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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: The main objectives of the Country Environmental Analysis for Tunisia are: (a) to facilitate the integration of environmental issues into sectoral development strategies, which could affect the sustainability of development in particular with respect to economic growth, poverty reduction, and quality of life, and (b) to improve, adapt, and strengthen institutional capacity and decision-making processes in line within this integration requirement and the international economic context. Three outcome and progress indicators, which despite being incomplete and could be improved, made it possible to assess the trends and environmental progress for this study: The cost of environmental degradation is estimated at 522 million Tunisian dinars, or 2.1 percent of gross domestic product (GDP)-the lowest rate among the Mashreq and Maghreb countries. Adjusted Net Savings (ANS) rose from 2.6 percent of GDP in 1980 to 19 percent in 1999, with a prevalence of around 15 percent and steady growth between 1993 and 1999. In the Environmental Sustainability Index, Tunisia ranks 61st among 142 countries rated. Its ranking places it in the middle of the countries of the Mediterranean Basin and first in the group of southern Mediterranean countries
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Abstract: This report is the outcome of a study of public spending and service delivery issues in Papua New Guinea (PNG) undertaken as part of the work on the PNG Poverty Assessment. The study itself is the result of a collaborative effort involving several agencies and organizations including the National Research Institute, the National Department of Education, the Department of National Planning and Rural Development (DNPRD), AusAID and the World Bank. The PESD study is undertaken in a challenging economic and social context for PNG with growing concerns about delivery of basic services. The PNG economy has been in a state of recession since the mid-1990s with negative growth in 7 of the last 9 years. The fiscal situation has been compromised by large deficits. Debt-to-GDP ratio has risen to levels where debt servicing is significant claim on total revenues. Poverty levels have been rising. A growing imperative to contain levels of spending has raised significant concerns for maintaining the level of basic services while needs have grown, and it has also raised pertinent questions about how effectively social spending is translating into the actual delivery of services. The study focuses on the education sector though its findings have wider relevance. The problems that plague the education sector have close parallels in other sectors. The report presents some illustrative data for the health sector for which a limited amount of primary information was collected, but the study's inquiry into conditions promoting or impeding effective service delivery in education has broader relevance for other sectors in PNG, and beyond that for other countries too
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: This report discusses the number of cross-currents and risks within and without the East Asia region. One of the concerns discussed is the steep spike in world oil prices, which will reduce incomes among the majority of economies in the region that are net energy importers, as well as among the developed nations which comprise Emerging East Asias major extra-regional export markets - the United States, Japan and Europe. The report also reviews the affects of oil prices, as well as a variety of domestic factors and the fact that growth in the developed world shifted to a lower pace in the second quarter of 2004, most notably in Japan and to a lesser extent in the U.S., while monthly indicators suggested softening activity in Europe in the third quarter. Also discussed is the growth pause in the developed world and the likelihood of another cyclical downturn in the global high tech industry, a concern for East Asia which is now the leading location for manufacturing and assembly in this industry. The study notes that East Asian decision makers are also giving much attention to the outlook for China
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Accounting and Auditing Assessment
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: Financial reporting and auditing practices in Moldova's corporate sector are currently in a period of transition from providing for tax calculation and statistical needs to convergence with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA). This report draws upon recent international experience in developed economies and EU accession countries as well as expected amendments to EU Directives. The National Accounting Standards (NAS) were developed on the basis of International Accounting Standards (IAS) from 1996 to 1998 for the most part, but they are substantially incomplete and out of date vis-A-vis IFRS (which incorporate IAS). Accordingly, the standard-setting process should be streamlined so as to allow the prompt adoption of the numerous existing IASs not yet reflected in the NAS. The National Standards of Auditing were developed recently and mirror ISA. The existing Accounting Law and certain aspects of the Joint Stock Companies Law are unduly onerous and restrictive in that they demand bookkeeping and other administrative procedures not normally required in market economy systems. These conflict with mandated accounting standards, confuse the preparers of financial statements and are detrimental to the quality of the financial information. A new Accounting Law should be passed with simplified requirements and incorporating key elements of the NAS and relevant EU Directives on that matter
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 5
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: This report looks at three sets of issues underlying the present cyclical moment and the outlook for East Asia. First, the evolution of the world economy is always relevant in as open and globally integrated a region as East Asia. Japan's economy seems to have finally returned to broad-based and sustainable growth, while the U.S. economy is growing at 4-5 percent. Global high technology industries appear to have returned to a phase of multi-year expansion (no doubt with quarter to quarter fluctuations). Rising world demand has helped pull primary commodity prices sharply higher, a boon to some of the low-income, commodity exporters in the region, if not to their more industrially developed, commodity importing neighbors. The second set of issues centers on the emergence of China as the economic powerhouse of the region, its rapid integration with other Asian economies and the region wide opportunities, risks and policy challenges that are coming up as a result. Over the last decade the structure of intra-East Asian trade with China has been transformed by the emergence of intricate and sophisticated production networks between countries. For two years now the boom in the Chinese economy has contributed around half the export growth in many other East Asian economies. A third set of issues in this report are the policy efforts undertaken by countries to address domestic challenges as well as international and regional ones. While domestic and foreign direct investment is booming in economies like China and Vietnam, it has only just begun to recover in Thailand, and remains weak in several of the other economies hit by the 1997-98 financial crisis
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: The region had already be ...
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: The specific objectives of this Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) are to: 1) Review the existing situation in the sector, identify priority areas for policy changes or investments, and consider the role of the government, the private sector, and donors in implementing this agenda 2) Assess macroeconomic-environmental linkages and measures that affect long-term sustainability and financial viability within the priority areas 3) Provide a basis for defining the Bank's future involvement in the sector. The following environmental issues have been identified as critical, based on the negative impact of the current environmental conditions on human health, the economy, and natural ecosystems: Deteriorating trends in water, sanitation, and waste management; threat of coastal zone deterioration; air pollution hot spots; energy inefficiency; excessive industrial pollution; weak environmental management system, institutionally and legally; economic instruments that are more geared to revenue generation than to providing incentives for environmentally responsible behavior; quality and quantity of water resources; transboundary water and global environmental issues; and lack of sustainable forest management. The report recommends improving waste management, particularly hazardous waste; increasing provision of basic water and sanitation services to urban and rural poor; addressing environmental hot spots; strengthening institutional capacity for environmental management; preparing a coastal zone strategy; including in the environmental assessment potential liabilities in the advent of privatization; introducing measures to enhance energy efficiency and use renewable energy sources; instituting measures to reduce nutrient run-off to the Danube; preparing a biodiversity strategy, identifying threatened species, and preparing an action plan; and preparing a management plan for Lake Skadar and introducing environmentally friendly natural resource use practices
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Abstract: This report examines the role of infrastructure in explaining why the region lags so far behind the rest of the country. More importantly, it looks at how improved infrastructure may help the region catch up. Infrastructure is examined here through its impact on social as well as economic development. This report is an integral part of the Southern State Development Strategy, forwhich the Mexican Government has requested Bank assistance
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: This report is written at a time when the East Asia region - having enjoyed a powerful economic rebound in the first half of 2002 is now affected by strong cross-currents and uncertainties in both its external environment and its domestic setting. Within the region, the terrorist attacks at Bali and elsewhere in the region will depress tourism and business confidence, at least for a time, taking a toll on the near term growth outlook for Indonesia in particular. Economic and structural reforms will increasingly have to share policymakers' crowded agendas with security concerns, as well with a political focus on elections that are coming up in several countries in the next 1-2 years. This year's recovery has been powered by exports, private consumer spending, and, in some cases, fiscal stimulus, but private investment spending has generally remained weak. Hopes that growth by itself would take care of excessive corporate leverage and distressed debt in the region have not been met. Debt-equity ratios, though they have fallen in some instances, remain high by international standards in most cases, and, together with low corporate profitability, continue to depress the investment climate and undermine the prospects for accelerated medium term growth. East Asian countries can make progress even in these uncertain times by continuing to lay stress on some core fundamentals. Improving law and order and public security is essential for both economic development and the consolidation of mo re consensual or representative government. East Asian countries have weathered recent external shocks quite well because of their more robust external finances. Careful, prudent macroeconomic management of both external and domestic fiscal positions will continue to pay high dividends in the present volatile global economic and financial environment. But sound fiscal management has to be married with the need to pay for the high quality public services that increasingly sophisticated East Asian societies demand. Efforts to strengthen governance, administration, and public financial accountability are therefore critical. Finally, achieving medium term growth entails tapping the energies of private individuals, entrepreneurs and firms big and small. Completing the restructuring agenda left over from the financial crisis, improving financial sector supervision and regulation, and undertaking broader reforms to strengthen the investment climate are all important in this regard
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: The purpose of this review of environmental and natural resource management in Belarus is to highlight how environmental management can contribute to a sustainable future for the country. The report summarizes major macroeconomic trends and associated environmental linkages, environmental trends, and institutional issues facing Belarus in its management of the environment. An extensive analysis of environmental aspects of energy efficiency in Belarus and the state of the water supply and sanitation sector is undertaken. Special attention is given to exploring the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident and to suggesting additional ways to mitigate lasting radioactive contamination. Natural resource management issues, particularly relating to agriculture, forestry and biodiversity, are also examined
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: Governments' first instincts are often to attempt to tackle weaknesses in public financial accountability by investing in computerization of financial management information systems. However, in most East Asian contexts the World Bank advises countries that reforms need to start not from the technical hardware of IT but from an effectively implemented reform of the foundations of public financial accountability, starting with budget management processes and the control regime. Immediate priority steps include: reforming the budget process to improve policy prioritization and fiscal discipline, including integration of off-budget accounts into the main budget; better coordination of planning and budgeting; better coordination of current and capital expenditure; more rigorous medium-term fiscal and expenditure planning; greater ownership of budgets by line departments and frontline service providers; the integration of performance information into the budget formulation process; and streamlining both internal and external management control systems. Countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines are working with the World Bank to modernize public financial accountability institutions
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Abstract: While information exists on the process of indigenous migration to urban centers, there is very little systematic data on the current situation of urban indigenous populations in Mexico. This study analyzes the situation of five indigenous ethnic groups in three urban centers of Mexico: (a) the Mazahuas, Otomis, and Triquis in Mexico City; (b) the Mayas in Cancun; and (c) the Zapotecos in Coatzacoalcos. The study collected qualitative and quantitative data on indigenous migrant households selected from the five ethnic groups. This study used ethnographic field work to identify the interview sample within municipalities in the three cities based on global census data for municipalities and delegations. A total sample of 869 households was selected and socio-economic information collected on 4,291 household members. Finally, focus groups (defined by gender and age) were identified and interviewed using a questionnaire designed with the assistance of neighborhood leaders. This report summarizes the initial findings from analysis of the data collected from these various research instruments
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