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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Madagascar urbanization review
    Keywords: Verstädterung ; Stadtentwicklung ; Stadtplanung ; Politische Planung ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; City Development Strategies ; Environment ; Government Capacity ; Integrated Approach ; Sustainable Urban Growth ; Urban Development ; Urban Policies ; Urbanization ; Madagaskar
    Abstract: The Madagascar Urbanization Review aims to: - Contribute to the 2019 National Policy for Urban Development (Politique National de Developpement Urbain), the main policy document outlining the priorities for cities in Madagascar. - Serve as a diagnostic tool to identify the key barriers to sustainable and equitable urban growth in the country - Offer a set of recommended investment priorities and their sequencing, to support governments in making informed decisions on the future development of cities. - Promote an integrated approach to urban development and improve government capacity. - Promote an integrated approach to urban development and improve government capacity. - Help city leaders and national policy makers to: i. Think strategically about the opportunities offered by urbanization; ii. Address key bottlenecks that are holding back the potential benefits of urbanization; iii. Develop plans to address cities' most pressing issues; and iv. Build consensus between the national and local levels to drive the urban policy agenda
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gender and Law ; Gender Based Violence ; Gender Equality ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Nonextractive Sectors ; Resilience
    Abstract: Papua New Guinea has abundant resources in the form of oil and mineral wealth. But a complex set of factors, including systemic gender inequality, underinvestment in non-extractive sectors, and fragility compounded by vulnerability to disasters caused by natural hazards act as barriers to sustainable and inclusive growth of the country. This Country Program Evaluation (CPE) report assesses the relevance and effectiveness of World Bank Group support to Papua New Guinea between fiscal year FY08 and FY23. It assesses the Bank Group's development effectiveness in addressing the above three core themes, namely: (i) lack of investment in Papua New Guinea's non-extractive sectors and their poor performance, (ii) the economic exclusion of women and gender-based violence (GBV) issues associated with it, and (iii) unmitigated risks of disaster from natural hazards, and violence, and conflict. The report answers three specific questions. The first explores the extent to which the Bank Group adapted its engagement in line with key constraints, including in relation to development partners, changes in country context, and lessons from experience. The second focuses on the results of Bank Group support and explanatory factors for results under each them, answered by applying a gender lens where relevant. The third question explores the extent to which the Bank Group successfully identified and addressed conflict, violence, and disaster from natural hazards risks. The report offers key lessons to inform the World Bank Group's future engagement with the country: (i) Data gaps need to be addressed to inform sound policy making and effective programming in Papua New Guinea. (ii) Declining governance quality and increasing bilateral aid will require the World Bank to reassess how it supports key policy reforms to achieve development impact, including through using DPOs. (iii) The Bank Group could elevate its impact on gender equality and GBV by shifting from a project-centric approach to a strategic country engagement approach. (iv) The negative effects that compound and interrelated risks pose to achieving development aims need to be addressed more comprehensively
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Finance ; Inlcusive Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Resilience
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) examines Liberia's development trajectory through the lens of the country's vulnerability to climate change. It identifies Liberia's development risks and opportunities, models various scenarios of climate impact and intervention, and proposes ways to strengthen resilience and finance climate actions that support Liberia's development aspirations of inclusive growth and poverty reduction
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Environment ; IDA19 ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Rating System ; Resilience ; RRS
    Abstract: In response to the growing recognition that measuring inputs, such as climate finance, is not enough to capture the impacts of investments, the World Bank Group developed the Resilience Rating System (RRS). Developed over a two-year, multi-sectoral consultative process through close collaboration with internal and external actors, the RRS methodology aims to guide investment decisions and improve climate resilience in project design and outcomes. The methodology report is publicly available. The RRS evaluates and rates investment projects from C to A+, based on their resilience attributes in two complementary dimensions. The resilience of rating considers a project's design, reflecting the confidence that it will achieve its expected objectives and maximize development benefits in the face of climate and disaster risks. The resilience through rating considers a project's outcomes and reflects its contribution to improving climate resilience in the broader community, sector and systems, and to driving transformational adaptation. Combining the two dimension ratings provides an overall project rating, from CC to A+A+
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Budget Deficit ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Non-Hydrocarbon Activity ; Oil and Gas
    Abstract: This Algeria Economic Update reports on the main recent economic developments and policies. It places them in a global and longer-term context and assesses the implications of these developments and policy changes for Algeria's economic prospects. The report is intended for a broad audience, including policymakers, business leaders, financial market participants, and the community of analysts and professionals working in/on Algeria. The report is divided into two chapters. Chapter 1 presents macroeconomic developments in Algeria over the year 2022 and the first quarter of 2023, while Chapter 2 describes the short- and medium-term outlook for the Algerian economy
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Fossil Fuels Subsidies ; Hydrocarbon Prices ; Inflation ; Macroeconomic Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Non-Performing Loans ; Social Safety Nets ; Transport Sector
    Abstract: This is the tenth edition of the Republic of Congo Economic Update. Each edition of this annual report presents an overview of the Republic of Congo's (ROC) evolving macroeconomic position, followed by a detailed exploration of a specific topic. The first chapter of this year's update presents recent economic developments and macroeconomic outlook and risks. It also includes policy actions that could help strengthen fiscal and debt sustainability, contain food inflation, and sustain economic recovery. The second chapter discusses fossil fuel subsidies, which represent a significant fiscal burden in the Republic of Congo
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Building Regulations ; Environment ; Hazards ; Infrastructure and Law ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Infrastructure Regulation ; Law and Development ; National Urban Development Policies and Strategies ; Regulatory Frameworks ; Sub-Saharan Africa ; Urban Development ; Vulnerabilities
    Abstract: Buildings should provide safe, comfortable, and healthy environments for people to live and work. They are an essential component of societies and economies, housing critical infrastructure necessary to keep governments and businesses in operation. At the same time, buildings are the first line of defense against natural hazards and climate impacts for the general population. The scope of this report is limited to regulatory frameworks in Sub-Saharan Africa countries, with a focus on buildings rather than on specialized construction types such as infrastructure for water, energy, transport, or communications. The report focuses on the technical aspects of the regulatory frameworks: market and financial solutions fall beyond its scope. Chapter 1 of the report describes the components, concepts, and desired outcomes of building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 2 explains the evolution of the building regulation environment in Sub-Saharan Africa and the region-specific hazards and risks that the regulatory environment must respond to. Chapter 3 presents data on the building regulatory environment for each country in the region. It covers all aspects of the building regulatory cycle: from the legally adopted building regulations that exist, to what they cover, to the implementation of regulations through compliance and enforcement mechanisms. Chapter 4 offers guidance on how to improve and update building regulatory frameworks. Chapter 5 contains region-specific conclusions and recommendations for strengthening building regulatory frameworks because of the analyses carried out in Chapters 3 and 4. Additionally, Appendix A summarizes key data for each country
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Catchment Climate Risk ; Environment ; Rehabilitation Projects ; Roads ; Vulnerability Assessment
    Abstract: The Kingdom of Lesotho is a landlocked country in southern Africa. Large pockets of the population reside along the Senqu River Valley in the south-eastern reaches of the country, and some of the roads traverse this river to connect to the mountainous areas. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns due to climate change negatively impacts Lesotho's road network. Sustained land degradation, soil erosion, and increased demand on ecosystem services threatens infrastructure and the health of Lesotho's natural ecosystems, including wetlands. Climate change risk studies are often addressed through top-down approaches using climate projections and modelled impacts. However, a bottom-up approach is also required to focus on the recent past and present vulnerability. Whilst top-down and bottom-up approaches generate complementary insights into who and what is at risk, integrating their results is a much-needed step towards developing relevant information to address the needs of immediate adaptation decisions. The local-level risk assessment presented in this report is an example of a bottom-up approach to climate risk analysis that helps identify specific risks and opportunities for adaptation. The national level climate risk and vulnerability assessment presented in the national level risk assessment report complements the local-level climate risk and vulnerability assessment
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: r02
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Action Engagement ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Finance ; Climate Resilient Investment ; Country Climate Analytical Work ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Impact Evaluation ; Poverty Reduction ; Private Sector Climate Action ; Renewable Energy ; World Bank Group Effectiveness
    Abstract: The private sector has a critical role to play in addressing climate change by investing in low-carbon technologies, developing new technologies, and building climate resilience into its investments and operations. Private sector financing will also be critical for meeting the needs for global finance flows, but climate finance from the private sector has been very low. One reason for this is that most countries lack a conducive enabling environment for the private sector to engage in climate action. This evaluation assesses the World Bank Group's efforts to improve the enabling environment for private sector climate action (EEPSCA). The evaluation defines the private sector enabling environment for climate action as the set of policies (laws and regulations), incentives, standards, information, and institutions that encourage or facilitate the private sector to invest or behave in ways that reduce greenhouse gas emissions or adapt to the current or anticipated impacts of climate change. The private sector includes large, medium, and small firms; domestic and international financiers; and smallholder farmers or other producers. The evaluation assesses the relevance and effectiveness of Bank Group support to EEPSCA and aims to identify lessons applicable to the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation to inform implementation of the Bank Group Climate Change Action Plan 2021 and subsequent Bank Group climate activities. The evaluation also aims to inform discussions on the evolution road map, which considers further increasing the prominence of the role the Bank Group plays on global public goods, such as climate change
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Manage Model
    Abstract: The Dominican Republic has made significant progress in boosting economic growth and reducing poverty, but it still faces challenges to achieve inclusive and equitable development, increase productivity, and improve the competitiveness and sustainability of primary sectors like agriculture, water, tourism, and energy. The National Development Strategy (NDS) and the National Multi-Year Public Sector Plan (NPSP) aim to address development and climate challenges and promote a green, inclusive and resilient future. The DR is highly vulnerable to climate change, which is likely to compound existing development challenges. By 2050, climate change impacts are expected to decrease labor productivity and affect health, crop yields, tourism, infrastructure capital, and natural ecosystems such as forests and coastal areas. Climate change also poses risks to the financial system such as the banking sector's heightened credit exposure to tropical cyclones and droughts. Although the DR has a small carbon footprint, the country's GHG emissions have been rising, mainly in the energy, waste, and agricultural sectors. Fostering a low-carbon growth path can support the country's climate change goals while bringing important development co-benefits. The Dominican Republic CCDR employs a version of the MANAGE model. This CCDR further extends the model to incorporate the path of emissions from key sectors (transport, energy, AFOLU), and to incorporate DR-specific climate damage functions to introduce the impact of climate change on the economy
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Decarbonization ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Inclusive Economic Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Net Zero Emissions ; Poverty Reduction ; Poverty, Environment and Development ; Resilience
    Abstract: This report explores how climate action, in line with Uzbekistan's goal of achieving net zero emissions by 2060, interacts with the country's growth and development path. It further suggests priority actions to reduce carbon emissions and build resilience while supporting inclusive economic growth and poverty reduction
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Resilience ; DRC ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Fragile Countries ; Low-Carbon ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) aims to support DRC's efforts to achieve its development goals within a changing climate by quantifying the impacts of climate change on the economy and highlighting policies and interventions needed to strengthen the country's climate resilience on many different levels. The report captures the interplay between DRC's development, climate challenges, and climate policies, with the objective of identifying synergies and tradeoffs. The CCDR supports the strategic vision of the Government of DRC as articulated in its 2030 National Strategic Development Plan ("Plan National Strategique de Developpement" (PNSD)) to reach middle-income country (MIC) status by 2035, and by 2050, become a diversified inclusive economy spurred by sustainable growth. It identifies the priorities needed in order to launch the most impactful, cost-effective actions to boost adaptation, build resilience, and foster low-carbon growth, while delivering on broader development goals. These are critical objectives, especially in fragile countries such as the DRC
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Deforestation ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Forests ; GHG Emissions ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) proposes that Benin focuses on building a resilient economy, with investment and policy options primarily targeted at adapting to climate change risks. The dependence of Benin's economic structure on agriculture and informal employment makes its development path highly vulnerable to climate change in the absence of proper adaptation. The government and the private sector need to be better prepared to deal with climate change -- building adequate institutions and governance structures will be crucial. While all sectors will have to become more resilient, this is especially urgent for agriculture and land use, urban and network infrastructure, and human development (education, health). Mitigation efforts should focus on avoiding carbon lock-ins and reducing deforestation. Investing in renewable energy whilst expanding the population's access to electricity should be a priority for Benin. A higher share of renewable energy can bring about co-benefits for other sectors (agriculture, water, transport, and forestry). To maintain its growth trajectory, Benin needs to pay special attention to its most vulnerable people, including women. To protect the poor and vulnerable the just transition should focus on reconciling development and climate goals while addressing inequality (income and gender related), and spatial exclusion
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Biodiversity ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Forest Institutions ; Forest Management ; Forests ; Fuels ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Land Degradation ; Landscape Restoration ; Legal Framework ; Non-Wood Forest Products ; NWFPs ; Protected Areas
    Abstract: This note synthesizes multiple reports produced under World Bank support to the Government of Armenia (GoA) in undertaking landscape restoration opportunities assessment and provides a detailed overview of opportunities and challenges in the forestry sector. Armenia is a forest-poor country; only 11.2 percent of the territory (334,100 hectares (ha) is forested, which is concentrated in three marzes: Tavush and Lori in the north and Syunik in the south. The predominant forest type is naturally grown broad-leaved mountain forest with a small area of pine forest. Estimates on the state of the forests, their extent, quality, health, and harvested volumes vary widely depending on the data sources and methodology used. Based on wood consumption data, harvesting volumes must be much higher than officially reported, while forest growth is lower than the current official estimates. These divergences, combined with limited silvicultural management and exacerbated by fires and uncontrolled grazing, mean that sustainable forest use is clearly far from guaranteed. The note has been developed through a consultative process and is expected to inform all relevant stakeholders on the status of the forest sector and opportunities to further improve it. The objective of this note is to strengthen the dialogue with Armenia on the forest sector considering the ongoing reforms and to explore how the country can reverse landscape degradation and increase its contribution to post-pandemic economic recovery
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Human Capital ; Inclusive Development ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Sustainability
    Abstract: To respond to climate change effectively, human capital needs to be at the heart of policy responses. This policy note demonstrates the impacts of climate change across the lifecycle and provides a framework of policy and program interventions to protect, build, and use human capital to minimize climate change impacts and create opportunities for more sustainable and inclusive development on a livable planet. By demonstrating the scope of impacts of climate change on people and people's potential to contribute to climate action, the note also makes a case for prioritizing human capital investments as part of countries' Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and other climate strategies
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  • 16
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Deforestation ; Environment ; Forests ; GHG Emissions ; Political Economy ; Private Sector
    Abstract: The world faces a triple crisis of three interconnected issues-development, climate, and nature- and current levels of climate action are insufficient. Beyond the grim headlines, there are increasingly clear opportunities to achieve triple wins. To support the alignment of sustainable development priorities and actions with climate change risks and objectives, the World Bank launched the Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) in 2022. This core diagnostic tool aims to help countries prioritize the most impactful actions to boost resilience and adaptation and reduce GHG emissions, while delivering on broader development and sustainability objectives. CCDRs now cover 56 percent of the population of low- and middle-income countries (LICs and MICs) and 73 percent of their gross domestic product (GDP). The second set of CCDRs also includes one high-income country (HIC), Romania. A main addition of the CCDRs published since COP27 relates to tropical forests, a key dimension of the global climate change challenge. The first set of CCDRs covered only 10 percent of the world's tropical forests, but the addition of key forested countries-including Brazil, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, and the Republic of Congo-increases coverage to 56 percent. Many CCDRs (including Romania and Turkiye) also discuss the role of non-tropical forests for resilience and emission reduction. This second summary report builds on the first report published ahead of COP27. Although it is important to caveat the differences in scenarios and ambition, modeling framework, and scope of analysis, this report provides aggregated results that can help governments, private sector investors, citizens, and development partners prioritize the most impactful climate actions. It confirms-with more granularity and stronger evidence, based on more countries-key findings from the first summary report; but it also discusses new issues, such as deforestation and land degradation. It aims to inform global priorities, including the World Bank's Evolution Roadmap and Global Challenge Programs (GCP), as well as other global initiatives
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Deforestation ; Environment ; Forests ; GHG Emissions ; Private Sector
    Abstract: Climate action is critical for development in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The region contains countries among the most affected by climate change but least prepared to address it. This report introduces key findings of the World Bank Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs) in the region. The CCDRs help align climate and development considerations for governments and other stakeholders and help prioritize actions that enhance adaptation and resilience, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and align with broader development goals. Addressing these challenges and converting them into opportunities is crucial, including taking carefully prioritized, sustained action. Seven CCDRs have been published for MENA countries (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon1, Morocco, Tunisia, West Bank and Gaza), offering policy and investment options to harmonize climate and development objectives. Additional countries will be covered as CCDRs are finalized in the coming years
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; CEA ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Country Environmental Analysis ; Environment ; Natural Capital ; Natural Resources Management ; Sustainability
    Abstract: The Comoros Country Environmental Analysis 2023 aims to identify the main opportunities for the Comoros to better manage its natural capital, achieve its potential sustainably, capitalize on climate co-benefits stemming from the process, and advance the development agenda. This is the first CEA for Comoros and, as such, it constitutes an unprecedented opportunity to open avenues for effective natural resource management, poverty reduction, and the potential to boost socioeconomic development. The development of the CEA was based on a combination of literature review, secondary data analysis, stakeholder interviews, and focus groups conducted in early 2022. The outcomes of the CEA have been validated through a verification workshop with the country's key stakeholders. Given the lack of data on the natural capital of the Comoros, this CEA seeks to identify opportunities to strengthen the methodological soundness of natural resource management in the Comoros to enable evidence-based decision-making and prioritization of interventions
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Catchment Areas ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Roads ; Vulnerability Assessment
    Abstract: The Kingdom of Lesotho is a landlocked country in southern Africa. Large pockets of the population reside along the Senqu River Valley in the south-eastern reaches of the country, and some of the roads traverse this river to connect to the mountainous areas. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns due to climate change negatively impacts Lesotho's road network. Sustained land degradation, soil erosion, and increased demand on ecosystem services threatens infrastructure and the health of Lesotho's natural ecosystems, including wetlands. The primary aim of this study was to undertake a review of existing frameworks for climate and environment vulnerability assessments for roads and to adapt these to the Lesotho context in line with Southern African Development Community (SADC) protocol on transport, the National Strategic Development Plan of Lesotho, and the South African National Roads Agency (SANRAL) Design Guidelines. The adapted climate and environmental risk framework then formed the basis for developing a climate change risk and vulnerability and assessment methodology/tool
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Action ; Climate Finance ; Climate Mitigation ; Climate Policy ; Climate-Smart City ; Environment ; Low-Carbon Cities ; Low-Carbon Urbanization
    Abstract: This Climate Change and Development Report (CCDR) establishes the case for a new economic model to address Tunisia's challenging economic and social context and vulnerability to climate change. Building on extensive analyses and consultations (see Box 1 for our approach), the CCDR calls for a new model that emphasizes the role of the private sector in generating most jobs, while the state focuses on its regulating function, funding expenditures with the highest social and economic returns, and directing resources to interventions that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. The proposed model would involve major changes, such as using pricing to rationalize the consumption of resources and creating economic conditions that support private investments in climate adaptation and decarbonization. It would also involve a shift from recurrent public expenditures to public investments in adaptation and decarbonization
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  • 21
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 39458
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Digital Technologies ; E-Government ; Environment ; Governance ; Govtech ; Green Transition ; ICT Applications ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: Governments are increasingly seeking opportunities to leverage digital technologies to build a greener future. This guidance note provides useful advice to policy makers underlining adequate leadership and commitment are crucial to implement coordinated GovTech and Green policies. The climate change impacts of digitalization can provide the benefits of green digital service delivery, paperless administration, and the efficiency of integrated services for a reduction of the carbon footprint. The guidance note will focus on "greening Public Administration through GovTech" defined as GovTech policies, initiatives, and/or solutions that embrace environmental considerations by design, maximizing the green benefits and considering the potential negative impacts, for example through digitalization of government processes. This guidance note is centered around three main topics: (i) the green government process through digital solutions; (ii) greening digital service delivery; and (iii) identifying policy mechanisms to mainstream green digital approaches throughout government systems
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Infrastructure ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Resilience ; Urban Development ; Urban Environment
    Abstract: Cote d'Ivoire is at a crossroads. Despite good progress over the last decade, recent global economic and health shocks have aggravated existing problems including lack of fiscal space, limited access to concessional and cheap financing, and a fragile political neighborhood. But Cote d'Ivoire now has an opportunity to put its growth on a more sustainable path, both realizing the aspirations of a growing population and better adapting to the growing impacts of climate change. Climate change impacts are already affecting Cote d'Ivoire, as temperatures increase, rainfall and other weather events become more extreme and less predictable, and sea levels rise. This World Bank Group Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) shows negative impacts from climate change will reduce economic performance and over proportionally impact the poor. The report examines specific opportunities in energy, agriculture, and land use as well as urban development and interconnectivity that could render the country's development more sustainable and inclusive, raising standards of living while increasing resilience in face of climate change. Dealing with a changing climate is a national imperative, where choices need to be made for the structural transformation of the economy, transitioning from outdoor low-earning sectors such as agriculture to more value-added industrial and service activities
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Energy Efficiency ; Environment ; GHG Emission ; ICT Applications ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; ICT Sector ; Information and Communication Technologies
    Abstract: This report is based on a targeted review of Singapore's approach to climate change, focusing on how the country drives energy efficiency and reduces GHG emissions in the ICT sector, particularly in data centers. It aims to reflect the various measures undertaken by the Singapore Government, present lessons learned, keytakeaways and challenges that continue to lie ahead. The information in this version is current as of end November 2023. The purpose of this report is to provide the key lessons for broad, multistakeholder consideration and dialogue forwhat countries could consider as they approach "greening" the ICT sector. It is important to note that addressing all the issues raised in this report does not guarantee a perfect, or even workable, enabling environment to meet theglobal climate change challenge. This is because the effectiveness of these measures can be affected by exogenous factors and the unique national circumstances of each country
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Environment ; Natural Resource Management ; Risk and Resilience
    Abstract: This supplementary guidance note is based on the report, Defueling Conflict: Environment and Natural Resource Management as a Pathway to Peace (2022), which was funded by the State and Peacebuilding Fund. This document is intended to encapsulate the key ideas to support Risk and Resilience Assessment (RRA) teams to collect knowledge on and deepen and nuance the treatment of the environment and natural resources in RRAs. Additional examples and analyses are available in the original report
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  • 25
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Quality ; Carbon Footprint ; Climate Change Economics ; Decarbonization ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Growth Prospects ; Inflation ; Low-Carbon ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy
    Abstract: Kenya's economic performance softened in 2022, steering towards country's long-term growth rate. Real GDP expanded by 4.8 percent in 2022, a deceleration compared with the strong rebound from the Covid-19 crisis at 7.5 percent annual growth in 2021 but broadly aligned with growth rates of Kenya's potential GDP as well as of the pre-pandemic decade. The adverse weather shock of the last two years has been a major drag on economic growth, with growth in real GDP excluding agriculture standing at 6.3 percent in 2022. Besides, the impacts of tightening of domestic macroeconomic policies and challenging global financial conditions significantly hurt domestic economic activity, especially in the latter half of the year
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Quality and Clean Air ; Climate Change ; Cost-Effective ; Energy-Efficient ; Environment ; Indoor Air Quality ; Thermal Comfort ; Urban Development ; Urban Housing
    Abstract: This report provides evidence-based guidance on cost-effective and energy-efficient cooling and ventilation interventions to improve building-level thermal comfort and indoor air quality for a changing climate in South Asia. It focuses on Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan but also covers all the countries in the region, including Afghanistan, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. After an introduction, the report analyzes local climates and air quality issues, building types, and occupant behavior, as well as available passive and active interventions and their relevance in the region, before concluding with a set of recommendations for all building types. The report also identifies additional recommendations specific to residential and commercial buildings, along with policy and country-specific recommendations
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2114
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Green Infrastructure ; Hydro Power ; Landscape Restoration ; Sustainable Land Management ; Vakhsh River ; Water
    Abstract: This report outlines the main results of a study conducted to assess the potential role of landscape restoration/nature-based solutions/green infrastructure in the Vakhsh River Basin, Tajikistan, to reduce the impacts of soil erosion on the hydropower cascade, increase agricultural productivity, improve livelihoods, and inform about investment opportunities. This assessment finds sediment sources and loadings in the Vakhsh River Basin, considers the potential correlation between soil erosion and sedimentation in hydropower reservoirs, proposes possible and cost-effective landscape restoration measures, and estimates the value of ecosystem services provided. The study also presents recommendations for implementing the proposed interventions for the Vakhsh River Basin and for scaling up to other degraded areas throughout the country
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Blue Carbon ; Blue Economy ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Investment and Investment Climate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public and Private Investment ; Readiness Framework
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a practical framework to guide governments in catalyzing and scaling up public and private investment in Blue Carbon as part of their blue economy development. It does this by describing in detail a Blue Carbon Readiness Framework, a step-by-step, well-illustrated guide with simple checklists. Client countries can use the illustrations and checklists to determine their readiness to catalyze and scale up investment in blue carbon credit finance. The Blue Carbon Readiness Framework consists of three pillars: 1. Data and Analytics; 2. Policy and Institutions; 3. Finance
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2163
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Energy ; Environment ; Health ; Social Protection ; Water and Food
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) for the West Bank and Gaza examines the social and macroeconomic impacts of climate change under three alternative scenarios that reflect different levels of climate action and divergent economic growth trajectories. The scenario analysis builds on sector-level assessments focused on the water-energy-food nexus, urban development, and the macroeconomic framework and is informed by extensive stakeholder consultations and the stated climate priorities of the Palestinian Authority (PA). The health and social-protection sectors are treated as cross-cutting factors in this analysis, reflecting the critical importance of service provision and human capital in a fragile context like the West Bank and Gaza
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: 2209
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Demographic Change ; Diversity ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Inclusivity ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Megatrends ; Social Development ; Social Inclusion and Institutions ; Sustainable Growth ; Technological Change
    Abstract: In 2022, Brazil celebrated its 200th anniversary. What will Brazil celebrate at its 220th anniversary, in 2042? Following the recent elections there is a window of opportunity for reforms that will shape Brazil's development over the next decades. "The Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability" takes a long-term perspective on Brazil's development, exploring how prudent actions today can generate opportunities for a more prosperous, inclusive, and sustainable society over the next 20 years. The report aims to stimulate public debate about a virtuous cycle for 2042, illustrated by four alternative future scenarios. With the right reforms Brazil can become an economic powerhouse that offers opportunities for all. A more inclusive social contract can facilitate critical reforms
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate and Development ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Policy Framework ; Climate Resilience ; Decarbonization ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Outlook ; Economic Policy ; Environment ; Investment and Investment Climate ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Indonesia has been successful in navigating the macroeconomic fallout from asynchronous global shocks. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth remains strong though the economy is yet to fully recover to its pre-pandemic trajectory. This is consistent with labor market trends, which show a recovery in labor force participation and employment but a possible deterioration in jobs quality. Inflation has been brought under control following the effects of the energy price shocks in 2022, though new pressures are emerging from food supply risks and renewed oil price rises. External pressures have risen due to tight global financing conditions, which have triggered capital outflows and currency pressures across emerging markets including Indonesia. With resilient macroeconomic underpinnings and the end of the post-COVID recovery cycle, the policy focus turns again to the growth agenda
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Rwanda country climate and development report
    Keywords: Umweltschaden ; Sozioökonomischer Wandel ; Klimaänderung ; Naturkatastrophe ; Auswirkung ; Wirtschaft ; Anpassung ; Strategie ; Klimaschutz ; Organisation ; Entwicklungsmodell ; Sektorale Strukturpolitik ; Öffentliche Investition ; Privatwirtschaft ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Finance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Ruanda ; Climate-smart Development ; Economic Impact ; Climate Resilience ; Low-carbon ; Natural Hazards ; Paris Agreement ; Policies And Capacities
    Abstract: The Rwanda CCDR highlights key interventions that are needed in Rwanda to strengthen climate resilience in the context of country's development priorities and its commitments under the Paris Agreement. The CCDR finds that Rwanda's unconditional adaptation and mitigation commitments (i.e., the actions the country plans to implement through 2030 using existing and planned domestic and external financial resources) would substantially dampen the shocks to GDP resulting from increased weather variability. Unconditional NDC investments would boost industrial output and employment during project implementation compared to their baseline levels. The CCDR also finds that conditional actions boost the capital stock above the baseline by more than 4% on average in the late-2020s and by 1% towards mid-century. The additional climate investments in agriculture, energy, and infrastructure simulated in the CCDR could also accelerate the pace of structural transformation. Considering the current global and national fiscal context, finding the right balance between development and climate action will be instrumental for Rwanda to sustain its impressive growth rates and deliver its national development plan Vision 2050. The CCDR offers recommendations organized by priority areas, where sector-specific interventions and projects are presented
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Pollution ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Energy ; Energy and Environment ; Environment ; Green Issues
    Abstract: Serbia needs to transition to a greener growth model for internal and external reasons. Internally, Serbia's economy is still characterized by low energy and resource productivity, with significant impacts on health and the environment. As a candidate country for EU membership, Serbia also needs to react to external influences by aligning domestic policies with the EU's energy, environment, and climate legislation, while avoiding negative impacts of the EU's planned Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). This report draws from a rich analysis to provide recommendations on how the transition to greener and more resilient growth in Serbia can begin. First, environmental fiscal reforms are needed to incentivize the adoption of more environmentally friendly technologies. The implementation of carbon pricing will also enable Serbia to proactively prepare for the upcoming EU CBAM. The proceeds of carbon pricing should be reinvested in innovation and education to further accelerate the green transition. Second, institutional frameworks need to be strengthened to support the government in delivering on reforms. Third, sector-specific reforms will need to address important challenges like energy efficiency, air pollution, waste management, water, and wastewater. Importantly, the transition needs to be based on a coherent and adaptive roadmap, which mitigates the risks of 'brown' growth, protects those adversely impacted, and ensures an equitable distribution of the benefits of increased growth
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: India, recognizing the complex challenges of rising temperatures, was one of the first countries in the world to develop a comprehensive Cooling Action Plan in 2019. The India Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) sets out a long-term vision of ensuring sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all while securing environmental and socio-economic benefits. The ICAP recognizes that cooling is a cross-sectoral challenge, and that sustainable delivery of cooling is needed to deliver climate-resilient economic growth. To help India achieve the ICAP's bold vision while identifying entry points for World Bank sectoral engagement, the Bank commissioned a study in December 2020, with the aim of identifying practical ways to Support the Implementation of the ICAP, including via identification of the role of concessional finance in delivering cooling solutions. Following a consultation process involving over 20 different stakeholders from academia, industry, thinktanks and the Government, the study found that over the next few decades, the projected growth of cooling-related sectors will result in an exponential rise in cooling and refrigerant demands, and energy consumption in all sectors. This will be matched with an increase in GHG emissions, projected to double by 2027. It concludes that India's cooling strategy can help mitigate risks of heat on lives and livelihoods, lower carbon emissions, and position India as a global hub for green cooling manufacturing. Additionally, India's long-term food security and public health security depend on a reliable cold chain network. Unlocking opportunities to create a sustainable cooling strategy will also help India in its post-COVID recovery by boosting investments, creating jobs, reducing emissions, and securing the supply chains of medical care products, health infrastructure, as well as food products. The study includes a series of roadmaps designed to help achieve sustainable cooling in key ICAP thematic areas, id est, Space Cooling in Buildings, Cold-Chain and Refrigeration (Agriculture and Health), Passenger Transport Air-Conditioning and Refrigerants. The study finds that concessional finance by multilateral development banks, financial institutions and the private sector will play a key role in helping India develop financial instruments and innovative models to accelerate the adoption of sustainable cooling measures. These innovative financial instruments will be crucial to develop and transform the cooling market in India
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: In Jordan, natural resource scarcity and import dependence mean pronounced climate change impacts are inevitable and adapting to climate change is a pressing development priority. A new World Bank diagnostic tool, The Country Climate and Development Report explores the linkages between climate and development and identifies priority actions to build resilience and reduce carbon emissions, while supporting economic growth and reducing poverty. The report indicates that Jordan's trajectory in meeting its climate and development goals will be largely determined by policy and investment choices in five strategic sectors - water, energy, agriculture, transport and urban development. The transformation of those sectors towards a resilient and low carbon path would need to be closely coordinated along two nexuses to maximize co-benefits and to reduce potentially negative socio-economic impacts: the water-energy-food security nexus, in a context of extreme water scarcity and pressing adaptation needs, and the urban-transport-energy nexus, which is at the core of the shift towards a low-carbon growth path. Jordan will need to use a combination of avenues to leverage financing for priority climate action. Selected policy reforms to improve the management of public investment in key sectors, attract and leverage private sector financing, incentivize end-users and change behaviors, and ensure greater engagement of the financial sector will all be essential for the achievement of Jordan's climate priorities. Equally important will be the identification of additional financing for priority investments, without which the country's climate commitments may remain out of reach
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Economic Diversification ; Energy ; Environment ; Fiscal Adjustment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Oil and Gas ; Political Instability
    Abstract: Iraq's economy is rebounding thanks to rising oil output and a recovery in domestic economic activity after the pandemic. Higher government oil revenues, driven by increased export prices and quantities, have significantly strengthened the fiscal position and international reserves. Without deeper structural reforms and economic diversification, Iraq's extreme oil dependence leaves it vulnerable to commodity price volatility. Persistent high oil prices bode well for the economic outlook, but global demand is expected to gradually weaken. Downside risks to the economic outlook relate to further weakening of global demand, insecurity and political instability, and renewed inflationary pressures. Vulnerabilities could further be amplified by intensifying climate change shocks both in physical and financial terms. Furthermore, Iraq's dependence on oil leaves it vulnerable to new economic risks amid the global transition towards a decarbonized world. A new government was confirmed into office in October 2022, marking a new opportunity to implement reforms towards economic diversification, tackling longstanding structural challenges and addressing climate challenges
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Carbon Taxes ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience
    Abstract: Integrating climate and development is a pillar of the World Bank Group's (WBG) Climate Change Action Plan 2021-25. To advance its implementation, the WBG has launched the Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR). This new, core diagnostic tool analyzes how a country's development goals can be achieved in the context of adapting to, and mitigating against, climate change. As such, the Pakistan CCDR provides analysis and policy recommendations on how to harmonize the country's efforts to achieve further economic growth and lower poverty rates, on the one hand, with the pursuit of a climate-resilient, low-carbon, and equitable development path, on the other. In light of the devastating 2022 heatwaves and floods and the country's vulnerability profile, the CCDR puts a strong emphasis on the need for building long-term resilience. Further, it explores pathways for Pakistan to achieve deep decarbonization by 2050, and eventually reach net-zero emissions by 2070 without undermining its development ambitions. It also provides assessment on technical, financial and institutional and governance frameworks needed for these climate transitions. Most importantly, it attempts to capture the centrality of people in climate policies by assessing how climate risks affect lives and livelihoods, and ways in which governments can build resilience and address poverty, distributional and job impact of climate change and climate actions. Lastly, it sheds lights on ways for Pakistan to galvanize cooperation between public and private sectors and support from international communities
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change and Environment ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Climate change poses major risks for development in the Philippines. Climate shocks, whether in the form of extreme weather events or slow-onset trends, will hamper economic activities, damage infrastructure, and induce deep social disruptions. Adaptation to the risks of climate change, including both extreme events and slow-onset problems, is thus critical for the Philippines. Policy inaction would impose substantial economic and human costs, especially for the poor. Adaptation cannot eliminate the costs of climate change, but it can substantially reduce them. Many adaptation responses also contribute to mitigation; conversely, many mitigation measures generate local co-benefits, such as reduced air pollution. Although the Philippines is a relatively low emitter of greenhouse gas (GHG), it can contribute to global mitigation efforts through an energy transition, including a shift away from coal. The investment costs of such adaptation measures and an energy transition are substantial but not out of reach. The Philippines Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) comprehensively analyzes how climate change will affect the country's ability to meet its development goals and pursue green, resilient, and inclusive development. The CCDR helps identify opportunities for climate action by both the public and private sectors and prioritizes the most urgent development challenges impacted by climate change in the Philippines
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Impacts ; Environment ; Rural Development ; Rural Roads and Transport ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: Small island developing states (SIDS) are among the most exposed, vulnerable countries in the world to natural hazards and the impacts of climate change. SIDS are already experiencing significant economic and social losses from climate change impacts. Extreme weather events such as flooding and hurricanes significantly affect the transport sector, with damage from such events accounting for a large percentage of total infrastructure damage costs. The need for climate adaptation is recognized in SIDS' nationally determined contributions to the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The World Bank supports its clients in implementing nationally determined contribution objectives and actions. The World Bank's programmatic technical assistance, Resilient Transport in Small Island Developing States, implemented with the aim of enhancing the resilience of the transport sector in SIDS, was delivered in three phases. The objective of this report is to help practitioners integrate climate resilience considerations into transport asset management and thus enhance climate resilience in the transport sector of SIDS (Phases 2 and 3 of the technical assistance). The report starts by introducing the topic of natural hazards and climate change in SIDS and how they affect the transport sector. The report describes how governments can develop resilient transport asset management systems (TAMS) and then summarizes the activities implemented in four SIDS, Cape Verde in Africa, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean, and Solomon Islands and Vanuatu in the Pacific,and shares lessons learned to improve the approach and framework. Finally, the report introduces an online training course on resilient TAMS and the i-Knowledge platform
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Biodiversity ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Insurance ; Insurance and Risk Mitigation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Risk Management
    Abstract: Biodiversity loss will be an increasingly important source of risk and opportunity for the insurance sector. The significant degradation of ecosystems has the potential to materially impact global finance, economies, and societies alike. Understanding the physical and transition risks associated with biodiversity loss and working to mitigate the damage to biodiversity will be a key aspect of meeting the targets set by the Paris Agreement. Insurance companies will be impacted by biodiversity risks in several ways: as underwriters, as investors, and as corporate citizens. Insurers will be impacted both by changes in climate and biodiversity and by transition risks affecting the risks they insure or the investments they make. Insurance can promote investment in biodiversity in three ways: (i) asset protection, (ii) liability reduction, and (iii) facilitation of capital inflow from the financial markets. Ideally, efforts to protect biodiversity will include a combination of instruments, not only insurance. Insurers, as investors, can contribute directly to the preservation of biodiversity by channeling capital towards biodiversity-positive investments, but the opportunities to do so are still limited. The G20 Sustainable Finance Roadmap (G20 SFWG, 2021) highlighted the need to integrate nature and biodiversity in future work on sustainable finance. The financial materiality of underestimating or inaccurately pricing biodiversity-related risks could pose a threat to the solvency of the insurance industry and lead to an increase in exclusions of uninsurable risks. Risk management can be enhanced by combining the results of both catastrophe and climate risk models, but more needs to be done to incorporate biodiversity risk. Combining ecological action with financial protection can make good economic and financial sense and help overcome the pricing issues associated with risks such as wildfire
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Pollution ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Like most countries in the world, Vietnam is increasingly seeing its development affected by climate change. With a coastline of 3,260 kilometers that includes major cities and production sites, Vietnam is highly exposed to sea-level rise. Climate change impacts on the Vietnamese economy and national welfare are already significant-about 3.2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020-and they are expected to escalate rapidly even if greater efforts are made to mitigate future climate change around the world. Vietnam has historically had very low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but over the past two decades, it has seen some of the fastest emissions growth rates in the world. From 2000 to 2015, as GDP per capita increased from USD 390 to USD 2,000, per capita emissions more than quadrupled. Vietnam's GHG emissions are associated with toxic air pollution in many of its cities today, with implications for health and labor productivity. At the UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November 2021 (COP26), the Prime Minister made several commitments, including an ambitious target of reducing emissions to net zero by 2050. Vietnam's increased attention to climate change and the environment reflects the growing economic costs of resource depletion and climate impacts, which have already started to harm trade and investment- two key drivers of the nation's robust growth and job creation in recent decades. Vietnam now faces critical questions about how to respond to climate change: How intensively should it work to adapt to previous and predicted damages caused by climate change, given the uncertainty of global mitigation efforts? How much will it cost to reduce GHG emissions? How can the private sector be mobilized to help achieve Vietnam's climate goals? Are there trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation investments? Are there trade-offs between economic growth, poverty reduction, and climate action, and how can they be managed? Which sectors and regions should be prioritized? What are the distributional implications of a low-carbon, climate-resilient growth path? The Vietnam Country and Climate Development Report (CCDR) investigates these questions. One of the first in a series of country-level diagnostics produced by the World Bank Group (WBG) under its 2021-2025 Climate Change Action Plan, the CCDR examines the adaptation and mitigation challenges faced by Vietnam. It pays special attention to policy trade-offs and provides recommendations to help policy makers prioritize among a range of options, recognizing uncertainties about future climate change impacts and the availability of technology and financing
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Air Pollution ; Air Quality and Clean Air ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Environment
    Abstract: This study delivers evidence of the main causes of premature deaths from air pollution in Almaty and Nur-Sultan, two major cities in Kazakhstan, and offers guidance on cost-effective solutions to prevent them while making the cities better prepared for a low-carbon future. The report provides high-level roadmaps for integrated air quality management and climate change mitigation in Almaty and Nur-Sultan to maximize synergies and manage tradeoffs. It proposes sequencing of actions until 2030 to save lives from poor air quality while facilitating the process of long-term phasing out of fossil fuels. Moreover, the report analyzes the need for policy reforms to incentivize the adoption of the proposed cost-effective integrated measures by private economic actors. This report does not analyze implementation modalities for the identified technical abatement measures or for specific fiscal policy instruments. It also does not address long-term decarbonization needs beyond 2030 but recognizes that reprioritizing policy actions slightly to maximize climate benefits may require some additional air quality management actions to address the unacceptably high burden that exposure to PM2.5 currently places on public health
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Air Pollution ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Forests ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) identifies ways that Nepal can achieve its overall development objectives while fostering its strategic ambition to transition to a greener, more resilient, and inclusive development pathway. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 captures the current situation in the country with respect to climate impacts and risks, emission sources, and opportunities for integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation. Chapter 2 describes the government's response, through sectoral and economywide commitments, laws, and regulations. Chapter 3 assesses the impacts of climate change on the macroeconomy and road transport systems, given their critical role to connectivity. It also analyzes the links between climate change and air pollution, poverty, health, social inclusion, and community resilience. Chapter 4 presents pathways to transition to resilience, looking at integrated management of landscape systems comprising water, agriculture, and forests as well as strengthening climate and disaster risk management governance. Chapter 5 analyzes pathways to transition to decarbonization, primarily the potential for hydropower expansion domestically and in the region. It also looks at transport and urban opportunities to reduce emissions while enhancing resilience and adaptation co-benefits. Chapter 6 discusses how to scale up financing for resilience, hydropower, and other opportunities, given the limitations of the country's fiscal space. Chapter 7 presents a prioritization framework for the most transformational climate action with seven 'policy packages'-one for each priority transition and each key enabler-that contain specific recommendations for how to move from analysis to action
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Financial Sector ; Floods ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience
    Abstract: Climate change poses a serious threat to Morocco's economic growth and human potential but with the right investments and policies in place, a more sustainable future is possible. A new World Bank diagnostic tool, The Country Climate and Development Report explores the linkages between climate and development and identifies priority actions to build resilience and reduce carbon emissions, while supporting economic growth and reducing poverty. The Morocco climate report identifies three priority areas - tackling water scarcity and droughts; enhancing resilience to floods; and decarbonizing the economy. The report also looks at the cross-cutting issues of financing, governance, and equity. The underlying message in the report is that if Morocco invests in climate action now and takes the appropriate policy measures, the benefits will be immense. Ambitious climate actions will help to revitalize rural areas, create new jobs and position the Kingdom as a green industrial hub, while also helping Morocco to reach its broader development goals. The report identifies key pathways to decarbonize the economy, reducing reliance on fossil fuels and massively deploying solar and wind power. The report estimates that total investment needed to put Morocco firmly on a resilient and low carbon pathway by the 2050s would be around USD 78 billion in present dollar value. The good news is that these investments could be gradual and that with the appropriate policies in place, the private sector could shoulder much of the cost
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  • 45
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Energy ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Renewable Energy
    Abstract: The World Bank Group's Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs) are new core diagnostic reports that integrate climate change and development considerations. The CCDR for Kazakhstan identifies ways that Kazakhstan can achieve its development objectives while fostering the transition to a more green, resilient, and inclusive development pathway. It sets out policy reforms and investments needed to build resilience to climate change impacts and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while creating a more diversified, competitive and sustainable economy
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Argentina Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) explores opportunities and identifies trade-offs for aligning Argentina's growth and poverty reduction policies with its commitments on, and its ability to withstand, climate change. It assesses how the country can: reduce its vulnerability to climate shocks through targeted public and private investments and adequation of social protection. The report also shows how Argentina can seize the benefits of a global decarbonization path to sustain a more robust economic growth through further development of Argentina's potential for renewable energy, energy efficiency actions, the lithium value chain, as well as climate-smart agriculture (and land use) options. Given Argentina's context, this CCDR focuses on win-win policies and investments, which have large co-benefits or can contribute to raising the country's growth while helping to adapt the economy, also considering how human capital actions can accompany a just transition
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Environment ; High-Income Countries ; Low-Income Countries ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Middle-Income Countries ; Regulations ; Resilience
    Abstract: Climate change poses a major threat to long-term development objectives, especially poverty reduction, and accelerated emission reductions are needed, particularly in high-income and other high-emitting countries. Reducing emissions can be done without comprising development: taken together, CCDR low-carbon development strategies reduce emissions by 70%, without significant impact on growth, provided that policies are well designed and financing is available. Financing needs average 1.4 percent of GDP, a manageable amount with appropriate private sector involvement. But in lower-income countries, financing needs can exceed 5 percent, which will require more support from high-income countries, including increased concessional resources
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development ; Resilience ; Social Aspects of Climate Change ; Social Development
    Abstract: The Peru Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides analysis and recommendations on integrating the country's efforts to achieve economic development with the pursuit of emission reduction and climate resilience. The CCDR explores opportunities and trade-offs for aligning Peru's development path with its recent commitments on climate change. Peru is highly vulnerable to climate change and needs urgent adaptation action. Peru can benefit from decarbonization policies, thanks to its mining, forestry and agriculture, and renewable energy resources. Peru has many opportunities to develop and implement comprehensive climate policies that also increase productivity and reduce poverty. A low-carbon, resilient development for Peru would require substantial institutional reforms, in addition to public and private investments
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    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Legal Framework ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: This legal analysis provides an assessment of Ghana's key legal and regulatory frameworks for the priorities highlighted in Ghana's Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and Ghana's climate agenda more generally. The assessment includes an analysis of gaps or inconsistencies between the Government's stated climate plans and commitments and existing national policy and legislation, with a view to evaluating the ability of existing legal frameworks to support Ghana's delivery of its climate commitments and policy goals. The analysis focuses on four key sectors: water; agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU); energy; and transport. In addition, the legal analysis research team identified broader elements of the legal enabling environment in Ghana that are essential to the effective implementation of Ghana's NDC and the achievement of Ghana's climate policy goals; these elements include the country's constitution, law-making and rulemaking processes, administrative and judicial enforcement mechanisms, environmental and social impact assessment laws and regulations, and the legal frameworks to mobilize public and private finance. The analysis proposes general and sector-specific recommendations to better align existing national policy and legislation with the Government's national and international climate change commitments. The purpose, scope, and analytical framework for this legal analysis are presented in Chapter 1 and Annex I
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Energy ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Windpower
    Abstract: This roadmap provides strategic analysis of the offshore wind development potential in the Philippines, considering the opportunities and challenges under different, hypothetical growth scenarios. The goal is to provide evidence to support the Government of the Philippines in establishing policy, regulations, processes, and infrastructure to enable successful growth of this new industry. The roadmap was initiated by the World Bank country team in the Philippines under the umbrella of the World Bank Group's (WBG's) Offshore Wind Development Program-which aims to accelerate offshore wind development in emerging markets-and was funded by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) in partnership with the International Finance Corporation (IFC)
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Impacts ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The five countries of Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger (the G5) in the Sahel region of Africa are among the least developed countries in the world. The now regular and growing climate shocks are causing large losses in outputs, reducing human capital accumulation, and leading to potentially devastating ecological and economic tipping points in the region. This World Bank country climate development report (CCDR) has examined the most critical actions and policy changes needed to accelerate the region's economic recovery, sustainable and inclusive development, and adaptation to the impacts of climate change. This report has three main messages. First, the opportunities for a resilient and lower-carbon development of the G5 countries are significant. They can reverse environmental degradation and maximize the benefits of climate action for the poor. Second, rapid, resilient, and inclusive growth is both the best form of adaptation to climate change and the best strategy for meeting development goals in an effective, sustainable, and productive manner. Third, the costs of inaction are far greater than the costs of action. Early and targeted action on policies and programs presented in this report can move the G5 Sahel countries towards a greener, more resilient, prosperous, and inclusive future
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Agriculture ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Climate Change Economics ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Environment ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: This report focuses on promoting low-carbon rice production systems in Vietnam. There are many sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the agricultural sector in Vietnam, including along value chains and within the whole agri-food context. However, because rice production is so important to the country and to emission reductions in agriculture, this report focuses on known actions that can be rapidly upscaled, along with other complementary actions to reduce GHG emissions from rice production systems. The report covers emission reduction pathways in rice. This report assesses agronomic and other options that offer technically and economically feasible pathways to promote low-carbon rice. Some options have been piloted in Vietnam and require significant upscaling at the farm-level. This report considers challenges and practical actions and policy reforms to address these challenges for Vietnam's low-carbon transition (LCT) in rice
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