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  • 2005-2009  (44)
  • World Bank Group
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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: In the first half of 2009, Indonesia's economy has established a solid recovery from late last year. Quarterly growth has accelerated since the start of 2009, after stalling in the final quarter of 2008, although the year-on-year growth rate has continued to slow, recording 4.0 per cent in the year to Q2. This trend of a gradual recovery is projected to continue into 2011. Indonesia's recovery coincides with an improved external environment. Q2 gross domestic product (GDP) outcomes across its major export destinations were better than expected and most trading partner's exited recession by mid-year. International prices of many of Indonesia's exports have recovered much of their late 2008 falls. These developments have supported Indonesia's economy, with exports recovering faster than imports. Domestic consumption continued to contribute strongly to growth in the second quarter. In the first quarter, large amounts of spending by campaign teams for the parliamentary election lifted private consumption. Indonesia's financial markets have continued to strengthen through Q2, generally by more than markets elsewhere in the region. The rupiah has continued to appreciate against the weakening USD, although at a slowing rate, and stabilized around 10,000 per USD by early September. The stock market also performed strongly in Q2, rising over 20 per cent from late May to early September. By mid-June, yields on sovereign rupiah bonds had returned to early 2008 levels, while the spread on Indonesian government USD bonds had the global emerging market average. From late June to September, local currency bond yields have remained broadly stable, while spreads on USD bonds have fallen another percentage point. These improved market conditions have allowed the government to continue financing its budget through the bond market, accessing funds for longer terms and at lower yields
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Indonesia's slowdown has come relatively later and been more moderate than for many countries but the adverse effects of the global economic slowdown are now playing out. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth slowed in the fourth quarter of 2008 and into the first quarter of 2009, to 4.4 percent year-on-year, from 6.4 percent in the year to the third quarter. For 2008 as a whole the Indonesian economy expanded by 6.1 percent, only slightly below 2007's 6.3 percent pace. Nevertheless, all sectors of the economy were impacted during the period of peak turbulence in global financial markets in late 2008. Into the first quarter of 2009 externally focused sectors continued to be especially impacted by the global slowdown, while domestic demand rebounded on buoyant consumer confidence, stable retail prices and renewed investor confidence. Agriculture was a notably strong sector, with agricultural production increasing by 4.8 percent in 2008, the fastest growth since 1992. While agriculture now accounts for 14.4 percent of total output it continues to provide most or all of the support for 42 percent of households. Although Indonesia's direct exposure to troubled American and European-domiciled banks is limited, Indonesian bankers became more conservative in line with tightening global financial conditions. Far fewer new loans are being approved, and anecdotal reports suggest that some new customers have had difficulty accessing credit. While inter-bank lending has been improving and there is sufficient overall rupiah liquidity in the system, it is not evenly distributed with larger banks typically liquid and smaller banks facing problems. Nevertheless banking sector indicators continue to be relatively robust, and the nation's largest banks reported higher net profits in the first quarter of 2009
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: Developing East Asia is battling the forces of global recession. The impact of the crisis in the advanced countries was transmitted to the economies of the region with unusual speed. In the region, the initial global financial turbulence was marked by sudden reversals of capital flows in the middle-income economies, rapidly declining equity market prices, a sharp increase in the price of external private capital, a shortage of dollar liquidity, and in some cases, a depreciating currency. Now with aggregate global demand falling precipitously, region-wide declines in exports and industrial production are triggering widespread factory closures, rising unemployment, and lower real wages, with disproportionate effects on the poor and near-poor. Authorities in many countries are implementing social programs and cash transfers to assist those most in need. Where possible, policymakers have responded quickly with expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, including fiscal stimulus packages, although in most cases these measures will only mitigate, not overcome, the contraction forces operating on their economies
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Water and Sanitation Program
    Abstract: In 2006-07, the Water and Sanitation Program-South Asia (WSP-SA) initiated a research toidentify barriers to service delivery for the urban poor. The research included a review ofvarious initiatives from across the globe that have resulted in improved service delivery for theurban poor and consultations with the urban poor communities. The present volume is adocumentation of this research and supports the Guidance Notes on Improving WaterSupply and Sanitation Services for the Urban Poor in India
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Abstract: The 2005 Gleneagles G8 summit in July 2005 stimulated a concerted effort of the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) to broaden and accelerate programs on access to energy and climate change mitigation and adaptation through the Clean Energy Investment Framework (CEIF). At the Gleneagles summit, it was agreed that a report on the implementation of the CEIF would be prepared for the 2008 G8 (Group of Eight: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) summit hosted by Japan. This joint report of the MDBs to the G8 summit in Hokkaido is intended to provide information on the outcomes and lessons learned under the CEIF, describe the collective MDB objectives for addressing the energy access and climate change challenges, and outline how the MDBs plan to build on the CEIF experience to date to more fully achieve these objectives. The report builds upon the 'the MDBs and the climate change agenda' report that was presented at the December 2007 Bali climate change conference. This report describes actions taken by each MDB to develop climate change strategies and programs of actions tailored to their particular client needs, based on resources and funding mechanisms currently available. Under the CEIF, the MDBs have strengthened collaboration on analytical work and programming and committed to expand this collaboration to optimize the impact of their collective actions. In addition to reporting on the status of the CEIF, this report outlines the collective ambition of the MDBs with respect to assisting the developing countries in meeting the climate change challenge, summarizes their evolving strategies designed to meet these objectives and the mechanisms through which they intend to achieve the necessary collaboration to optimize the collective impact of their climate change interventions
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Law and Justice Study
    Abstract: The objective of this research was to document the workings of non-state justice at the village level, with a particular focus on social inclusion and the perspectives of the marginalized. The paper also sought to understand the dynamics of change and how to translate them into a framework that embraces the strengths and addresses some of the shortcomings of non-state justice. It draws on 34 ethnographic case studies collected from five provinces in Indonesia over an eighteen month period and quantitative survey data from the 2006 Governance and Decentralization Survey. This paper will help to expand understanding of the complex and varied processes of non-state justice and thus help policy makers find new ways of building an effective legal and judicial system accessible by all Indonesians. This paper proposes a framework for forging a meaningful middle ground between the current practices of non-state justice and the formal justice system. This approach seeks to marry the social accessibility, authority and legitimacy of informal processes with accountability to the community and the state. This middle ground attempts to accommodate different socio-cultural contexts, customs and habits but at the same time introduces common principles to protect the marginalized
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: Last year Developing East Asia recorded its highest growth rate in over a decade (10.2 percent), capping a decade of improvements following its home-grown financial crisis in 1998. Yet this is hardly a time for celebration, but rather one for concern. The global economy is once again facing a testing time, with soaring fuel and food prices, on the one hand, and, on the other, an unfolding sub-prime crisis emanating in the United States and spreading to other countries and asset classes, bringing in its wake a plunging dollar and a slowdown in global trade and growth. Despite falling growth in exports to the US, rising volatility in global financial markets, high and volatile international commodity prices, and an increasingly clouded outlook for the world economy, economic activity in most East Asian economies continued at strong rates through the end of 2007 and into early 2008. Fortunately, the countries of East Asia are generally better prepared than ever to deal with the vicissitudes of the global economy in this more uncertain time. Reflecting lessons learned from the East Asian financial crisis of a decade ago, today most economies in the region have strong external payments positions and large international reserves, prudent fiscal and monetary policies, better regulated banking systems, and profitable and competitive corporations. East Asia's trade and financial relations with the rest of the world have become steadily more diverse. The region is becoming more of a growth pole in the world economy, proving to be a force for stability at a time when the industrial economies are slowing
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  • 8
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: As the global economy finds itself in the worst financial crisis since the great depression, the East Asia and Pacific region has not been spared the full fury of the economic storm. The surge and subsequent drop in food and fuel prices was followed by the intensification in the financial crisis that began in mid- 2007 in the U.S., deepened through the first half of 2008, and took a sharp turn for the worse after September 15. Even as East Asian policymakers were battling the previous crisis in late 2007 and early 2008 - the rise in inflation following the steep increases in food and fuel prices they were confronted by sudden falls in equity prices and exchange rates, sharp increases in short-term interest rates, and an abrupt deceleration in export growth. The epicenter of the storm was in the developed countries, but its reach spread quickly across the globe. The failure of important financial institutions in the major financial systems froze interbank and credit markets around the world and revised the price of risk upward, triggering a global liquidity shortage. The ensuing search for liquidity worldwide prompted, among other things, the sale of equity and debt securities and the withdrawal of capital from emerging markets, destabilizing banking systems far from the center of the crisis. Boosts to liquidity and injections of capital in financial institutions by developed country authorities may avert a systemic meltdown of financial markets, but heightened risk aversion and an ongoing deleveraging across the world is causing capital to retreat from developing countries and the cost of financing to rise. The loss of trust, breakdown in financial markets, and curtailment of bank loans have hit investment, production, and trade, causing global growth to slow rapidly. Japan and Europe are already in recession, and the US is expected to follow soon. All three are expected to contract further in 2009, dampening import demand and resulting in the first decline in world trade volumes in a quarter century
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : International Monetary Fund
    ISBN: 9781455271788 , 1455271780
    Language: English
    Pages: Online Ressource (57 p.) , ill.
    Edition: Online-Ausg.
    Series Statement: Finance and development 0015-1947 v. 44, no. 2
    Series Statement: Finance and development v. 44, no. 2
    DDC: 305.42
    Keywords: Women in economic development ; Electronic books ; Economic history ; Women in economic development ; Economic policy ; SOCIAL SCIENCE ; Feminism & Feminist Theory ; Asia Economic policy ; 21st century ; Bulgaria Economic conditions ; Asia ; Bulgaria ; Bulgaria Economic conditions ; Asia Economic policy 21st century ; Asia ; Bulgaria ; Electronic books ; Electronic books Electronic books
    Note: "June 2007. - Includes bibliographical references. - Description based on print version record
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: Growth in Emerging East Asia accelerated to reach 8.1 percent in 2006. This was the strongest pace of economic expansion in the last ten years and a fitting commemoration of the decade that has passed since the start of the Asian financial crisis in 1997. The region's accomplishments in grappling with and overcoming the crisis and in returning to solid growth are varied and impressive -- a doubling in the dollar value of regional output from pre-crisis levels, the emergence of China into the front rank of global economic powers, a halving in poverty rates, accumulation of over 2 trillion dollars in foreign reserves. But even as the region celebrates recovery, new challenges are arising, which could slow or even derail growth if not properly handled. The report looks at these issues in a section on Ten years after the crisis. Another challenge of staggering proportions that lies ahead is East Asian urbanization: The region's population will rise by around 17 percent between 2000 and 2025 but its urban population will jump by 65 percent or 500 million. The Special Focus in this report on Sustainable Development in East Asia's Urban Fringe looks at the issues
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy Study
    Keywords: Electric Power ; Energy ; Energy Policies and Economics
    Abstract: It is generally believed that Afghanistan has one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world; the figure of 6 percent access on the national level is often cited. While it is certainly true that overall access to electricity is low in this overwhelmingly rural and poor country, a review of recent household survey data and updated national utility data suggests that the access to electricity is somewhat higher than has generally been supposed, particularly in urban Afghanistan. This note presents the new data and examines the implications of higher levels of access for policy makers and the managers of the power system in Afghanistan, particularly in Kabul. Recommendations to improve the quality of the utility's knowledge of the power system in Kabul follow the analysis of the survey data. The analysis of the Kabul Household Energy and Water Survey (KHEWS) data also considered the possibility that so-called 'minor consumers' might account for the discrepancy between the estimates of access to electricity more accurately reflect the actual level of access to electricity in Afghanistan and particularly in Kabul. At the very least, it would seem reasonable to conclude that the estimate based on Breshna data represents the minimum boundary of the estimate of access to electricity, while the survey data represent the maximum boundary, with the actual level somewhere in between and likely closer to the survey results
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: Honduras has accomplished important political, economic, and social achievements in the recent past. The country underwent a successful transition from an authoritarian military regime to a pluralistic democracy. The list of economic achievements of the last four years includes: macroeconomic stability, improvements in the business climate and the performance of the financial sector, and putting in place a sound framework for public sector financial management. Progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has also been significant. Despite these achievements, state institutions are still fragile and the governance framework is weak. Furthermore, notwithstanding the country's economic and social improvement, almost two-thirds of the population still lives below the poverty line and key structural constraints on growth have still to be addressed. The key development challenges for Honduras are: (a) strengthening governance and improving the effectiveness of the government, and (b) accelerating its recent growth performance and translating growth into poverty reduction. Among the recommendations the report makes are: The development of additional regulations, strengthen links between the environmental impact assessment (EIA) and other management instruments, particularly Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) and zoning. Work with the Honduran government to strengthen the follow-up and compliance process as well as strengthening public participation in the EIA process
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: Growth in Emerging East Asia is expected to exceed 8 percent in 2007 for a second year in succession and to moderate only slightly in 2008. Our projections for regional growth in 2007 and 2008 have been substantially increased compared to six months ago, mainly due to the unexpected and large domestic demand-led acceleration of growth in China. Growth also picked up in most of the other larger economies of the region, again a result of more buoyant investment and consumption spending. Concerns about the impact of the US sub-prime crisis and the renewed surge in oil prices have clearly increased downside risks. Nevertheless we expect that the stronger growth momentum in the region will carry through 2008. There are as yet few signs of a significant pick-up in underlying core inflation pressures or of other domestic constraints or imbalances that would require a marked slowing of growth
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Abstract: This Monitor builds on the experiences of other Country Environment Monitors in the region and embraces the key principles articulated by the framework for preparing Country Environmental Analysis initiatives of the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank. The Monitor has three sections. Section 1 reviews trends in natural resources and environmental quality, along with their linkages to poverty. The capacity of Government institutions, policies, legislation and instruments are assessed in Section 2. The environmental challenges confronting the country are analyzed in Section 3. Information has been obtained from a variety of sources, including the Lao Government and Bank publications, academic and scholarly material and personal experience. Several surveys and assessments were undertaken to obtain additional data and insights: (i) A Capacity Assessment was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the country's institutions regulatory framework; (ii) Public Environmental Expenditures were reviewed to better understand the allocation and trends in environment-related expenditures; (iii) A Survey of Environmental Attitudes was undertaken to assess the perceptions of individuals working in environmental professions in Lao PDR; and (iv) the Poverty-Environment Nexus in Lao PDR was further studied. The results of these surveys and analyses are included in the report
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Infrastructure Economics ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Property Rights ; Stewardship
    Abstract: This module draws upon the work of the local consultants together with the Avag report on irrigation and a study on the specific problems in rural infrastructure. It aims to given a broad overview of infrastructure problems, the outlook given public policy objectives, and a suggested public policy framework and proposes medium term policy, structural, governance and regulatory improvements in the sector. In Armenia considerable progress has been made in bringing infrastructure services up to economically efficient levels. But major challenges remain concerning service quality, sustainability and adequacy of development to meet demand. The government faces three challenging issues in respect of infrastructure: the desirability of policy settings consistent with sustained high rates of growth; improving the stewardship of state infrastructure assets; and making effective use of future investments, particularly those arising from donor contributions such as the millennium challenge corporation along with funds from customers. Consistent with implementation of the Government's growth and poverty alleviation strategy and related policy settings supportive of the continuation of rapid economic growth including high rates of private investment. The report estimates that addressing basic minimum infrastructure needs will require about USD 300 million of investment
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C. : International Monetary Fund | Birmingham, AL, USA : EBSCO Industries, Inc.
    ISBN: 9781455271788 , 1455271780
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (57 pages) , Illustrations
    Series Statement: Finance and development v. 44, no. 2
    DDC: 305.42
    Note: Includes bibliographical references
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington : USAID
    ISBN: 0821372939 , 0821372947 , 9780821372937 , 9780821372944
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (90 p) , col. ill , 27 cm
    Edition: Online-Ausg. World Bank E-Library Archive
    DDC: 346.07
    Keywords: Business law Case studies ; Economic development projects Case studies Law and legislation ; Industrial laws and legislation Case studies ; Trade regulation Case studies ; Business law Case studies ; Economic development projects Case studies Law and legislation ; Industrial laws and legislation Case studies ; Trade regulation Case studies ; Business law ; Economic development projects ; Industrial laws and legislation ; Trade regulation ; Fallstudiensammlung
    Note: Introduction: celebrating reform , Starting a business ; Starting a business (quickly) in El Salvador , How to double business entry in two years , Licensing 159 activities-- not 909 , Employing Macedonia's youth , Need land administration reform?: start a revolution , Reforming the credit bureau law , Protecting investors from self-dealing , Adding a million taxpayers , Speeding up trade , Repairing a car with the engine running , Faster, more orderly exit
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C. : International Monetary Fund
    ISBN: 9781455271788 , 1455271780
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (57 p.)
    Series Statement: Finance and development v. 44, no. 2
    DDC: 305.42
    Keywords: 2000 - 2099 ; SOCIAL SCIENCE / Feminism & Feminist Theory ; Economic history ; Economic policy ; Women in economic development ; Wirtschaft. Geschichte ; Wirtschaftspolitik ; Women in economic development
    Note: "June 2007." , Includes bibliographical references
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  • 19
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : International Monetary Fund
    ISBN: 9781455234455 , 1455234451
    Language: English
    Pages: Online Ressource (57 p.) , ill., ports.
    Edition: Online-Ausg.
    Series Statement: Finance and development 0015-1947 v. 43, no. 3
    Series Statement: Finance and development v. 43, no. 3
    DDC: 304.6
    Keywords: Mundell, Robert A. ; Mundell, Robert A ; Mundell, Robert A. ; Population Economic aspects ; Population forecasting ; Population Economic aspects ; Electronic books ; Economic history ; Population ; Economic aspects ; Population forecasting ; SOCIAL SCIENCE ; Demography ; Kazakhstan Economic conditions ; Kazakhstan Economic conditions ; Kazakhstan ; Electronic books ; Electronic books Electronic books
    Note: "September 2006. - Includes bibliographical references. - Description based on print version record
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: Growth in Emerging East Asia is expected to reach close to 8 percent in 2006, the second strongest pace in the five year long economic expansion underway in the region since 2001. Emerging East Asia comprises Developing East Asia (China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and some smaller economies) and four Newly Industrialized Economies or NIEs (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan, China). The rest of this summary provides further information on the main cross-country trends and policy issues discussed in this report. Developments at the country level are discussed in the Country Sections at the back of the report, while fuller Country Briefs are available at the website associated with this report. The Special Focus in this report is on Investing in Young People in East Asia and the Pacific, a study of the lessons for East Asia from the World Bank's recent World Development Report 2007: Development and the Next Generation
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: The economic losses resulting from the environmental impacts considered in this report are equivalent to more than 4 percent o f Bangladesh's Gross Domestic Product. Among these impacts, three sources of environmental degradation stand out as currently receiving insufficient attention given their relative significance: (1) in door and urban air pollution, (2) the degradation o f water quality in Dhaka, and (3) the decline of capture fisheries. The economic losses associated with these three concerns alone may amount to more than 2.7 percent of GDP. The report proposes a set of actions in each o f these areas, and also identifies a series of measures that could be taken to strengthen environmental governance, which forms an overarching constraint to improved environmental management across all issues. While the report estimates the economic losses associated with the environmental impacts considered, it does not provide a benefit-cost or cost-effectiveness analysis of the proposed mitigating actions. It will be important to examine the costs of the proposed actions in more detail as an element of the follow-up work in each o f the priority areas
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  • 22
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Abstract: Over the last five decades, Colombia has made substantial progress in protecting its environment. This includes restructuring its legal and regulatory landscape, undertaking policy initiatives, and strengthening its capacity for protecting and managing its natural resources and environmental quality, and establishing a system of national parks and forestry reserves that covers more than a quarter of the country. Colombia's environmental management framework has focused on three main environmental priorities: (a) river basin management and conservation of water resources, (b) reforestation, and (c) conservation o f biodiversity. The analysis of the cost of environmental degradation conducted as part of the Country Environmental Analysis (CEA), shows that the most costly problems associated with environmental degradation are urban and indoor air pollution; inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene; natural disasters (such as flooding and landslides); and land degradation. The burden of these costs falls most heavily on vulnerable segments of the population, especially poor children under age five. The effects of environmental degradation associated with these principal causes are estimated to cost more than 3.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), mainly due to increased mortality and morbidity and decreased productivity. To identify alternatives aimed at abating the cost of environmental degradation, this CEA examines institutional and policy issues in the functioning of the country's environmental management system and suggests some cost-effective interventions
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: El Salvador, a small country with limited national resources, needs to grow through its main comparative advantage, which is its strong culture of competitive businesses. To do so, however, the government needs to ensure that the best affordable environmental management is in place to secure sustainable economic development. The benefits of further improvements to the environmental institutional and regulatory frameworks will be substantial not only to facilitate and sustain trade and infrastructure expansion, but in terms of preserving the natural resource base on which economic growth depends. Moreover, while DR-CAFTA is expected to bring new possibilities for investment and trade, the agreement will also raise the scrutiny and monitoring by El Salvador's trade partners regarding environmental compliance. Maintaining low compliance rates would add unnecessary friction and raise the regulatory risks for investing in the country
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Keywords: Autonomy ; Monetary Policy ; Transparency
    Abstract: This note examines the observance by the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus (NBRB) of the good practices on transparency in monetary policy. The transparency analysis was based on a review of relevant laws and regulations and the International Monetary Fund (IMF s) code of good practices on transparency in monetary and financial policies without carrying out a formal principle-by-principle assessment. It was conducted as part of the joint IMF-World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) mission to Belarus that took place in November 2004. NBRB displays a satisfactory degree of transparency in formulation and implementation of its monetary policy although improvements are possible in several areas. The objectives and responsibilities of the NBRB, and the broad modalities of accountability and public dissemination of the information, are defined in the Statute of the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus and the Banking Code. The monetary policy process is generally well structured and open. In several areas, however, the NBRB should further improve its monetary policy transparency and accountability practices
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  • 25
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Keywords: Competition ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Pension Reform ; Pensions and Retirement Systems ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the performance and development of the Mexican pension annuity market in Mexico that stemmed from the 1997 pension reform. The Mexican experience displays interesting characteristics that provide lessons for other countries that still need to design the decumulation phase of their newly established second pillars. At the same, time it raises some technical and policy concerns that need addressing as they could hamper, in the future, the healthy development of the market. This paper benefited from interviews with officials in the Insurance Supervisory Authority (CNSF), the Ministry of Finance (SHCP), the Pension Supervisory Authority (CONSAR), and the Social Security Institute (IMSS) as well as with management of specialized annuity companies. The paper is structured as follows: section one gives introduction; section two briefly summarizes the 1992 and 1997 pension reforms from which the pension annuity market derives; section three analyzes the evolution of the industrial organization, annuity product design and competition, the evolution of assets and liabilities and investment, as well as the regulatory framework for the aforementioned items, and the performance of the market; section four analyzes the development prospects of the market in light of the more recent 2001 and 2002 reforms of the 1997 social security law; and section five gives conclusions and policy recommendations
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Keywords: Deposit Insurance ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; State-Owned Banks
    Abstract: The current system of deposit insurance is governed by two different pieces of legislation, each in turn elaborated by a separate National Bank of Belarus (NBB) resolution. The two legislations cover foreign exchange accounts in state owned banks and all other accounts, respectively. The first legislation was the presidential decree of April 20, 1998, which established full coverage for foreign exchange accounts in six state banks. The second legislation is Article 121 of the Banking Code which is the legal basis for coverage for all other deposits and which became effective October 12, 2000. The deposit insurance system is currently characterized by preferential treatment of the authorized banks and in particular Belarusbank and Belagroprombank
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: The report stipulates growth in Emerging East Asian countries eased modestly from 7.5 percent in 2004 to 6.8 percent in 2005. The slower pace of activity was most clear in the Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs), and in some of the middle income economies of South East Asia. But it was not universal. Growth accelerated in Indonesia and Vietnam, and continued at very high rates in China. In addition, while the moderation in activity in the NIEs and South East Asia occurred in the first part of 2005, activity was generally rebounding in the latter part of the year. Indeed growth for 2005 as a whole, generally turned out higher than we had expected six months ago. The prospects for 2006 also look reasonably firm, with aggregate regional growth expected to exceed 6.5 percent for a third year in a row. Global high tech demand slowed in late 2004 and early 2005, causing a downturn in tech-reliant East Asian export growth, but then rebounded strongly in the second half of the year. High oil prices clearly played a large role in moderating growth in 2005. While the report assumes that oil prices have now peaked, they are still expected to average 10 percent higher in 2006 than in 2005, so that some of the adverse impact is still likely to be playing out in 2006. Nevertheless, the real surprise has been that the highest real oil prices in more than 25 years did not inflict more serious economic damage, with growth not falling below 4 percent in any of the main economies of the region
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  • 28
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: Since the signing of the Peace Accords in 1996, Guatemala has made substantial progress in consolidating peace and democracy. While progress in socioeconomic development has been uneven, there have been important gains in education and health coverage, sustained increases in social sector spending, improved coverage of basic utility services, and better management of public finances, among other gains. Unfortunately, progress has been slower than expected in several important areas, including economic growth rates. Based on the best regional and international practices, this report concludes that mainstreaming environmental considerations into sectoral policies rather than scaling-up the operations of environmental agencies is the best way to prepare Guatemalan institutions for current environmental challenges and those it will encounter in the future. The report also emphasizes the need to provide the right incentives to economic agents (e.g., promoting compliance through achievable requirements but with credible sanctions to violators, rather than trying to change behavior by threatening with criminal charges that are ultimately not enforced), and to engage civil society by improving information and participation mechanisms
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Abstract: This report describes an experience, developed jointly by the Uruguayan National Department of Public Education (ANEP) and the World Bank, of the implementation of an Inclusive Education component. The goal is to demonstrate a concrete example of what countries can do to implement such inclusive education in practice, within the framework of strategies proposed by the "Education for All" initiative and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).This document does not attempt to provide either details of the conceptual framework or political arguments for setting the international guidelines of inclusive education programs, but rather responds to the demand for practical examples that illustrate an operational strategy. One of the promising characteristics of the Uruguayan experience with the implementation of the Inclusive Education component was that it did not require additional programs or resources; rather, the process was incorporated as a new tool within an overall strategy for improving the quality of education in the country.Although the fact that the component has only recently been implemented (2003) prevents an exhaustive study of its results and impact thus far, publicizing the experience internationally is justifieddue to the need for documentation of actual experiences developed on a national scale. It is hoped that this will allow the public to envisage models for the implementation of inclusive education
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  • 30
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Keywords: Banking Law ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Regulation and Supervision ; Law and Development ; Legal Framework
    Abstract: This detailed assessment of observance with the basel core principles for effective banking supervision is the first external comprehensive assessment of the system of banking supervision in Belarus. The assessment of observance of each of the core principles follows a qualitative approach and is based on the core principles methodology document (October 1999). The assessment method consisted of examining the degree of observance of each of a principle's essential criteria and, where the assessors judged necessary, of the additional criteria. The assessment included a review of the relevant, legally non-binding instruments of the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus (NBRB) under the form of recommendations, the internal provisions of the NBRB, the licensing documents and the bank examination reports prepared by the NBRB, annual reports, the NBRB website, and other relevant material. The assessment is also based on the self-assessment prepared by the NBRB and discussions with staff in the banking supervision area, and with banks
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: The urgency of addressing Pakistan's environmental problems has probably never been greater. Conservative estimates presented in this report suggest that environmental degradation costs the country at least 6 percent of GDP, or about Rs. 365 billion per year, and these costs fall disproportionately upon the poor. The most significant causes of environmental damage identified and estimated in this report are (1) illness and premature mortality caused by air pollution (indoor and outdoor), (almost 50 percent oft he total damage cost); (2) diarrhoeal diseases and typhoid due to inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene (about 30 percent of the total), and (3) reduced agricultural productivity due to soil degradation (about 20 percent of the total). The magnitude of these costs indicates that environmental decay has become a serious development concern. Following a discussion of the analytical framework for environmental outcomes, , the report analyzes the main binding constraints to improving environmental performance as falling into four categories, (1) gaps in institutional design, (2) gaps in the regulatory framework, (3) capacity limitations, and (4) gaps in incentives and accountability. Of these, weak incentives and low levels of public accountability remain the critical constraints on performance. Public scrutiny of performance is ultimately a source of strength that leads to stronger institutions with greater public trust and support. The principal features of these constraints are discussed, as are recommendations for moving forward to more sustainable economic growth. The annex (Volume 2) provides a comprehensive overview of the data and methods used to estimate the costs of environmental degradation in three environmental damage categories and three natural resource damage categories: (1) urban air pollution, including particulate matter and lead, (2) water supply, sanitation and hygiene, (3) indoor air pollution, (4) agricultural damage from soil salinity and erosion, (5) rangeland degradation, and (6) deforestation. Data limitations have prevented estimation of degradation costs at the national level for coastal zones, municipal waste disposal, and inadequate industrial and hospital waste management
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C. : International Monetary Fund | Birmingham, AL, USA : EBSCO Industries, Inc.
    ISBN: 9781455234455 , 1455234451
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (57 pages) , Illustrations, portraits
    Series Statement: Finance and development v. 43, no. 3
    DDC: 304.6
    Note: Includes bibliographical references
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  • 33
    ISBN: 9781455234455 , 1455234451
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (57 p.)
    Series Statement: Finance and development v. 43, no. 3
    DDC: 304.6
    Keywords: Mundell, Robert A. ; Mundell, Robert A. ; Mundell, Robert A. ; SOCIAL SCIENCE / Demography ; Economic history ; Population / Economic aspects ; Population forecasting ; Wirtschaft. Geschichte ; Population Economic aspects ; Population forecasting
    Note: "September 2006." , Includes bibliographical references
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Burden Of Disease ; Health and Poverty ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Insurance ; Health Outcomes ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics
    Abstract: This paper presents a rapid private health sector assessment for Karnataka. Karnataka is a middle-tier Indian state with most state-wide health indicators mirroring those for the nation as a whole. In addition to these health statistics, more than half of Karnataka's children suffer from malnutrition. Improving primary health care services is a key to improving these health indicators. Improving health outcomes will depend on improving the quality, outreach and responsiveness of primary health care providers. Government can consider scaling up the successful experiences of community health care financing. More specifically the findings of this study and the discussion that it engenders will be used to inform the design of the proposed Karnataka Health Nutrition and Population (HNP) project. Karnataka currently has 1,685 Primary Health Center's (PHCs) and 583 Primary Health Units (PHUs). The PHC is intended to serve a population of 30,000 with smaller populations in the more remote rural or hilly areas and larger populations covered in urban areas. It is reported that the PHCs are not currently able to fulfill all these functions, many of which have a strong public good component. As such, the private sector can still play a role in delivering these services, although they will have to be funded by the public sector. Some services will have a mixture of public and private good characteristics, while others will be purely private goods. It is the latter group of services that are most amenable to privately-funded, privately provided health care. In general, the public health care system is managed and overseen by the district health officers. Although they are qualified doctors, they have little or no training in public health management and are transferred frequently. Moreover, even if they had the training they do not have the flexibility to reallocate financial, capital and human resources to achieve better outcomes
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Affordability ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Insurance ; Health Systems Development and Reform ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Private Health Insurance ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics
    Abstract: There is little current information available on private health facilities in Bihar. Government has little to do with the private sector and no recent attempts have been made to survey the private formal or informal sectors. However, we know that the private sector is the dominant force in health care provision both for outpatient and inpatient services. During site visits to Patna and the neighboring districts, author saw a number of private health clinics clustered by main roads in secondary towns, most of which cater to maternal and child health. Patna is home to a number of impressive private for profit and voluntary facilities. Such facilities have moved in to the fill the vacuum left by a non-performing public sector. In conclusion, the gap between demand and supply has been filled by various private providers, who are seen to be either better or in many cases the only alternative to the public health facilities. They include a range of providers such as informal unqualified providers, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs), faith healers, pharmacists or pharmacy assistants in medicine shops, qualified physicians, and Non Government Organization (NGO) clinics and for-profit nursing homes and hospitals. It is important to understand that the private sector does not represent a homogenous group
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Governance ; Inflation ; Investment Climate ; Legal Reform ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monitoring and Evaluation ; Poverty Monitoring and Analysis ; Poverty Reduction ; Social Service Delivery
    Abstract: This report was prepared for the PRSP Implementation Forum (November 15-17), in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It covers recent macroeconomic developments and draws on recent and ongoing World Bank research and analysis undertaken in the areas of Governance, Finance and Trade, Public Administration, Infrastructure and Human Development. The report notes that Bangladesh has some impressive and sustained socio-economic trends - which outperform many South Asian and other developing countries, but formidable challenges remain notably on governance issues. However, the Government is beginning to implement a broad-based reform program to tackle governance issues, with donor support and in the area of economic management, it has maintained macroeconomic stability and pushed forward the structural reform agenda despite a difficult political environment. These efforts have produced relatively favorable development outcomes. The report specifically details Bangladesh's progress on the governance agenda, including actions to improve transparency and public expenditure efficiency, responsiveness, revenue mobilization, anti-corruption, and the justice system reform. It also focuses on progress in reducing governance impediments to improve investment climate and empowering the poor. Besides describing preliminary PRSP implementation measures, the report spotlights the country's export growth and competitiveness
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Abstract: The objective of this report is to provide an estimate of the cost of environmental degradation in Iran. Despite the difficulties involved in assigning monetary values to environmental degradation, such estimates can be a powerful tool to raise awareness about environmental issues and facilitate progress toward sustainable development. It is hoped that this study will provide an instrument for policymakers to better integrate the environment into economic development decisions. In 2002, the annual cost of environmental degradation in Iran was estimated at 4.8 to 10 percent of GDP, with a mean estimate of 7.4 percent (equivalent to USD 8.4 billion or IRR 67,300 billion)
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Environmental Analysis
    Abstract: In 1992, the Government of Egypt endorsed its first National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) which marked a turning point in tackling the challenge of environment and development in Egypt. NEAP was the first policy instrument that has mobilized efforts and investments of both the Government and international donors towards addressing major environmental issues in this country, and building its environmental infrastructure. An Environment Protection Law was enacted in 1994, and a Minister of State for Environment Affairs was appointed in 1997, as the key spokesperson in the Egyptian Council of Ministers. The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, the official environmental operating agency, has expanded its functions and responsibilities in all field of the environment. As a result, the state of the environment has improved particularly in the provision of water supply, in waste water treatment and solid waste management, and in decreasing air and water pollution
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Abstract: A solid waste management (SWM) preparation mission was carried out mid-2004 for the World Bank Coastal Cities Environmental Sanitation Project (CCESP). The purpose of the mission was to assess the SEM needs of the cities of Dong Hoi, Nha Trang, and Quy Nhon over a fifteen-year planning horizon, taking into account the quantity, character, and distribution of solid wastes, disposal alternatives and management systems governing administration and finance. The World Bank is now supporting a consultancy, the objectives of which are to present a range of options for use of the private sector in solid waste collection and septage management, to agree a preferred approach for each CCESP city, and then to develop a detailed implementation program. The consultancy is to be conducted over two separate trips to the three project cities. The first trip was conducted between 13 and 30 September, 2005 and included a visit to Da Nang to discuss private sector participation initiatives introduced in that city as part of the World Bank's Three Cities Sanitation Project. This paper presents the initial findings of the public-private partnership (PPP) consultancy team and addresses each key activity. The findings of the visit to Da Nang are also included in this paper
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Keywords: Banking Law ; Banking Sector ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Law and Development ; Legal Framework ; Profitability
    Abstract: The banking sector is the backbone of the Sudan's financial system and will continue to play an important role as financial intermediary and primary source of financing for the domestic economy. As of December 31, 2003, there were 26 commercial and specialized banking institutions in Sudan which comprised 23 domestic banks and 3 foreign banks. The operations of these banks are based on Islamic principles. The Sudanese financial sector is small relative to Gross domestic product (GDP), but is rapidly growing. Deposits in the banking sector currently represent a little over 10 percent of GDP, and credit to the private sector has been rapidly expanding, driven by a strong economy. At present, the banking system is small enough that a crisis would not have much immediate impact on the overall economy
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  • 41
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Foreign Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and Capital Flows Study
    Keywords: Access To Information ; Adverse Effects ; Advocacy ; Collective Action ; Coping Strategies ; Discrimination ; Employment ; Food Safety ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Marketing ; Migration ; Pesticides ; Private Sector ; Productivity ; Public Health ; Public Sector ; Quality Control ; Risk Management ; Rural Development ; Transaction Costs ; World Health Organization
    Abstract: This report summarizes a program of research coordinated by the World Bank and carried out from October 2002 to May 2004. The objectives of the program have been to: 1) Highlight the major dynamics in the evolution of important sanitary and phytosanitary standards (SPS) in selected industrialized countries. 2) Explore the room for maneuver of suppliers of agri-food products in developing countries in the context of evolving regulatory (and commercial) changes and consider the range, appropriateness, and effectiveness of various strategic responses to those changes. 3) Develop a better understanding of the nature and level of the costs of achieving and maintaining compliance (or non-compliance) with international and country-specific SPS standards. The research also identifies and quantifies direct and indirect benefits that may flow from the adoption of the rules, systems, skills, and facilities required to comply with standards. 4) Develop a better understanding of the implications of emerging standards for market and industry structure and wider socio-economic effects. Evidence is sought on how compliance strategies (or the failure to comply with standards) have affected participation by smaller enterprises and farmers in export-oriented supply chains and their impact on employment patterns. 5) Review the scope and nature of ongoing programs of international development agencies to provide technical assistance and other support for capacity-building in trade-related SPS management in low- and middle-income countries, and draw operational lessons from that experience. 6) Draw out the operational implications of these research findings and identify entry points for the World Bank and other development agencies working in this field
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  • 42
    ISBN: 0821361503
    Language: English
    Pages: Online-Ressource (xiv, 45 p) , ill., 1 col. map , 26 cm
    Edition: Online-Ausg. World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank working paper no.51
    DDC: 384/.096
    Keywords: World Bank ; World Bank ; Economic assistance ; Information technology ; Telecommunication ; Economic assistance ; Information technology ; Telecommunication
    Note: Includes bibliographical references
    URL: Volltext  (Deutschlandweit zugänglich)
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update
    Abstract: Economic growth in Emerging East Asia reached a cyclical peak of 7.2 percent in 2004 from which it is expected to slow only moderately to about 6 percent in 2005 and 2006. The tragic tsunami disaster, while it had a horrendous impact in terms of loss of life, is expected to have only a limited impact on overall economic growth in the two most seriously affected East Asian economies, Indonesia and Thailand. Among the developing economies in the region growth is expected to ease from over 8 percent - the highest since before the financial crisis - to around 7 percent in the coming period
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Corporate Governance Assessment
    Keywords: Access To Information ; Accountability ; Authority ; Banking Sector ; Capital Markets ; Cash Flow ; Central Bank ; Charter ; Commercial Banks ; Company ; Conflict of Interest ; Conflicts of Interests ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Governance ; Governance and the Financial Sector ; Governance Indicators ; Industry ; National Governance
    Abstract: This report assesses Macedonia's corporate governance policy framework, and enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Macedonia. The report identifies a number of key recommendations as follows. The disclosure framework should be overhauled, as part of the on-going revision of the Securities Law. Shareholders should be required to disclose all direct and indirect ownership. The law should increase authority of the Macedonian Securities and Exchange Commission (MSEC), and especially its powers to impose sanctions, while MSEC should develop a strategy to use its new authority to improve corporate governance and shareholder rights. The Macedonian Stock Exchange (MSE) should complete the process of drafting a corporate governance code, should revise its listing rules in line with the Code and the new Securities Law, and consider the development of a "corporate governance tier". The exchange should fully implement a system of electronic information dissemination
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