovery. In 2020, the government committed to ambitious targets under the Paris Agreement to transform Jamaica into a low-emissions and climate-resilient economy
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The countries of the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) - Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia, and South Africa are exposed to climatic shocks, especially drought, that pose a continual threat to lives and livelihoods across the subregion. The pandemic has compounded these existing vulnerabilities. Climatic shocks such as these tend to affect the poorest most, exacerbating inequalities and increasing poverty. Food insecurity, which is chronic in the subregion and both a root cause of vulnerability to drought and an outcome of it also increased as a result of impacts from the pandemic. Social safety net programs can help poor and vulnerable households manage the risks they face from shocks, helping to mitigate the impacts on poverty and food insecurity, but their effectiveness can be constrained in several ways. The mobilization of social protection in response to COVID-19 and the challenges that have emerged to that mobilization have strengthened the case for investments in preparedness ahead of future shocks. Adaptive social protection refers to an agenda for preparing social protection systems to improve their response to shocks and to build the resilience of poor and vulnerable households. This report takes stock of ASP in four of the five SACU countries and provides targeted recommendations for each country's development
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Food Security
    Abstract: Investing in One Health - cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary coordination and collaboration across the human health, animal health, and environmental health sectors - is crucial for maintaining healthy agricultural and food systems and addressing global health security risks. Such action can reduce the threat of future pandemics through upstream preventive actions, early detection, and agile responses to zoonotic and emerging infectious diseases outbreaks, coupled with measures for promoting food safety, including anti-microbial resistance. This regional review, conducted jointly by the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, assesses the socioeconomic impacts of zoonotic diseases and epidemics across the East Asia and Pacific region, providing a background on why emerging infectious diseases are occurring more frequently in this region. This review looks at the benefits of using a risk-based approach, assesses the management of animal and wildlife health and the ability to identify and respond to emerging threats and protect the health, agricultural production, and ecosystem services. It provides recommendations on priority activities to be undertaken, and offers governments and their development partners the evidence and analysis needed to make more and better investments in wildlife systems and animal health to improve global health security
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (82 pages)
    Series Statement: Europe and Central Asia Economic Update
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Debt ; Diseases ; Finances ; Food ; Food Markets ; Fuel ; Pandemic
    Abstract: East Asia and the Pacific does not so far conform to the current narrative of stagflation. The region, with some exceptions, is growing faster and has lower inflation than other regions. And prospects for several countries have improved, as they bounced back from the distress of the Delta wave in a still buoyant global economy. But this rosy picture must not obscure four impediments to inclusive and sustainable growth: disease, deceleration, debt, and distortions. In particular, current policies to contain inflation and debt are distorting the markets for food, fuel and finance in ways that could compromise development goals. In each case, more efficient measures could address current difficulties without undermining longer term objectives
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Economic Recovery ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Inequality ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Global economic growth has picked up in 2021 and has now surpassed its pre-pandemic level. The National Bank of Rwanda (NBR) has maintained an accommodative monetary stance and other measures to support the recovery, taking advantage of low inflation. The government's continued fiscal expansion is also providing support to the economy. Regional integration offers significant benefits for Rwanda, including greater potential for scale economies, opportunities for learning to export and produce higher-quality goods, and cooperation to improve trade facilitation. Regional trade will be enhanced by boosting trade with non- East African Community (EAC) members. The African continental free trade area (AfCFTA) can boost growth and trade integration. The development of Rwanda as a regional logistics hub, serving as an intermediating node between the East and Central Africa regions offers prospects to increase revenues and generate efficiency gains through the concentration of logistics services. The white paper on logistics and distribution services strategy for Rwanda, prepared with the support of the World Bank, laid out a two-phase strategy for the rollout of Rwanda as regional logistic hub. This involved: (i) improving the efficiency of Rwanda's role as a land-bridge for re-exports to Goma in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); and (ii) establishing a regional logistics hub in Rwanda linked to a primary multi-modal hub at Kisangani and a secondary multi-modal hub at Kindu
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Debt ; Disease Control and Prevention ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Debt ; Public Sector Development ; Unemployment
    Abstract: The Economic Monitor examines four possible factors behind Tunisia's slow recovery. First, the drop in mobility related to the pandemic may have been more harmful in Tunisia. However, mobility in Tunisia has dropped to a similar extent as other countries and it has now returned to pre-pandemic levels following the acceleration in the vaccination campaign since July. If anything, the mobility drop in Tunisia has resulted in a lower reduction in economic activity than in comparator countries as Algeria and Egypt. Second, it could be that the level of public support to the ailing firms and households may have been particularly low. However, at 2.3 percent of GDP, the Covid-19 stimulus package in 2020 was in the same ballpark as other comparators in the region. Third, the structure of the Tunisian economy, particularly its reliance on tourism, may have exposed it to the negative demand shock more than other countries. Indeed hotels, cafe and restaurant and transport are the sectors which have contracted the most since the start of the pandemic. The losses of these sectors explain a significant portion of the negative effects of the crisis in Tunisia, although they do not fully account for such slow recovery
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (62 pages)
    Series Statement: Latin America and Caribbean Semiannual Report
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Climate Smart Agriculture ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal Adjustment ; Green Growth ; Inflation ; Low Carbon Technologies ; Renewable Energy ; Uncertainity
    Abstract: The Latin America and the Caribbean region is consolidating its recovery from the COVID-19 crisis, but the road ahead poses challenges: The damage inflicted by the pandemic on education and poverty require redress; new variants may appear; rising global inflation presents new policy dilemmas; and the long-standing reform agenda needed to lay the foundations for renewed and inclusive growth remains pending. Further, the global context is evolving rapidly. Over the medium term, the tragedy unfolding in Ukraine will affect the region through unpredictable channels. Over the longer term, increased global alarm over the pace of climate change raises new policy issues. The region's contribution to greenhouse gases is modest and can be reduced, but the impact of climate change on its people and productive sectors will require significant adaptation. The good news is that LAC's unique endowments positions it well to seize emerging green growth opportunities if well-managed. A key message is that improving the region's capability to adapt and innovate needs to be placed at the center of both the growth and greening agendas and can generate synergies between them
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Energy ; Energy Policies and Economics ; Energy Sector ; Energy Sector Regulation ; Infrastructure ; Political Instability
    Abstract: Myanmar's energy sector has been severely affected by the dual shocks of the February 2021 coup and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Developments in the energy sector after the coup have undermined nascent energy sector reforms over the last few years, including reforms that led to improved service delivery, restructured electricity tariffs, and increased electricity access. Constraints in human resources resulting from the dismissal of over 4,400 staff in key entities and departments under the Ministry of Electricity and Energy (MoEE) has put power sector operation at risk. Public boycott of electricity payments and rising costs of electricity due to dollar-denominated independent power producers have adversely affected the financial viability of the power sector. The political instability in the aftermath of the coup has led to significant operational and financial burdens on the sector, affecting the sector financial viability and fiscal sustainability. Investor confidence has plummeted amid uncertainty and a worsening investment climate, jeopardizing the implementation of approved power projects, including renewable solar. While the global commodity rally continues, there are serious challenges ahead, including the need for skilled labor to ensure electricity reliability, maintain the security of power infrastructure, and increase electricity revenues
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Equity ; Equity and Development ; Household Income ; Human Capital ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions
    Abstract: In 2020, Brazil was about to face socioeconomic disruptions of historical proportions. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has broken several undesirable Brazilian records. First, the pandemic wreaked an enormous direct human toll, sickening millions and causing the death of 195,441 Brazilians in 2020 and 619,056 in 2021. Second, the Brazilian economy experienced its worst contraction in recorded history, with real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth in 2020 at -4.7 percent (compared to the previous record of -4.4 percent in 2015). Third, COVID-related closures and other measures led to a massive, unprecedented exit of workers, with an estimated 10 million people leaving the labor force between the third quarter of 2019 and the third quarter of 2020. Employment opportunities were scarce for those who remained in the labor force, with the unemployment rate standing at 14.6 percent in the third quarter of 2020. Many individuals at the bottom of the income distribution work in precarious jobs and lack a resilient source of income, forcing them to rely on public transfers during the pandemic. The significant progress in Brazilian households' welfare in the 2000-2010 decade responded mainly to labor market dynamics. Between December 2003 and December 2014, formal employment grew on average 5 percent annually, outpacing annual GDP growth of 3.5 percent (Campos and Souen 2017). Increases in the minimum wage (Cord, Genoni, and Rodriguez-Castelan 2015) and a surge in skills (including more highly skilled labor among the vulnerable) contributed positively to the increase in welfare. Still, a significant share of Brazilian workers has remained informal or not protected by the National Social Security System (INSS). When economic shocks hit Brazil, the labor market outcomes of low-income individuals are the first to be affected. Thus, income effects for the poorest are strongly correlated with the rollout of social protection cash transfers. The Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) decreased its coverage in the years following the 2014 crisis when Brazil's poverty rate was increasing. Meanwhile, the widespread coverage of the Auxilio Emergencial program in 2020 contributed to the decrease of national poverty rates. Other income groups can weather economic shocks much better. People in middle of the income distribution maintain their steady pensions, and the richest Brazilian recover quickly thanks to savings, wealth, and accumulated assets that help them to adapt
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Civil Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; COVID-19 ; Energy ; Food Security ; Health and Poverty ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Immunizations ; Inflation ; Oil and Gas
    Abstract: Libya is struggling to cope with a trifecta of crises, including the civil conflict, the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and most recently, the impact of the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Notwithstanding the tempering of conflict intensity since 2021, the Libyan economy has been battered by the conflict. GDP per capita estimates in 2021 stood at about half of its value in 2010 before the start of the conflict. Since 2020, the population has been hit by multiple waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. The health system, already affected by a decade of conflict, has struggled to deliver the necessary access and quality of care amid a raging pandemic. While Libya has reported a marked decline in COVID-19 cases and deaths since March 2022, the vaccination rate remains low. In addition, food insecurity has worsened, precipitated by the Russia-Ukraine crisis and the resulting shortages and price increases for staple foods in the domestic market
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: General Economy, Macroeconomics, and Growth Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Economic Stabilization ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Tourism has been, and continues to be, one of the most affected sectors by the pandemic, resulting in negative socio-economic consequences for host communities in destinations as well as for underlying endowments that rely on tourists' expenditure for maintenance and management. The aim of this report is to provide insights regarding the types of interventions governments have already implemented and policy considerations for supporting the recovery and resilience of the tourism sector going forward, particularly in light of structural demand and supply-side transformations precipitated or accelerated by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The report studies the challenges for recovery faced by governments and the sector from the context of preexisting market and government failures that have been exacerbated by the crisis, as well as those emerging from the pandemic. The report includes several key findings and recommendations
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Recovery ; Economic Stabilization ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The world economy was on track for a strong, albeit uneven, recovery from COVID-19. However, the war in the Ukraine and supply-chain disruptions exacerbated by shutdowns in China due to the zero-COVID policy are dealing a serious blow to global recovery. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), however, is expected to perform strongly this year. Booming hydrocarbon prices have eased pressure on fiscal balances and public sector debt and has increased current account surpluses in the GCC. Despite efforts by GCC countries, diversification is still below potential. There is progress in the non-oil economy but limited success in non-oil exports. Structural reforms must be continued to help nurture a competitive private sector. There is however an excellent and timely opportunity to diversify further the economy using a green growth strategy. The extra windfall from higher oil prices to the GCC can be used to start new high-growth, green industries that would help the economies of the region grow by an extra 3-6 percent as detailed in the Focus section of this update. The special focus section also emphasizes that there is no inherent long run trade-off between emissions reductions, economic growth, and poverty alleviation. Moving away from fossil fuels towards a greener future should not be seen as a threat but as a tremendous opportunity as the costs of renewable energy have fallen dramatically in recent years. The region already has three record-breaking, low-cost auctions for solar energy supply in Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia. The region also has the potential to be a lead producer of green and blue hydrogen. With the right regulations, policies, and investments to support the transition, GCC countries can emerge with stronger, more sustainable economies that generate rewarding jobs for their youth while simultaneously protecting the planet. Finally, this report highlights potential pathways for GCC countries to benefit from and play a leading role in the global transition to a low-carbon economy
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  • 49
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Inequality ; Poverty ; Poverty and Policy ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Impact Evaluation ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: In the past three decades, the Philippines has made remarkable progress in reducing poverty. Driven by high growth rates and structural transformation, the poverty rate fell by two-thirds, from 49.2 percent in 1985 to 16.7 percent in 2018. By 2018, the middle class had expanded to nearly 12 million people and the economically secure population had risen to 44 million. This report is intended to inform public debate and policymaking on inequality in the Philippines. It synthesizes core findings from background analyses of the patterns of inequality and poverty and provides policy pointers. The analysis uses a wealth of data from a variety of sources (detailed in Appendix A). In what follows, section two discusses the poverty and inequality impacts of COVID-19. Section three analyzes what has been driving poverty and inequality over the past three decades. Section four discusses the structural causes of current inequality; and section five examines how they affect recovery patterns. The last section discusses how policy can promote equality and inclusive recovery
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Economic Growth ; Economic Recovery ; Environment ; Insurance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The South African financial system has weathered the shock of COVID-19 but faces growing risks emanating from a weak macroeconomic outlook. The pandemic crisis hit South Africa hard, with nonresident capital outflows accelerating and the domestic and global slowdown precipitating a6.4 percent GDP contraction in 2020. A brief period of liquidity stress was managed with new central bank facilities and a lowering of liquidity requirements; and banks proved resilient thanks to sound capital and liquidity buffers. Asset management and pension assets saw falling valuations, but redemption pressures quickly dissipated as markets stabilized. The intensification of the sovereign financial system nexus emerging from the crisis poses risks going forward, and a resurgence of the pandemic could deteriorate asset quality. Banks are resilient in the FSAP's baseline; however, amedium-term adverse stress scenario would cause a significant decline in capital although most banks would remain sufficiently capitalized. Under stress, banks could face some liquidity gaps, particularly at very short maturities, highlighting the importance of continued close monitoring. The impact of COVID-19 on insurers has thus far been contained, but prudential rules should be strengthened to ensure the measure of capital is sufficiently robust
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Armed Conflict ; Communicable Diseases ; Conflict and Development ; COVID-19 ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Analysis ; Social Development
    Abstract: Global growth slowed markedly in H1 2022. This was due to COVID-19 resurgences at the turn of the year; protracted supply disruptions; reduced macroeconomic support; and substantial negative spillovers from the war in Ukraine. The conflict, which has sparked the largest commodity price shock in 50 years, has exacerbated the increasingly difficult policy tradeoffs between supporting growth and managing price pressures. It has contributed to tightening in global financial conditions, increased financial market volatility and higher borrowing costs, particularly in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies (EMDEs)
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  • 52
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: COVID-19 ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Tourism and Ecotourism
    Abstract: Small island developing states and small tourism-dependent coastal states have been the most gravely impacted by global climate and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic crises and are expected to face even greater economic and social challenges in the years to come. While information and research on sustainable and blue tourism in small island developing states (SIDS) does exist, it is hard to find, difficult to analyze, and challenging to turn into policy guidance. This guidance note is a synthesis of findings from a literature review of the inventory of blue tourism resources, consumer market research, and tourism trend monitoring undertaken by the World Bank global tourism team since the start of COVID-19
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Cash Transfers ; COVID-19 ; Employment ; Employment and Unemployment ; Labor Market ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; Poverty ; Social Analysis ; Social Development ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: North Macedonia has strengthened its social protection system through comprehensive reforms in social assistance, social services, and pensions. This note considers, based on existing evidence, the extent to which the social protection system in North Macedonia satisfies four basic principles: adequacy; balance and effectiveness; equity; and sustainability. The situational analysis note is structured as follows: section two reviews the main poverty and labor market outcomes in North Macedonia, comparing it with peers and relevant country groups. Section 3 introduces a framework to consider the performance of the social protection system and then outlines the broad characteristics of social protection in North Macedonia, by program type and expenditure. Section 4 looks at non-contributory cash transfers to support the poor, the vulnerable and persons with disabilities and assesses the recent social assistance reform. Section 5 discusses social services and assesses the changes in social services as a result of the social protection reform as well as the introduction of case management, which aims to help ensure the provision of integrated services to the poor and vulnerable. Section 6 discusses pensions. Section 7 explores employment and active labor market programs (ALMPs). Section 8 considers the recent social protection response to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and section 9 concludes by offering an assessment of the main areas for reform
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  • 54
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Keywords: Agricultural Productivity ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Food Security ; Human Capital ; Inequality ; Nutrition ; Poverty Assessment ; Poverty Reduction ; Remittances ; Services and Transfers to Poor
    Abstract: This poverty assessment aims to inform poverty-focused policymaking in Chad. The report examines recent trends in poverty, inequality, and other social indicators and identifies key constraints on poverty reduction. Although agriculture, pastoralism, and related activities provide livelihoods for about 80 percent of the population, the capital-intensive oil sector drives macroeconomic growth, exports, and fiscal revenues. Eliminating poverty and boosting shared prosperity in Chad will require robust and sustained interventions along three strategic axes: (i) economic diversification, with a focus on the rural sector; (ii) building resilience to multidimensional shocks; and (iii) accelerating human capital formation. Chad faces enormous challenges, and the effectiveness of its poverty reduction efforts will hinge on factors that extend beyond economic policy, including the reestablishment of peace and security through improved governance, as well as a comprehensive effort to address the country's profound gender disparities
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  • 55
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Disability ; Distance Learning ; Education ; Education For All ; Educational Institutions and Facilities