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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impact ; Covid-19 Impact ; Education ; Food Security ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital Accumulation and Utilization ; Inclusive Development ; Long-Term Economic Growth ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report is undertaken as a part of the Human Capital Project (HCP), a globalinitiative of the World Bank Group that aims to increase governments' awarenessof the importance of investing in people (World Bank date of publication not identifiedb). One of the maincomponents of the HCP is a cross-country metric--the Human Capital Index (HCI). The HCI estimates the amount of human capital a child born today can expect to accumulate by the age of 18, thus highlighting how current health and education outcomes shape the work productivity of the next generation. Moreover, given the cumulative nature of human capital, the HCI has clear milestones across the entire human life cycle: at birth, children need to survive; during childhood, they need to be well-nourished; at school age, they must complete all schooling and active adequate learning levels; and in adulthood, they need to stay in good health. Finally, the HCI includes a result: a score that ranges from 0 to 1. A country where an average child has virtually no risk of being stunted or dying before age five, receives high-quality education, and becomes a healthy adult, would have an HCI close to 1. Conversely, when the risk of being ill-nourished or prematurely dying is high, access to education is limited, and the quality of learning is low, the HCI would approach zero
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agriculture Study
    Keywords: Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impacts ; Digital Climate Information ; Environment ; Food Systems ; Resilience ; West Africa
    Abstract: By advancing knowledge on digital climate information and agriculture advisory services ('agromet services') in support of West Africa's farmers, this report has two objectives. First, it aims to identify priority actions for promoting digital agromet services under the West Africa Food System Resilience Program (FSRP) with a focus on Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. Second, the report strives to provide insights on the required ingredients for creating viable agromet delivery models to all stakeholders involved in the production and dissemination of weather and climate information. These stakeholders include representatives from the Ministries of Agriculture (MOAs), National Meteorological Services (NMSs), Disaster Risk Management (DRM) specialists, interested parties from the private sector and civil society, and development practitioners. This report's findings were obtained through i) a benchmarking analysis of ten case studies examining existing delivery mechanisms of digital agromet services, and ii) semi-structured interviews with public institutions complemented by desk research. Case study results indicate that providers of agromet services should bundle different service types and diversify revenue streams to ensure that their offerings are impactful and viable. The report also finds that increasing levels of trust between the public and the private sector would facilitate the creation of innovative climate information delivery models based on public-private engagement (PPE). Other key recommendations to enhance agromet services include continuing to invest in the technical and human capacity of the region's NMSs, increasing collaboration between NMSs and agricultural extension services, and establishing clear regulatory frameworks on digitalization and open data
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Green Infrastructure ; Hydro Power ; Landscape Restoration ; Sustainable Land Management ; Vakhsh River ; Water
    Abstract: This report outlines the main results of a study conducted to assess the potential role of landscape restoration/nature-based solutions/green infrastructure in the Vakhsh River Basin, Tajikistan, to reduce the impacts of soil erosion on the hydropower cascade, increase agricultural productivity, improve livelihoods, and inform about investment opportunities. This assessment finds sediment sources and loadings in the Vakhsh River Basin, considers the potential correlation between soil erosion and sedimentation in hydropower reservoirs, proposes possible and cost-effective landscape restoration measures, and estimates the value of ecosystem services provided. The study also presents recommendations for implementing the proposed interventions for the Vakhsh River Basin and for scaling up to other degraded areas throughout the country
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Evaluation
    Keywords: Access To Basic Services ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impacts ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Governance Indicators ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Abstract: Between 1993 and 2013, Mozambique became one of the fastest-growing economies in Sub-Saharan Africa boosting incomes and living standards. Political and macroeconomic stability provided the foundation for robust growth led by a rebounding agricultural sector and significant donor support. Growth, however, decelerated beginning in 2016 in the face of low commodity prices, a hidden debt crisis, and natural disasters. In FY18, Mozambique was formally classified as a fragile country. The Covid-19 pandemic further eroded growth. In light of the country's evolving context, this Country Program Evaluation (CPE) reviews the World Bank Group's engagement in Mozambique over the period FY08 into FY21. The CPE assesses the extent to which the Bank Group's support was relevant to Mozambique's main development challenges and drivers of fragility as well as how Bank Group support evolved and adapted over time. The evaluation delves into four themes that are relevant to Mozambique's pursuit of the Bank Group's Twin Goals of Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity: (i) low agricultural productivity; (ii) unequal access to basic services; (iii) weak institutions and governance; and (iv) vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters. The evaluation presents findings from each of the four themes covered and distills lessons from Bank Group experience in Mozambique to inform future strategies and engagements
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Adolescent Health ; Agriculture ; Education Indicators and Statistics ; Fiscal Consolidation ; Gender ; Gender and Education ; Gender Gaps ; Greening Agriculture ; Inflation ; Labor Markets ; Low Labor Force ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Skills Development and Labor Force Training ; Western Balkans
    Abstract: In the context of weakening global demand, growth in the Western Balkans decelerated over the course of 2022 and into 2023. Against the background of the lasting effects of shocks from Russia's invasion of Ukraine, sticky inflation, and tighter financial conditions, global demand has been weakening, and this has a divergent impact across the Western Balkans (WB6). On the one hand, the slowdown in global demand contributed to weaker-than expected performance of industrial production in the whole European Union (EU) region and in the WB6. On the other hand, global demand has proved more resilient in services and, for travel, with twice as many people traveling globally during Q1 2023 as in the same period in 2022 (UNWTO). This has particularly benefited Albania, Kosovo, and Montenegro, where services exports have reached new record highs. In contrast, weakening global demand for goods has weighed on Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), North Macedonia and Serbia. On the demand side, private consumption remained in general an important growth driver, despite rising price pressures. Reforms are needed to consolidate the recovery toward sustainable growth, while negotiations with the EU hold the potential to bolster prospects in the Western Balkans. As the WB6 agriculture sector is undergoing a major structural transformation, efforts to green agriculture are also important to ensure access to the EU market and for the competitiveness of agriculture, rural development, and food and nutrition security. Most WB6 countries have recently included agriculture greening in their development strategies. Historically, the environmental footprint of the WB6 agriculture sector has been relatively low. But this has been more an unintended outcome of still high rurality and low farming intensity rather than a result of public policy and expenditure choices. Agricultural public expenditures, while substantial in terms of amounts and adequate to influence agricultural production, have not yet prioritized financing of greening and climate-smart agriculture. It is important for the WB6 countries to accelerate greening of their agriculture by learning from the EU's green transition and better utilization of the existing public funds available for agricultural development
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Agriculture Infrastructure ; Climate Change ; Climate Resilient Investment ; Energy ; Energy Infrastructure ; Energy Policies and Economics ; Environment ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Resilient Infrastructure ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Transport
    Abstract: This Compendium Volume presents a series of guidance notes and more detailed complementary technical notes that offer practical insights in support of enhancing the climate resilience of infrastructure investment projects in Sub-Saharan Africa. This first introductory chapter starts with an overview of the investment conditions and climatic context in the region, followed by a description of the scope of this Compendium Volume and individual notes, target audiences, and a roadmap for users of the contents covered in this Volume
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 40347
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; Economic Value of Forests ; Environment ; Forest Biodiversity ; Forests and Climate Change ; Global Environmental Committment ; Public Sector Development ; Sustainable Development Goals ; Windfire Risk Management
    Abstract: Lebanon's forest landscapes are unique in the Mediterranean region and, over the centuries, have provided multiple socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental benefits. However, societal changes have had a significant impact on these landscapes, putting them at risk of further degradation. Lifestyle changes and restrictions on access to forests and woodlands have contributed to the abandonment of traditional community use, management, and protection of forests. This neglect has left forests vulnerable to arson, vandalism, and natural disasters. This Lebanon Forest Note articulates opportunities for supporting the protection and sustainable management of Lebanon's forest landscapes. It considers the increasing pressure on natural resources due to anthropogenic activities/stresses, as well as their increased vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters, especially forest fires. The note presents a forward-looking business case for Lebanon to protects its forest ecosystem services, while increasing the socioeconomic benefits for Lebanon's sustainable development goals and global environmental commitments
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Covid-19 ; Economic Investment and Savings ; FIP ; Forest Investment Program ; Forestry Management ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Pandemic
    Abstract: With the COVID-19 pandemic, the development context for the world is fundamentally challenged in many ways. The pandemic has taken a drastic human toll, and its global-scale economic and social impacts affected rural development work focused on the most poor and vulnerable populations. It has also highlighted the increasing need to invest in natural climate solutions that protect and restore critical ecosystems, support climate stability and ecosystem resilience, and help people access livelihood opportunities. This report provides an in-depth portfolio analysis of WB-implemented FIP and DGM projects during the pandemic, gathering information from documents and directly from stakeholders involved in these projects on the impacts of the pandemic during their preparation and implementation, finding trends in delays in project activities, and identifying coping mechanisms used to overcome the challenges resulting from the pandemic. For example, some projects have shifted activities requiring in-person engagement, such as training and workshops, to a virtual format. Other projects use electronic monitoring and data collection tools to follow up on activity implementation. Finally, this report provides a few general lessons for the CIF program, WB-financed operations, donors, and other external international development partners. Although the COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose a challenge, authors now hope, having already experienced it for roughly three years, to learn from the various adaptation measures implemented by the projects, for application to future shocks
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2162
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Accommodation and Tourism Industry ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Commercial Sectors ; Domestic Private Financing ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Green Growth ; Industry ; Infrastructure ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Finance ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Private Sector Investment ; Social Sectors
    Abstract: In March 2023, the Second Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA2) identified USD 411 billion worth of investments required for Ukraine's reconstruction. The World Bank Group's new report "Private Sector Opportunities for a Green and Resilient Reconstruction in Ukraine", developed in cooperation with Ukraine's government, assesses the potential for private financing to meet these needs under both a status quo scenario and a scenario with reforms and other sectoral interventions
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agriculture Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Financing ; Green Growth ; Policy Implementation
    Abstract: This report focuses on the agri-food sector in North Macedonia and investigates the potential and necessary actions for adopting a green growth trajectory. Agri-food is a key sector in need of transformation to achieve green growth in the country. The sector has great economic importance, and it is vulnerable to climate change and other environmental risks, which will compound current sector inefficiencies, including declining competitiveness. This report aims to assess: (i) the actions needed to re-focus agricultural support priorities in a manner that reflects green growth ambitions; (ii) policy financing implications; and (iii) the availability and capacity of effective policy implementation mechanisms. Finally, the potential impacts of greening agriculture support on farm efficiency are assessed and discussed
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Acquaculture Mismanagement ; Acquaculture Pollution ; Agriculture ; Coastal and Marine Environment ; Coastal and Marine Resources ; Discarded Fishing Equipment ; Environment ; Fisheries and Aquaculture ; Marine Plastic Debris ; Marine Plastic Pollution Mitigation ; Pollution Management and Control ; Water Resources
    Abstract: The Government of Indonesia's (GoI) National Plan of Action on Marine Plastic Debris (NPOA-MPD 2017-2025) outlines the ambitious objective of reducing marine plastic debris by seventy percent by 2025. Abandoned, Lost and Discarded Fishing Gear (ALDFG) is a major component of sea-based sources of marine debris, and is another important sea-based source of plastic leakage. The cultivation of marine and aquatic species, including seaweed, uses plastic components such as buoys, ropes, harvest bins and feed sacks. The primary pathways for plastic leakage from aquaculture include mismanagement, deliberate discharge, extreme weather and catastrophic events such as tsunamis. The impacts of fishery and aquaculture plastic pollution on the environment, economy, livelihoods and food security are significant. The scale of these impacts on fisheries, marine ecosystems and human users has prompted international action. Managing and mitigating plastic pollution from fisheries and aquaculture has the potential to contribute to Indonesia's marine plastic debris targets while also providing economic opportunities. This report presents options for reducing ALDFG and ALDAG in Indonesia, and improving the management and use of End-of-life fishing gear (EOLFG)
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Armed Conflict ; Children and Education ; Civil War ; Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; Displacement ; Food Security ; Food Unaffordability ; Health and Poverty ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Humanitarian Response ; Limited Health Care ; Living Costs ; Living Standards ; Poverty Reduction ; Reduced Food Intake ; Repeated Shocks
    Abstract: This report highlights respondents' lived experiences during Yemen's conflict as experts of their own experiences. This report aims to present the voices of Yemenis who have now spent eight years living through a civil war, economic crisis, and close to famine. This report is among the few authentically capturing Yemeni voices on a range of day-to-day issues from different governorates across the country. But arguably the small sample size limits ability to generalize findings. However, generalizing findings was not the intention of the report. For each theme, 'Voices from Yemen' presents a multi-stakeholder perspective to mitigate bias towards a single stakeholder group or geographical area. Moreover, the report's findings are in line with those in quantitative reports, such as 'Surviving in the Times of War' or the 'World Bank Phone Survey' report on food security. 'Voices from Yemen' presents a comprehensive picture of suffering derived from human stories behind the statistics. The conflict has made Yemeni lives unaffordable, uncertain, vulnerable, and often unbearable. The power of people's speech and the intensity of their stories narrate their grave vulnerabilities and the sense of helplessness and suffering the conflict has caused
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2199
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) ; Central Asia ; Covid-19 ; Ecosystem Transformations ; Education Reform and Management ; Food Safety ; Food Systems Resilience ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; ICT Applications ; International Economics and Trade ; Livestock ; One Health Approach ; Regional Cooperation
    Abstract: Central Asia has made much progress in public health and animal health in the last 20 years but was as unprepared as other regions in the world to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. The region also faces challenges from other emerging diseases, re-emerging diseases, and climate change. Since 2020, the Central Asian regional economies, as the rest of the world, have faced two shocks - the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine. Animal diseases do not respect borders and remain a public health concern because of the possible transmission of pathogens to humans. They can spread quickly from one country to another, with impact on animal health, trade, food security, food safety and possibly creating public health emergencies. One Health is an approach that allows for addressing human, animal, and ecosystem health issues through intersectoral action, to prevent, detect, respond to, and recover from infectious diseases, with an endpoint of improving global health security and achieving gains in development. The World Bank has been actively engaged in Central Asia for over two decades and is well-placed to act as a convener able to provide regional program-design expertise and implementation support for a One Health program. The findings of this report will support the preparation of the Central Asia One Health Framework for Action by providing recommendations for activities which can be further supported through public spending, private investments, and other financial resources
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2193
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Atlas Region ; Earthquake ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Female Labor Force ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Disasters ; Poverty ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Tourism ; Women's Economic Empowerment
    Abstract: The Moroccan economy is recovering. Following a sharp deceleration in 2022 caused by various overlapping commodity and climatic shocks, economic growth increased to 2.9 percent in the first semester of 2023, driven primarily by services and net exports. Inflation has halved between February and August 2023, but food inflation remains high. Lower commodity prices havealso contributed to a temporary narrowing of the current account deficit. The response to recent crises and the unfolding reform of the health and social protection systems are exerting pressures on public spending. However, the government is managing to gradually reduce the budget deficit
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agriculture Study
    Keywords: Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Dietary Habits ; Food Security ; Income
    Abstract: This report is a product of the World Bank's monitoring efforts in Myanmar and provides an in-depth look at the country's agricultural sector and food security status. This study examines intertwined challenges, falling crop yields, escalating food costs, deteriorating dietary habits, changing income sources, and shifting labor dynamics among farmers. In doing so, this analysis aims to illuminate the complex dynamics affecting households and communities nationwide. It offers essential insights for stakeholders seeking to address these pressing issues
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Accommodation and ; Agriculture ; Aquaculture ; Economic Growth ; Fisheries and ; Fisheries Sector ; Growth Potential ; Human Capital ; Industry ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector Development ; Regionalization ; Tourism Industry ; Tourism Sector
    Abstract: Comoros is at the crossroads to redefine its future and become an upper-middle income country by 2050, but this would require implementing an ambitious reform agenda that focuses on increasing productivity and private investment. The current business-as-usual policy framework has delivered low private investment and human capital, sectoral growth below potential, and no poverty eradication. Pursuing this policy framework, which would not allow Comoros to reach the GDP growth target of 7.5 percent by 2030 laid out in the national development plan, could result in GDP per capita of USD 1,890 and a poverty rate of 22.9 percent by 2050. By contrast, under a policy framework of ambitious reforms that include measures to increase inclusiveness, Comoros could reach a GDP per capita of USD 3,934 and reduce the poverty rate to below 5 percent by 2050. Supported by the continuous implementation of ambitious reforms, such a level of GDP per capita could have Comoros reach upper-middle-income status by 2050. Under this ambitious reform agenda, private investment would average 11.9 percent of GDP in 2023-2050, and total factor productivity growth would average 1.45 percentage points per year during the same period
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Agricultural Growth and Rural Development ; Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; GDP ; High Poverty Rate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Private Sector ; Rural Development ; Rural Economy ; Slow Growth
    Abstract: This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) argues for a significant shift in policy to enable a virtuous cycle of sustained and inclusive economic growth, outlined infive building blocks. Chapter 1 identifies policy priorities to restore the macroeconomic fundamentals for growth through fiscal reform, debt sustainability, external rebalancing, and monetary stability. The following three chapters address three core structural constraints to growth and propose key reforms to accelerate agricultural commercialization and improve rural labor markets (Chapter 2), enable the private sector to drive productivity growth (Chapter 3), and catalyze exports and foreign investment (Chapter 4). Acknowledging that implementing key growth-enhancing policies--be they macroeconomic or structural--are the result of complex political economy and governance arrangements, Chapter 5 focuses on how past Malawian successes can inform future sectoral policies, reforms, and strategies to achieve the goals outlined in the Malawi 2063
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agriculture Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Economic Development ; Environment ; Forests ; Investments ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Eco-Environmental Expenditures ; Public Expenditures ; Water ; Water Resources
    Abstract: In recent decades, the Chinese government has placed great importance on developing agriculture and rural areas, adopting policies, and increasing public expenditures targeting these. China's agricultural policies and support mechanisms have evolved, responding to emerging challenges and reflecting shifts in broader national policy and strategic efforts. These interventions had a modest impact on grain production and provided a more significant boost to rural incomes yet gave rise to significant market distortions and unintended consequences. The composition and patterns of public expenditures for agriculture reflect this dynamic evolution and changing priorities concerning the development of China's agriculture and rural areas. This report analyses in some depth the changing scale and structure of pertinent public expenditures and briefly synthesizes the available evidence regarding the efficacy of certain expenditures (and the policies to which they are connected). Among the major observations made in the report regarding agriculture-related public expenditures are the following: first, the central and local governments have allocated considerable resources over the past two decades to support agricultural and rural development. Second, the composition of public expenditure classified as agriculture, forestry, and water conservancy (AFW) has changed dramatically in recent years. Third, the public expenditure involving direct support for agriculture peaked in 2015 and has since declined, while public expenditure on general support services has increased and diversified. Fourth, public eco-environmental expenditures have increased considerably and taken on a wide range of different forms. Finally, spatial differences in public expenditures supporting AFW and green agricultural development are worth noting and require additional attention, given the increasing dominance of local governments in delivering agricultural programs and investments
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Debt Arrears ; Debt-To-Gdp ; Economic Recovery ; GDP ; Gross Domestic Product ; High Oil Prices ; International Economics and Trade ; Poverty Reduction ; Sustainability
    Abstract: Gabon's economic recovery has been intensifying, with oil and other commodities projected to drive GDP growth to 2.7 percent in 2022, up from 1.5 percent in 2021. The fiscal stance improved in 2021 amid contained spending and is expected to turn into a surplus in 2022. While debt-to-GDP remains sustainable amidst gradual economic recovery and high oil prices, debt arrears remain high. The uptick in oil prices compensated for the decline in production and led to a trade surplus in 2021, which is expected to remain high in 2022. Food insecurity could be exacerbated by the ongoing war in Ukraine as Gabon is highly vulnerable to shocks in the agricultural sector. The government has adopted plans to increase agricultural production. Despite the government's efforts to increase agricultural production, Gabon's agricultural trade remains hampered by structural bottlenecks related to weak supporting infrastructure, the high number of intermediaries, and price uncertainty. Informal payments and obstacles for imports into Gabon, including petty harassment, add to already high import duties and can contribute to informality, unpredictability, and delays in border crossing and transport network. Reducing petty harassment would support trade in agriculture, reduce the overall cost of living for the population, and foster economic growth in Gabon
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Forestry ; Forestry Management ; Gender ; Gender and Rural Development ; Land Management ; Rural Development
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to understand the legal and policy constraints and opportunities in each of the 17-carbon fund (CF) countries affecting women's land and forest tenure. The study also explores women's ability to exercise land and forest rights in statutory and customary systems; how these rights may be affected by the CF programs (ERPs and BSPs); as well as what is needed to further protect and strengthen women's rights to land and forest tenure along with their ability to govern in the CF countries. This synthesis report provides a big-picture overview of the findings from all the studies; additional and more detailed information related to the activities in each country is available in the 10 country scans and seven deep-dive country reports. Because this report is a synthesis of findings from 17 countries, all statements taken from other sources are cited in the country studies. Furthermore, a bibliography of sources can be found at the end of this synthesis report
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Food and Nutrition Policy ; Food Safety ; Food Security ; Health and Poverty ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Nutrition
    Abstract: Current donor investment in food safety in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) largely reflects the concerns of previous decades and as a result is substantially focused on access to regional and overseas export markets, with emphasis on national control systems. Relatively little is being done to reduce foodborne illness among consumers in SSA. More investment in food safety (by African governments, donors, and the private sector) is needed to help ensure that Africans have safe food. New understanding of foodborne disease burden and management, along with rapid and broad change within societies and agri-food systems in SSA, has led to food safety emerging as an important public health and development issue. There is need to reconsider donor and national government investment strategies and the role of the private sector. This report is a call for action on food safety. It provides up-to-date information on key food safety actors, presents the first-ever analysis of food safety investments in SSA, captures insights from a wide-ranging expert consultation and makes suggestions for attaining food safety, based on evidence but also consensus principles, successful elsewhere but not yet applied widely in mass domestic markets in SSA
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Food Security ; Inequality ; Poverty ; Poverty Reduction ; Services and Transfers To Poor ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: In contrast with the rest of Latin America and the Caribbean, Brazil's poverty rate is estimated to have decreased between 2019 and 2020 to 13.1 percent. Auxilio Emergencial (AE), a large emergency cash transfer program launched in April 2020, is believed to be the main driver of that decrease, because it more than offset economic losses caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, food insecurity (FI) estimates showed an opposite trend: Severe and moderate FI went up in 2020. This apparent paradox can be mostly explained by the way in which poverty and FI are measured: Measurements of poverty are based on annualized income estimates, while those of FI are based on the occurrence of an event, whereby the sudden, uncompensated loss of a job or reduction of benefits (such as AE) can turn into the loss of a household's ability to feed itself in the short term. In 2021, both poverty and FI may have increased. Simulations suggest that poverty increased in 2021 to 18.7 percent. Meanwhile, about 18 percent of households reported running out of food in the past 30 days owing to a lack of resources, twice the pre-pandemic rate. Overall and food inflation, a sluggish labor market recovery with falling real wages, and the significant scaling down of the AE program are all factors in this trend. The war in Ukraine has pushed inflationary expectations upward. Given the projected 0.7 percent gross domestic product (GDP) growth for 2022, labor incomes are not expected to boost households' consumption levels significantly. Coupled with the complete elimination of AE, poverty and FI may further deteriorate in 2022
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Conflict and Development ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19 ; Economic Insecurity ; Education Reform ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Crisis Management and Restructuring ; Food Security ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Water Resources
    Abstract: Development prospects in Madagascar continue to be hampered by the country's low growth potential and exposure to frequent, deep, and persistent crises. Following a recession in 2020 that was about three times deeper than in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa, an economic recovery started in Madagascar in 2021 but was interrupted in 2022 by a sequence of domestic and international shocks. In addition to these new headwinds, the growth potential of the economy has been negatively impacted during the crisis by a retrenchment in private investment, deteriorating human capital and weakening governance. In this context, growth projections were downgraded to 2.6 percent in 2022 and to an average of 4.4 percent in 2023-2024, with the poverty rate now expected to remain close to 80 percent by 2024. This can only happen if the government kickstarts far-reaching reforms supporting private investment and job creation, better access to basic services and infrastructure, and greater resilience to shocks. Several policy priorities are highlighted as particularly urgent in this Economic Update. This report also highlights the importance of boosting public school performance following the continued deterioration in learning outcomes and advocates for a set of reforms reinforcing teachers' selection and evaluation, salary and school grant management, redress mechanism and local community engagement
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Independent Evaluation Group Studies
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Agriculture and Farming Systems ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Food Security ; Livestock and Animal Husbandry ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The purpose of the evaluation is to assess how relevant and effective the World Bank Group has been in its support for agrifood system development (AFSD) -that is, in developing more productive, inclusive, and sustainable farms and agribusiness firms. The evaluation finds that the Bank Group's interventions (FY 2010-20) were broadly relevant, although gaps remain in scaling up and better targeting support to countries that need it the most. Bank Group interventions were also effective overall in improving productivity, inclusion, and sustainability, but less so in LICs, particularly in West and Central Africa. World Bank interventions that focused on supporting production were less successful than interventions that combined production and market approaches. World Bank support for improving productivity was insufficiently diversified toward higher-value products that offer multiple benefits. IFC agribusiness investments faced challenges meeting environmental and social (EandS) standards, especially in LICs. IEG offers three recommendations to enhance Bank Group support for AFSD. (i) To enhance its effectiveness in developing agrifood systems, the World Bank Groupand's efforts to support production technologies should be complemented by efforts to improve market access, especially in LICs and in countries at the traditional stage of agrifood system development. These can be pursued through synergies in Bank Group interventions or with partners; (ii) To achieve more sustainable agrifood systems, where conditions permit, the World Bank Group should support production diversification to meet the growing demand for undersupplied high-value-added, nutritious products while ensuring that smallholder farmers and SMEs benefit from the diversification; and (iii) To enhance the contribution of IFC support for AFSD, IFC should pilot and adopt more effective ways to support clients to better meet EandS Performance Standards, especially in LICs
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  • 25
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Keywords: Agribusiness ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Agriculture and Farming Systems ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Equity and Development ; Food Security ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This Synthesis report summarizes the main constraints and opportunities that Georgia faces in amplifying the contribution of the agriculture sector to the country's economic growth and diversification, employment creation, poverty reduction, food security and nutrition, and climate resilience and mitigation. Successful achievement of these multiple objectives, however, requires an integrated set of multi-sectoral policies. Synergistic public and private investments in agriculture, water, and land can lead to increased production and productivity by transitioning from low returns from agriculture to high-value crop production
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Armed Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; COVID-19 ; Food Security ; Natural Resources ; Peace and Peacekeeping ; Post Conflict Reconstruction
    Abstract: South Sudan is at a crossroads in its recovery, reconstruction, and development. Having gained independence in 2011 after two protracted civil wars, the country twice relapsed into conflict: first in 2013 and again in 2016. While the economy began to recover following the 2018 peace deal, progress has stalled amidst a multitude of crises - including the COVID-19 pandemic, climate shocks, and dwindling oil production. At the same time, the broad-based rise in commodity prices due to the war in Ukraine have on balance affected South Sudan adversely. A decade after independence, South Sudan remains caught in a web of fragility and economic stagnation, with weak institutions, recurring cycles of violence, and ubiquitous poverty. Overall, the conflict is estimated to have cost South Sudan an accumulated loss in aggregate GDP of some USD 81 billion during 2012 - 2018, equivalent to USD 11.6 billion per year on average (80 percent of 2010 GDP). Consequently, South Sudan's real GDP per capita in 2018 was estimated at being one third of the counterfactual estimated for a non-conflict scenario. With the fragile peace deal largely holding despite challenges in implementation, the authorities initiated an ambitious reform program aimed at macroeconomic stabilization and modernization of the young country's public financial management systems. This report discusses South Sudan's economic performance since independence, with a focus on leveraging the country's endowments of natural capital - oil and arable land - to support recovery and resilience. Three messages emerge from this report. First, there is a peace dividend in South Sudan. South Sudan's real GDP per capita in 2018 was estimated at one third of the counterfactual estimated for a non-conflict scenario. Thus, maintaining peace can by itself be a strong driver of growth. Second, with better governance and accountability, South Sudan's oil resources can drive transformation. Third, South Sudan's chronic food insecurity could be reversed with targeted investments to improve the resilience of the agricultural sector
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  • 27
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; Energy Sector ; Gender ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Urbanization
    Abstract: The arrival of a new government provides an opportunity to reinvigorate the reform agenda to deliver inclusive growth for the Somali people. Since the establishment of the Provisional Constitution in 2012, Somalia has made commendable progress on many fronts. Macroeconomic stability has been maintained, high levels of indebtedness are being addressed through the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, several sector laws and institutions have been established, and a poverty reduction strategy paper has been developed - the ninth National Development Plan (NDP9). However, much remains to be done and the time has come to mark the next milestone in Somalia's development trajectory through advancing reforms anchored in the HIPC process. The objective of the collection of policy notes is to provide sector-specific policy advice for the leadership of the new government, drawing on the expertise of the World Bank Group. This overview chapter synthesizes the advice across the sector policy notes and is organized in four sections. The first section outlines the current context. The second section presents the framework for organizing the policy notes. The third section summarizes the advice, and the fourth section concludes
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Electricity ; Environment ; Fiscal Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report aims to support Malawi's efforts to achieve its development goals within a changing climate by quantifying the impacts of climate change on the economy and highlighting key policies and interventions that are needed to strengthen climate resilience. The analysis includes climate modeling across multiple scenarios to account for the inherent uncertainty in climate projections; and sector-by-sector analysis and assessment of economywide impacts to identify the biggest impacts. It examines Malawi's current policy landscape and identifies needed reforms; considers how Malawi can best protect its most vulnerable households; and considers how the country can finance its ambitious development and climate agenda, including the key role of the private sector. The analysis shows that climate change will impose large costs on the economy and on already vulnerable households. If Malawi stays on its current low-growth development trajectory, climate change could reduce GDP by 3-9 percent in 2030, 6-20 percent in 2040, and 8-16 percent by 2050). The analysis also clearly demonstrates that development, as set out in Malawi's Vision 2063, provides a strong basis for strengthening resilience to climate impacts. If Malawi was to accelerate implementation of policies and programs envisioned in the Vision 2063 the development trajectory would shift to a higher growth path and climate change impacts would be significantly reduced. But the Vision 2063 development path will not be enough and building greater resilience to climate change will require doing different things and doing things differently. With additional adaptation measures, the analysis shows that not only is the impact of climate change on GDP much smaller, GDP is higher with climate change and adaptation when compared to the counterfactual with no climate impacts; losses range from -1 to 3 percent in 2030 and 2040, and 1 to 4 percent in 2050
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Access To Finance ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The World Bank and FAO teamed up with the Government of Tanzania to produce the country's first agricultural public expenditure review (PER) since the launch of the country's second agriculture sector development program (ASDP II). After outlining the role and performance of the sector (crop, livestock, fisheries, and forestry) in Tanzania and its main policy frameworks, this report uses historical data from 2017 to 2022 to review the level and composition of public expenditure. It then analyzes its allocative efficiency, effectiveness and alignment with the Government's strategic sectoral goals as defined in Tanzania Vision 2025 and the ASDP II. To do so, it combines a price incentive analysis on key value chains, thematic deep dives on strategic areas for the government (irrigation, agricultural knowledge system, seed system, climate change adaptation), and a coherence analysis. The report unveils that agricultural public budget mostly targets public goods in Tanzania, but at a level too critically low for these to materialize and support sustainable productivity growth and job creation. Detailed actionable recommendations are proposed for the government to improve spending on the agricultural sector to leverage further its growth potential
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: This report focuses on promoting low-carbon rice production systems in Vietnam. There are many sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the agricultural sector in Vietnam, including along value chains and within the whole agri-food context. However, because rice production is so important to the country and to emission reductions in agriculture, this report focuses on known actions that can be rapidly upscaled, along with other complementary actions to reduce GHG emissions from rice production systems. The report covers emission reduction pathways in rice. This report assesses agronomic and other options that offer technically and economically feasible pathways to promote low-carbon rice. Some options have been piloted in Vietnam and require significant upscaling at the farm-level. This report considers challenges and practical actions and policy reforms to address these challenges for Vietnam's low-carbon transition (LCT) in rice
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  • 31
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Crop Yields ; Crops and Crop Management Systems ; Environment ; Labor Market ; Temperature ; Water Conservation ; Water Resources ; Water Resources Assessment ; Water Resources Management
    Abstract: This Iran Economic Monitor (IEM) provides an update on key economic developments and policies as of Spring 2022. Iran's economy continued its gradual recovery in 2021-2022 following the rebound in domestic and external demand. Despite a more accommodative fiscal policy in 2021-2022, higher oil and tax revenues have improved the fiscal deficit-to-GDP ratio. GDP growth is projected to remain modest in the medium term, as the economy remains constrained by both global and domestic gr owth bottlenecks. A more favorable global oil market outlook is projected to improve Iran's fiscal and external balances. Iran's economic outlook is subject to significant risks. Consumer price inflation accelerated due to a combination of supply-push and demandpull factors, adding to pressures on the welfare of lower-income households. Addressing long-term development challenges, including impending climate change shocks, requires a comprehensive package of economic reforms complemented by adequate social protection measures
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Institutional and Governance Review
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; Food Security ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Debt ; Trade Facilitation
    Abstract: The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) Africa 2022 report provides an assessment of the quality of policies and institutions for the calendar year 2021 in all 39 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that are International Development Association (IDA)-eligible. The overall average score for these countries remained unchanged from the previous year at 3.1. Similarly, no changes were observed at the subregional level, where average scores were unchanged at 3.2 and 3.0 for West and Central Africa and East and Southern Africa, respectively. However, at the country level, the overall CPIA scores changed in 11 countries, including an increase in seven countries and a decline in four. Among the countries that increased their CPIA scores, nearly 70 percent has done it on account of better policies for social inclusion and equity. Among the four countries with decreased CPIA scores, three are assessed with weakened performance in macroeconomic management. Countries with below average scores (under 3.0) are mostly fragile and conflict-affected cases. Section 1 of this report evaluates the impact of the pandemic on economic performance in Sub-Saharan Africa's IDA-eligible countries, particularly focusing on key macroeconomic outcomes. Section 2 of the report presents the CPIA assessment results by clusters, by criteria, as well as by countries, while distinguishing between fragile and non-fragile countries. Section 3 provides the individual country CPIA pages
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; General Manufacturing ; Industry ; Labor Mobility ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Migration ; Rural Development ; Rural Labor Markets ; Urban Areas
    Abstract: Ethiopia's rapid growth over the past two decades has resulted in a surge in income per capita levels, with the country approaching fast the middle-income milestone. Over the past decade, fast growth was driven by capital accumulation, but the extent to which this growth has been equally distributed is unclear. Public infrastructure spending accelerated dramatically in the first half of the 2010s, helping underpin fast economic growth. However, this approach seems to have had important shortcomings. Contrary to the findings of World Bank (2015) which examined an earlier period, total factor productivity (TFP) declined during 2011-2020, contributing negatively to growth. In addition, inequality at the household level increased between 2011 and 2016. Finally, macroeconomic imbalances have widened, a trend exacerbated by recent shocks. This report discusses the drivers of growth in Ethiopia and, in the absence of official subnational gross domestic product (GDP) figures, examines whether there has been convergence in economic activity at the subnational level
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Keywords: Agribusiness ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Agriculture and Farming Systems ; Dairies and Dairying ; Investment Climate
    Abstract: Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) in 2004 as a de-facto divided island. The agriculture sector is an important driver for the Turkish Cypriot (TC) economy. The sector has significant linkages to other economic sectors, such as food processing and tourism. Manufacturing, which includes agri-food processing, produces predominantly dairy products and therefore relies heavily on domestic milk production. Agriculture also performs important social protection functions by providing income-generating activities for the rural population, thereby improving household consumption, food security, and the accumulation of durable assets. Improving agri-food value chain linkages can increase farm incomes, improve sustainability, and support the agriculture sector's contribution to the economy. An analysis of value chains will help to identify business-to-business relationships that connect the chain, methods for increasing efficiency and profitability, and ways to enable businesses to increase productivity and add value. The report consists of three sections: a macro analysis focusing on competitiveness and comparative advantage analysis, a value chain analysis of the TCc halloumi/hellim subsector, and a value chain analysis of the TCc carob subsector. The latter two sections contain specific recommendations and actions to strengthen value chain competitiveness
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Keywords: Agribusiness ; Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Agriculture and Farming Systems ; Private Sector ; Public Sector ; Value Chains
    Abstract: This report explores the agrologistics challenges and opportunities faced by agri-food systems in three countries in Northern Central America (NCA), namely El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, with a specific focus on the impacts on family farming systems. As an overarching principle guiding the analysis, the report adopts the World Bank's framework of Green, Resilient, and Inclusive Development (GRID), which recognizes that the challenges of poverty, inequality, climate change, and systemic shocks such as Coronavirus (COVID-19) are strongly interrelated, and thus need to be addressed simultaneously and systematically. As such, the study seeks to highlight ways in which enhancing agrologistics systems can drive food system efficiency, environmental sustainability, resilience and inclusion in Northern Central America (NCA), thus contributing to wellbeing and overall economic performance. In this study, the term agrologistics is used to refer to the infrastructure, machinery, related services, and information systems that allow agri-food products to move from the original point of production to the final point of consumption. The analysis follows the five key components of agrologistics value chain, namely: (a) on-farm post-harvest management; (b) storage and handling, including cold storage; (c) processing and packaging; (d) transport from the farm to collection and processing centers, and onwards to distribution networks; and (e) distribution by wholesalers, retailers and exporters, which in the case of exports involves customs and other border crossing processes
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Economic Memorandum
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Agriculture and Farming Systems ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Economic Growth ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Gender ; Gender and Economics ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: This report focuses on growth in Pakistan, and on key aspects of its proximate determinants: productivity, capital, and talent accumulation. Productivity is crucial in accounting for differences in standards of living across countries and time. In addition, and particularly at the level of development of Pakistan, factor accumulation, investment, and human capital, also matters. Specific and policy relevant questions around these broad themes are this report's center of attention. The underlying framework of analysis and orientation of public policy recommendations is what is known as the 'ABC' of growth. This 'ABC' implies improving allocative efficiency of resources and talent, encouraging business-to-business connections and spillovers, and strengthening firms' capabilities. Public policies oriented to create an enabling environment around these three pillars will be powerful in boosting sustainable growth. However, the efficient allocation of talent and resources, and the business-to business interactions leading to spillovers and the conditions to upgrade capabilities, are limited by economic distortions (or market failures) that inhibit the growth process, sometimes making it as difficult as swimming in sand
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Food Security ; Inflation ; International Financial Markets ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Resilience
    Abstract: The war in Ukraine and rising commodity prices have exacerbated the vulnerabilities of the Tunisian economy in the first months of 2022. The impact of the war began to be felt as the trade deficit widened by 56 percent in the first six months of 2022 reaching 8.1 percent of GDP. Lower oil and gas production and increased demand for energy and agricultural products have exacerbated the vulnerability of the trade balance to the vagaries of international markets. With a challenging global environment, the economic recovery appears weaker than previously forecast
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  • 38
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Agricultural Growth and Rural Development ; Agricultural Trade ; Agriculture ; Income ; Labor Mobility ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Rural Development ; Rural Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Ethiopia began the decade on a great run, with high economic growth and significant gains in poverty reduction nationally. But the gains were unevenly shared. Multiple shocks at the beginning of the new decade threaten to discontinue progress and possibly undo most of the gains made in the recent past. This rural income diagnostics (RID) study seeks to inform how to promote growth in rural incomes to accelerate poverty reduction. The objective of the RID is to examine how those who currently reside in rural areas can have higher incomes in the future, which can entail one or more members moving to urban areas. The focus is on income growth that results in higher incomes on average, but also income that is less volatile because of due consideration to effective risk reduction and management, and to ensuring that growth is sustainable. While the RID focuses only on income that is earned by rural households, it is much more detailed in its identification of the constraints because of this narrower focus. The diagnostic provides evidence to validate constraints and key areas of focus in ongoing agriculture and rural policy reforms and other relevant reforms under the Homegrown Economic Reform Agenda (HGERA), elevate the importance of some reforms where immediate action is required, and provide empirical arguments to support important policy interventions where consensus may be lacking or there is policy hesitation
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Civil Conflict ; Conflict and Development ; COVID-19 ; Energy ; Food Security ; Health and Poverty ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Immunizations ; Inflation ; Oil and Gas
    Abstract: Libya is struggling to cope with a trifecta of crises, including the civil conflict, the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and most recently, the impact of the Russia-Ukraine crisis. Notwithstanding the tempering of conflict intensity since 2021, the Libyan economy has been battered by the conflict. GDP per capita estimates in 2021 stood at about half of its value in 2010 before the start of the conflict. Since 2020, the population has been hit by multiple waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. The health system, already affected by a decade of conflict, has struggled to deliver the necessary access and quality of care amid a raging pandemic. While Libya has reported a marked decline in COVID-19 cases and deaths since March 2022, the vaccination rate remains low. In addition, food insecurity has worsened, precipitated by the Russia-Ukraine crisis and the resulting shortages and price increases for staple foods in the domestic market
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Energy Sector ; Environment ; Human Capital ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Transport
    Abstract: The welfare and economic growth of Azerbaijan's development trajectory based on fossil fuel extraction has come at the expense of the environment, other non-oil industries, and human capital growth. Due to its lack of economic diversification, the country is highly vulnerable to transition risks, volatility of fossil fuel markets, and climate change. This note, produced in support of Azerbaijan's ambition for green growth, identifies how increased climate action and greening of a number of sectors have the potential to spur diversification of Azerbaijan's economy, contribute to addressing sector- and country-specific environmental challenges and goals, reduce greenhouse (GHG) emissions, address the identified physical and transitional climate risks and vulnerabilities, and strengthen long-term climate resilience of the country. Investments in resource efficiency, sustainable intensification of agriculture, better land use and urban planning, water and waste management, switching to cost-effective renewable energy, and research on low-carbon hydrogen and Caspian maritime space are the green measures that can have an immediate positive impact on Azerbaijan's economy and the environment. The first stage in identifying areas for wealth development will be a comprehensive green growth and asset diversification strategy, informed by detailed sectoral analysis and supported by capable institutions. Once mobilized by public sector interventions through policies to enable and incentivize green investments and green finance instruments, private enterprises will take the lead in relocating capital to green supply chains, creating jobs and building human capital while increasing the focus on innovation and efficiency. Cutting system leak emissions in the oil and gas industry could contribute significantly to reducing GHG emissions at lower costs. Enhancing the environmental performance of enterprises will be made possible by promoting eco-efficient policies and investments in cleaner production and technologies. Beginning now and leveraging this transition to green growth and diversification through the use of public resources and revenues from fossil fuel exports, Azerbaijan can mitigate certain short-term difficulties and promote long-term sustainable growth to ensuring a cleaner environment and economic prosperity
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Keywords: Agribusiness ; Agriculture ; Agriculture and Farming Systems
    Abstract: This report applies the framework to diagnose the opportunities and constraints faced by the rural economy and households and to assess policy options to address these constraints. The approach builds on four steps. The first step consists in examining the socio-demographic profile and living conditions of rural households. The second step assesses opportunities to increase the income of rural households. The third step investigates the key constraints preventing rural households from taking advantage of these opportunities and explores the sequencing and overlap of the constraints. The final step examines the feasible policy actions that would help rural households overcome the key constraints to increasing their income. Details are provided in Figure 9. The analysis selects the key constraints that prevent households from taking advantage of identified opportunities. Prioritization of constraints requires assessing the likely benefits of pursuing the opportunities compared against the costs of relaxing the constraints. There are four criteria suggested by Hill (2018) that are used to identify the priority constraints that need to be address: (1) the constraint limits several important sources of income; (2) strength of evidence that addressing the constraint will help income growth, (3) the constraint has a stronger impact on poorer households or regions, and (4) existing evidence on the need to address the constraint first before other constraints can be addressed. Potential feasible policy solutions are suggested to the prioritized constraints. The potential for the policy solutions to address the constraints, their feasibility, and the size and breadth of their impact is graded based on the review of evidence and discussion with experts and stakeholders operating in the field
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Integrated Water Resources Management ; Irrigation
    Abstract: Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of Georgia despite the relatively small size of the sector. Agriculture is the country's largest employer and makes a significant contribution to exports even though agriculture contributes a modest share to total GDP. Following the collapse of the former Soviet Union, actual irrigated area in Georgia declined significantly. Georgia is currently facing important challenges related to the development of its agricultural sector, which requires the rehabilitation of irrigation and drainage systems and the establishment of institutional organizations that makes it sustainable. This policy note on the irrigation sector supports the World Bank-led analytical study on Agricultural, Land, and Water Policies to Scale-Up Sustainable Agri-Food Systems in Georgia. It was carried out during the months of April to July 2021, in close collaboration with the main stakeholders of the irrigation sector in Georgia and the services of the World Bank. The analysis in this policy note identifies the core constraints, which are hindering irrigation sector performance in Georgia and leading to the slow implementation of the irrigation strategy with a brief overview of some of the factors that are contributing to these constraints
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Agricultural Trade ; Agriculture ; Food Security ; Malnutrition
    Abstract: The Government of the Republic of Zambia aims to transform the economy to support economic growth and facilitate job creation. Central to the transformation agenda is a commitment to open trade regime for agricultural exports and imports. Zambia has a long history of import and export restrictions of agricultural commodities, maize in particular. This analytical work demonstrates that Zambia has lot to gain from committing to open agricultural trade. Partial equilibrium modelling estimates at USD 97 million the annual gain of open borders for maize exports over the next decade, compared to a scenario of continued trade restrictions. Producer losses from maize trade restrictions between 2023 and 2030 are projected to amount to about USD 1.42 billion. Such losses would cancel out the massive aid provided by the Government through the Farmer Input Support Program. While precise point estimates need to be interpreted with caution given the ongoing turmoil in global food markets, the direction and magnitude of these results cumulatively point to significant losses resulting from trade restrictions. The report details options for a comprehensive reform package to enable trade openness to effectively translate into additional income for farmers, traders, processors, and traders who participate in the sector
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Agricultural Sector Economics ; Agriculture ; Debt Restructuring ; Economic Conditions and Volatility ; Economic Insecurity ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Recession
    Abstract: Chad's gross domestic product (GDP) contracted by 1.2 percent in 2021 - the second consecutive year of recession - driven by a two-month suspension of oil production at its Esso plants, economic disruptions due to sociopolitical insecurity, and liquidity constraints because of delays in debt restructuring. Low oil revenue, coupled with increased spending to deal with shocks, widened the fiscal deficit to 4.3 percent of GDP in 2021. The 2022-24 economic recovery is expected to be fragile and subject to significant downside risks related to recurrent and emerging sources of vulnerability. With a slow and fragile economic recovery, the adverse effects of the pandemic on poor and vulnerable households are expected to last in the short to medium term. Chad can seize emerging opportunities offered by the political transition, increasing oil prices, and debt restructuring to undertake reforms aimed at renewing its social contract and reducing long-term vulnerabilities. Stronger agricultural and livestock value chains are critical to economic diversification, sustainable growth, and food security in the medium to long term. Livestock is the economy's most important non-oil sector and represents a major income source in the agriculture sector. The government should take bold actions to strengthen or create agricultural and livestock value chains
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  • 45
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Civil Society ; Employment and Unemployment ; Food Security ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Social Development ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report focuses on the socio-economic impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Solomon Islands. The fourth round of the high frequency phone survey (HFPS) interviewed 2,671 households in January-February 2022 on the socio-economic impacts of Coronavirus (COVID-19), including employment and income, community trust and security and COVID-19 vaccination. The January-February 2022 round occurred at the onset of the first wave of COVID-19
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Environment ; Forestry ; Forestry Management ; Gender ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Rural Development
    Abstract: Forests and terrestrial ecosystems play a primary environmental role in climate-change mitigation and adaptation. In many developing countries, forests provide ecosystem services and support the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people, mainly the poorest and most vulnerable in rural areas. The sustainable management of natural resources can reduce poverty and enhance shared prosperity at the local level. As countries develop Natural Resource Management (NRM) and forest management, it is crucial to ensure that these processes include women in productive, income-generating activities. Men and women access, use, and manage forests differently, as seen in the gendered nature of activities such as gathering forest products, hunting, wood harvesting, and mineral collection. Furthermore, there are persistent gender gaps in access to services, inputs (including credit and financing), markets, value-addition activities, land tenure, representation, and agency. The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and the World Bank (WB) have outlined a program aimed at promoting gender equality in REDD+ and foresty strategies and implementation. The FCPF is a global partnership of governments, businesses, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples (IPs) focused on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest carbon stock conservation, sustainable forest management, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries, activities commonly referred to as REDD+. This document aims to help task teams and practitioners identify and diagnose factors contributing to gender gaps in sustainable forest projects in FCPF countries by providing nine people-centered research tools based in the behavioral sciences. Such gaps can be rooted in gender norms, roles, and beliefs, attentional limitations, and procedural hassles, among others
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Economic and Sector Work Reports
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Health ; Law and Development ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Tax Law
    Abstract: Mali is a low-income, fragile country that has suffered extraordinary setbacks in recent years. It is a landlocked economy which is highly dependent on agriculture, and thus vulnerable to external shocks and adverse weather condition. With a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of US 875 dollars (current USD) in 2019, Mali is in the lower 15th percentile of the world's income distribution. Around 42 percent of the population live in extreme poverty. It is also a fragile state that has witnessed persistent conflict with political coups, social tensions, insecurity, and violence. The coup in 2012 has led to continued violence and displacement, leaving 8.7 million people, more than 45 percent of the population, living in crisis affected areas. It was followed by the military coup in August 2020 which has brought in a transitional civil government. The increasingly fragile security situation has also led to spikes in security expenditure, crowding out spending on public services and investment. This Public Expenditure Review (PER) proposes options to address this challenge, including improving spending efficiency and identifying ways to equitably increase domestic revenue. The policy actions and reforms it proposes will create the fiscal space to promote inclusive and sustainable growth. Starting with an overview of macro-fiscal developments, it examines Mali's expenditure patterns and fiscal sustainability and benchmarks its performance against peer countries. It reviews the domestic revenue needed to meet the Government's significant financing requirements and how the public finances are managed. It then investigates public spending efficiency in three sectors: education, health, and agriculture. These were chosen for their economic and social importance as well as their considerable share of public expenditure (over 30 percent). The PER provides some context for each sector, then analyzes financing and efficiency using a set of methodologies based on granular spending data and surveys, and concludes with suggested policy actions
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Impacts ; Environment ; Forestry ; Forestry Management ; Rural Development
    Abstract: This Country Forest Note offers an in-depth picture of the forest sector of Uzbekistan, viewed through a forest landscape lens, and provides guidance to help define goals and identify opportunities for the continued development of the sector. Despite a large number of current challenges, forest landscape management presents opportunities for sustainable development: increasing the forest area will provide additional benefits in terms of climate change. A holistic approach to soil degradation is required that includes improved livestock husbandry, soil management, and agricultural practices, all of which have a role to play. Leskhozes have a central role in transforming the forest sector and augmenting their capacity and skills needs to be an important consideration. Equally important is to encourage community participation through mahallas and create favorable conditions for private sector involvement. Strong government commitment and institutional and stakeholder buy-in and ownership are required to support the transition to more adaptive management in forestry. This transition is critical to address climate change issues, increased threats to forests, soil and water conservation, economic management of wood and non-wood forest products (NWFPs) from forested landscapes, and improvement of livelihoods of rural households
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  • 49
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Independent Evaluation Group Studies
    Keywords: Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage ; Agriculture ; Water Supply
    Abstract: Ratings for the Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was modest, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Borrow performance was moderately satisfactory. Ratings for the Farm-Level Irrigation Modernization Project are as follows: Outcome was moderately satisfactory, Risk to development outcome was modest, and Bank performance was moderately satisfactory. This assessment offers the following lessons: (i) In irrigation systems, such as the Nile Delta's, that are organized along a hierarchical canal network, irrigation improvement efforts can realize greater impact by applying a systematic approach to rehabilitation, as was done through these two projects, as opposed to addressing different levels of the canal system in isolation. (ii) Efficient implementation of irrigation improvement works requires coordinating and sequencing activities that fall under the mandate of many different entities, which are often beyond the authority of the project implementing agency. (iii) Effecting behavior changes in on-farm water use, agronomic practices, and diversification to higher-value crops requires support beyond improvements to the irrigation water delivery system. (iv) Successfully reforming the institutions that manage irrigation and drainage services, both water users and government agencies, requires greater attention to incentives for collaboration. (v) In a context such as the Nile Delta, where overall efficiency of the irrigation system is already high, there is little scope for addressing water savings at the basin level through infrastructure improvement
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: Ghana has achieved major development gains over the past three decades, but progress has slowed and there are causes for concern going forward. Ghana sought to fuel its development by leveraging markets, but debt sustainability is a concern, compounded by crises. Ghana's economic and human development is also vulnerable to climate change and climate-related shocks. While climate change cannot be solved by any single country, local actions can help manage physical and transition risks as well as bring large opportunities. This report explores the ways in which Ghana can pursue its development objectives while considering the challenges of climate change and the opportunities from the transition. It sets the stage in chapter 1 by documenting the various ways in which climate and development interact in Ghana, emphasizing that climate action can support development. Chapter 2 reviews Ghana's climate commitments and institutional readiness to carry them out. Chapter 3 lays out concrete actions that Ghana can consider to boost its resilience and productivity in key sectors while reducing its emissions and associated externalities. Chapter 4 models some of these investments and policies to assess their overall economic and social effects and explores financing options as well as ways to crowd in the private sector. Chapter 5 concludes by laying out priorities for the government to consider that are achievable and can yield development and climate payoffs simultaneously
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Air Pollution ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Forests ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) identifies ways that Nepal can achieve its overall development objectives while fostering its strategic ambition to transition to a greener, more resilient, and inclusive development pathway. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 captures the current situation in the country with respect to climate impacts and risks, emission sources, and opportunities for integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation. Chapter 2 describes the government's response, through sectoral and economywide commitments, laws, and regulations. Chapter 3 assesses the impacts of climate change on the macroeconomy and road transport systems, given their critical role to connectivity. It also analyzes the links between climate change and air pollution, poverty, health, social inclusion, and community resilience. Chapter 4 presents pathways to transition to resilience, looking at integrated management of landscape systems comprising water, agriculture, and forests as well as strengthening climate and disaster risk management governance. Chapter 5 analyzes pathways to transition to decarbonization, primarily the potential for hydropower expansion domestically and in the region. It also looks at transport and urban opportunities to reduce emissions while enhancing resilience and adaptation co-benefits. Chapter 6 discusses how to scale up financing for resilience, hydropower, and other opportunities, given the limitations of the country's fiscal space. Chapter 7 presents a prioritization framework for the most transformational climate action with seven 'policy packages'-one for each priority transition and each key enabler-that contain specific recommendations for how to move from analysis to action
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Climate Change Economics ; Energy ; Energy Sector ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Disasters ; Renewable Energy ; Resilience ; Urban Development
    Abstract: The World Bank Group's Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs) are new core diagnostic reports that integrate climate change and development considerations. They will help countries prioritize the most impactful actions that can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and boost adaptation, while delivering on broader development goals. This CCDR identifies near-term policy and investment priorities that will support Bangladesh to continue progress in building resilience to the effects of climate change. Section 1 describes Bangladesh's vulnerability to the effects of climate change and outlines estimates of the cost of mitigation and adaptation investments through 2030. Section 2 lays out the Government of Bangladesh's existing climate commitments and plans, and evaluates the institutional capacities required to meet them. Section 3 highlights priority sector-level interventions to build climate resilience while meeting development goals. Section 4 presents potential synergies between decarbonization and development. Section 5 discusses the macroeconomic and distributional impacts of climate scenarios and identifies priority actions to support adaptation and growth. The CCDR provides additional analysis to prioritize actions to accelerate climate-resilient development in line with Bangladesh's goals
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Droughts ; Environment ; Human Capital ; Infrastructure ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Resilience ; Urbanization
    Abstract: The Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) identifies ways that Cameroon can achieve its overall development objectives while fostering the transition to a greener, more resilient, and more inclusive development pathway. The CCDR finds that climate change is already a threat to Cameroon's development and the country faces the challenge of changing the current development model to create opportunities to improve resilience and to put the country on a stronger development trajectory. Currently, about two million people (nine percent of Cameroon's population) live in drought-affected areas, and about eight percent of the country's GDP is vulnerable. Tropical forests cover almost 40 percent of the country and provide an estimated eight million rural people with traditional staples including food, medicines, fuel, and construction material. Changes in temperature, rain and droughts put these people at greater risk of