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  • 2015-2019  (1,488)
  • World Bank Group  (1,488)
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  • 1
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Abstract: Tunisia's has made significant investments in infrastructure, which has contributed to economic growth. The investments have enabled reasonably good access to basic infrastructure services. While access rates are high, the relative quality of Tunisia's infrastructure has deteriorated significantly over the last ten years. State-owned enterprises (SOEs), which dominate the infrastructure sector, receive considerable subsidies and incur notable financial losses. Overall, there is a heavy reliance on external borrowing to fund infrastructure investment, which creates contingent liabilities, and enhances foreign exchange and macro-economic risk. Chapter one provides an overview of Tunisia's infrastructure performance; chapter two discusses each sub-sector in more detail in terms of achievements and challenges; chapter three looks at historical trends in spending followed by a scenario analysis of investment needs with anecdotal examples, and discusses the present macro-economic and fiscal constraints; and chapter four presents possible action items for further discussion with the Tunisian government
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Poverty Assessment
    Abstract: Uganda's progress in reducing poverty during the late 1990s and early 2000s was remarkable. This note documents the trends in poverty and inequality in Uganda with a focus on the period 2012 to 2016. It first explores how various indicators of monetary poverty have evolved over time and if these trends vary by urban and rural areas and by region. This is complemented with a description of the movements in several non-monetary poverty indicators. Secondly, the note analyzes who has benefitted from the lackluster economic growth, and how this has translated into different measures of inequality. It then aims to disentangle some of the forces behind the changes in poverty, mostly resorting to decomposition exercises. Finally, it provides an account of who are the poor households and what are their living conditions, particularly compared to non-poor households
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  • 3
    ISBN: 9789264674523
    Language: French
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (111 p.)
    Parallel Title: Parallele Sprachausgabe Delivering Quality Health Services: A Global Imperative
    Keywords: Social Issues/Migration/Health
    Abstract: La couverture sanitaire universelle (CSU) vise à assurer la sécurité sanitaire et l'accès universel aux services de soins essentiels sans difficultés financières pour les individus, les familles et les communautés. La CSU permet une transition vers des sociétés et des économies plus productives et équitables et est inscrite dans les objectifs de développement durable (ODD) à l'horizon 2030. Mais la CSU ne devrait pas être mise en œuvre sans prendre en compte la qualité des soins fournis. Qualité signifie des soins efficaces, sûrs, centrés sur la personne, rapides, équitables, intégrés et efficients. Des soins de haute qualité améliorent les résultats pour la santé et réduisent le gaspillage. Cela fait partie intégrante d'un système de santé durable et de grande valeur. L’accès universel à des soins de santé de haute qualité n’est pas un luxe que seuls les pays riches peuvent se permettre. Cela peut être réalisé dans tous les contextes avec un leadership, une planification et une mise en œuvre solides. Les résultats valent l'investissement. Bien que des progrès significatifs aient été accomplis pour améliorer la qualité des soins, des efforts supplémentaires sont nécessaires, tant dans les pays en développement que dans les pays développés. Ce rapport décrit la situation actuelle en matière de CSU et de qualité globale des soins, et décrit les mesures que les gouvernements, les services de santé et leurs travailleurs, ainsi que les citoyens et les patients, doivent prendre de manière urgente.
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Abstract: Guinea-Bissau is a small state in West Africa with a population of around 1.8 million. It is rich in natural resources (fisheries, forestry and agriculture) and biodiversity. Economic activity is, however, dominated by the production and sale of unprocessed cashew, which is also the main source of income for more than two thirds of households. Guinea-Bissau is host to a large variety of ethnic groups, languages and religions, with communal and ethnic-based violence remaining low. The country has a history of political and institutional fragility dating back to its independence from Portugal in 1973. Since independence, four successful coups have been recorded, with another 16 coups attempted, plotted, or alleged. Political fragility has been manifesting itself in frequent government turnover. Political instability has been responsible for large drops in output and government expenditure. After almost three years of political gridlock, a new consensus government came to power in April 2018. In sum, Guinea-Bissau has been caught in a vicious cycle of poor governance, fragmented elites, weak public sector capacity, and a poorly diversified economy. The objective of the Guinea-Bissau Public Expenditure Review (PER) is to analyze government expenditure, fiscal revenue, and public financial management in selected sectors (education, health, and security). The PER is a follow-up to the World Bank's (2017) Public Expenditure Analysis that provided an overall review of public finances in Guinea-Bissau (see Annex I). It contains a wide range of analyses, with some chapters examining public spending trends and outcomes, while others are more process oriented and place a strong emphasis on PFM systems, at macro- and micro-levels. The education and health chapters go beyond the confines of traditional World Bank PERs-namely the efficiency, effectiveness, and equity of spending. Both of these chapters also review the PFM systems in the respective line ministries with a view to identifying options for reform. Further, the PER analyzes the fiscal implications of continuing to spend over 15 percent of the budget on the security sector and nearly 9 percent of GDP on wage and nonwage compensation
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Real GDP growth slowed to 3.1 percent in January-November 2018 from 3.7 percent in the same period of 2017. This deceleration was the result of slower growth in both gold production and non-gold industry. Export performance remains weak, largely on account of a sharp slowdown in gold exports, and in spite of trade opportunities within the Eurasian Economic Union. Attracting private investment remains a challenge. Recent developments point to limited progress in addressing structural issues over the past few years. While the Kyrgyz Republic was able to avoid an external shock driven recession in 2014-15, the economy remains vulnerable to external economic shocks given its high dependence on an undiversified export base, workers' remittances, and foreign aid.The fiscal position has improved with a strong tax revenue performance and cuts to capital outlays. This has helped keeping public debt under control following a sharp increase in 2014-15. With inflation pressures low, the monetary policy stance remains relaxed. The National Bank reduced its policy rate by 25 basis points to 4.75 percent in May 2018 to support economic growth and has maintained a managed float of the exchange rate.Going forward, real GDP growth is forecast to accelerate slowly to 3.9 percent by 2020 supported by all the major sectors - industry, agriculture, construction and services. On the demand side, growth is projected to be driven by private consumption, investment and exports. The economy will continue to benefit from large remittance inflows and firming external demand. Strong remittances will support average consumption growth of around 3 percent in 2018-20. However, the current account deficit is projected to remain elevated at about 9 percent of GDP, reflecting structural constraints, the significant import content of public investment, and an indirect feed-through effect of remittances via imports. To rebuild fiscal buffers, the authorities are committed to reducing the deficit to 3 percent of GDP by 2020
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: The outlook for the global economy has darkened amid elevated trade tensions. International trade and investment are moderating, trade tensions remain elevated, and financing conditions are tightening. Global growth is projected to moderate from a downwardly revised 3 percent in 2018 to 2.9 percent in 2019 and 2.8 percent in 2020-21, as economic slack dissipates, monetary policy tightens in advanced economies, and global trade gradually slows (World Bank Global Economic Prospects, January 2019). Despite external shocks to trade and tourism, growth of the Thai economy is estimated to have accelerated to 4.1 percent in 2018. The economy proved to be resilient in the face of strong global headwinds due to strengthening domestic demand stemming from an upswing in private consumption and private investment. Domestic consumption expanded by 5 percent in 2018Q3, posting the highest growth rate in 22 quarters in a low-inflation environment and record-low unemployment. In addition, private investment grew by 3.9 percent in the third quarter supported by increased spending on construction, machinery and equipment. Strong domestic demand offset partially adverse global factors-the China-US trade dispute-as well as domestic and idiosyncratic factors-such as the Phuket boat tragedy and the high-base effect of gold exports. The Thai economy also owed its resiliency to strong and stable macroeconomic fundamentals
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Abstract: The World Bank has been supporting a comprehensive program to strengthen cooperative management and development within the Zambezi River Basin. This program provides regional financing and analytical work that brings together the various commitments within a World Bank-financed portfolio of more than USD 2 billion to facilitate dialogue among the riparian states and further drive the development of climate-resilient water resources for sustainable growth. The application of the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol in the Zambezi River Basin represents part of this broader program of support to the riparian states toward enhancing development outcomes through improved cooperation and sustainable development. The Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol is a multi-stakeholder tool that evaluates the performance of hydropower projects against globally-applicable sustainability criteria for basic good practice and proven best practice. This Program Report reflects on the project design, objectives, results, and lessons learned from the experience of using the Protocol for guided self-assessment with three hydropower operators in the basin: the Zambezi River Authority, Zesco, and Hidroelectrica Cahora Bassa
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Energy Sector Management Assistance Program Papers
    Abstract: In cold-climate regions of developing countries, access to a reliable and affordable heat supply is critical to the well-being of the rural and peri-urban poor, who enjoy only limited access to district heating, natural gas, and electricity networks. Most of them have long relied on solid fuel-fired, traditional heating stoves or simple low-pressure boilers (LPBs), which are fuel-inefficient, leaky, and highly polluting both indoors and outside. Having access to high-efficiency, low-emissions (HELE) heating stoves offers under-served households a cost-effective, intermediate solution until fuel-switching to gas or electricity is possible. Recent World Bank- supported winter heating pilot programs in the Central Asian countries of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan brought to market a small number of advanced, solid fuel-fired space heating and cooking stoves. This technical report aims to document the Central Asia pilot experience with HELE heating technologies and their potential use as a cost-effective, intermediate solution for millions of underserved households for improving health and reducing household air pollution, energy poverty, and climate impacts
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Sri Lanka is facing a challenging macroeconomic landscape. The post-conflict high growth momentum has decelerated. A volatile global environment and structurally weak competitiveness continue to weaken growth and external sector performance. High interest costs mask limited fiscal improvement. While outlook remains stable conditional on political stability and reform implementation, the balance of risks is downward tilted. The country is vulnerable to global financial market conditions due to large refinancing requirements. Although some important reforms were carried out, the process has slowed down due to a challenging political environment
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Debt and Creditworthiness Study
    Abstract: The Debt Sustainability Analysis (DSA) using the revised joint IMF/WB Debt Sustainability Framework for Low Income Countries (LIC-DSF) shows that Cambodia remains at low risk of external debt distress. All debt burden indicators are projected to remain under their indicative thresholds under the baseline and the shock scenarios. While the overall risk of debt distress is low, the analysis indicates that debt sustainability is vulnerable to export and growth shocks, and the materialization of contingent liabilities. Furthermore, the public and publicly guaranteed (PPG) debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to rise by more than 10 percentage points during the next decade due to projected large fiscal deficits in the medium term. These findings reinforce the importance of implementing reforms to increase the economy's resilience to external shocks and encourage export and economic diversification. Efforts to mobilize fiscal revenue, to strengthen the Public Investment Management framework (including for PPPs) and further enhance monitoring of PPP and financial sector risks, as well as introduction of a debtbased fiscal anchor, are necessary to ensure debt sustainability in the medium term
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Financial Accountability Assessment
    Abstract: The research is based on the PEFA framework and methodology for assessing public financial management performance and the data set that is generated from the PEFA assessments. The research quantified PEFA scores and aggregated them into overall scores which required developing assumptions on weighting scores, measures, and assessments. The research acknowledges methodological limitations of using the PEFA data set, including the assumptions. In general, the research follows the approach taken by previous researchers who have used PEFA data for quantitative analysis, but this does not eliminate the challenges that persist in transforming grades to numerical values and aggregating them. The time inconsistency issues and the limited number of observations also influenced the regression analysis using the PEFA data set. The team acknowledges that the PEFA data set was not designed for statistical analysis and that using it in quantitative regressions presents a series of econometric issues that cannot be fully resolved in this book, or in other papers which apply a similar approach. The research report builds on general recognition that PFM is important for development and recognizes that there is limited evidence based on the nontechnical determinants of PFM performance, as well as the outcomes of a good PFM system. The report therefore aims to bridge some of this gap between theory and practice using data on PFM performance from PEFA assessments. The report undertakes a closer examination of the key debates on what constitutes a good PFM system by providing an overview of the PEFA framework, and the data set that is generated through PEFA assessments, including its strengths and weaknesses. This was done to enable the research team to undertake quantitative analysis of the relationship between PFM performance and other governance indicators and outcomes
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  • 12
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Abstract: Zambia's agricultural sector represents the backbone of its rural economy and holds great potential for the entire country. Zambia's agriculture sector faces challenges and is likely to grow more vulnerable as a result of climate change and risk. At the same time, land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), and agriculture sector account for approximately 93 percent of the country's carbon footprint. The Government of the Republic of Zambia (GoZ) is integrating climate change concerns into its agriculture policy agenda. Under its Zambia climate-smart agriculture (CSA) strategy framework, the GoZ is promoting the rollout of CSA practices that will sustainably increase productivity, enhance resilience, and reduce or remove greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The CSA investment plan (CSAIP) aims to identify and fill knowledge gaps about CSA's local- and national-level benefits, specifically under climate change, inform policy development, and prioritize investment opportunities. The World Bank collaborated with the GoZ to develop a CSAIP intended to support the operationalization of the country's climate commitments toward development of a productive, resilient, and low-emission agriculture sector. The CSAIP development began with a participatory process that identified the agriculture sector's policy goals. This report takes the next step by assessing the impacts of a suite of CSA practices on achieving the sector goals and on household welfare. The report concludes with recommendations and proposals for future CSA investments
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Following an initial spike in early 2018, Armenia's economic performance slowed during the rest of the year, but still estimated to have above 5 percent growth for the year. Inflationary pressures remained low, while the external balances deteriorated. The overperformance of the fiscal accounts reflected strong revenue collection, sound control over current spending, and underperformance of capital expenditure. The outlook, however, is more conservative
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Water Papers
    Abstract: This document summarizes evidence and guidance on project design and results framework indicators for nutrition-sensitive water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) operations and WASH components of other sector and subsector projects. The current body of evidence on the links between WASH and nutrition provides important clues as to what nutrition sensitive enhancements are needed to achieve greater impacts on early child nutrition and human capital. Six principles are outlined that aim to address some of the limitations that are found with conventional WASH interventions. A set of results framework indicators are proposed to support nutrition-sensitive WASH monitoring and evaluation in water supply and sanitation lending operations and for WASH components of projects in other sectors
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Abstract: This Public Expenditure Review (PER) was prepared by the World Bank at the request of the Ministry of Finance of Cabo Verde. With a debt-to-GDP ratio of 126 percent in 2017, Cabo Verde is the most indebted country in Sub-Saharan Africa. The country is also at a high of risk of external debt distress. As part of fiscal consolidation efforts to reduce debt, this PER identifies measures to boost fiscal revenues and improve the efficiency of public spending with emphasis on health and education. The report recommends tax policy measures to stem revenue loss from ineffective tax expenditures while strengthening revenue administration and tax compliance. There is space to reduce spending inefficiencies on goods and services, wages and salaries yielding potential fiscal savings. Investment in human capital is prioritized in Cabo Verde but there is scope to improve efficiency and outcomes. In education, reducing repetition rates and addressing human resources issues are key to avoiding waste and improving outcomes. In health, the report recommends measures to improve the allocation of resources to health units. If implemented, these measures could result in combined fiscal savings of at least 2.5 percent of GDP. Finally, continued rationalization of central government fiscal support to State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) is required to support a gradual reduction of the debt-to-GDP ratio over the medium term. The report includes five chapters. Chapter one discusses the key drivers of fiscal balances and public debt in Cabo Verde and explores different options to put debt on a downward trajectory. Chapters two and three analyzes in detail the respective performances of fiscal revenues and spending over 2010 to 2017. Chapters four and five reviews public spending in the health and education sectors with emphasis on efficiency. Equity issues as also covered in chapters four and five
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Abstract: The report discusses key policy issues that enable and constrain digital savings market development and offers policy considerations within the context of the G20's High-Level Principles for Digital Financial Inclusion. Based on current market observations, three policy considerations seem most important for facilitating digital savings account deployments: Enable banking institutions to pursue digital savings partnerships with nonbank entities. Support the development of interoperability between banks and nonbank e-money issuers. Harmonize customer due diligence standards for emoney wallets and low-risk bank deposits
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  • 17
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: Bangladesh made a number of laudable development achievements in the early millennium but can and should do more to improve human capital and the wellbeing of its population. Coupled with impressive achievements in poverty reduction and economic growth are meeting many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)-such as reaching nearly universal access to primary education, gender parity in primary and secondary education, ensuring food security, lowering infant, child, and maternal mortality rates, improving immunization coverage, and increasing access to improved water sources. Nurturing a child's early years can help nations boost human capital to become more diverse, competitive economies. Improving early childhood development requires multi-sectoral action. Advancements in early childhood development will not be possible without improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). This report will discuss several analyses that demonstrate the importance of WASH in nurturing the early years. The report begins with an examination of progress in achieving human development outcomes, many of which are specifically used to measure early childhood development and human capital. The next section will present a poverty risk model used to measure differences in WASH-related disease burden among wealth groups and populations with and without access to basic water and sanitation services. The third section discusses WASH deprivations in community health centers that reduce quality of care, and the fourth section measures the unique environmental exposures from inadequate WASH faced by slum dwellers, an often neglected yet high-risk population for poor health and undernutrition. The proceeding four sections then present original econometric analyses linking various components of WASH to childhood stunting, early childhood skills, infant mortality, and school enrollment. The final section concludes and provides recommendations on how Bangladesh's WASH sector can prioritize the early years in future investments
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Abstract: gaps that a country faces, across different domains, better informs policy design. To that effect, this report seeks to identify where progress has been achieved in increasing opportunities and outcomes for women and men in Mexico and where further policy action is required. It focuses on three areas that are critical for gender-equal access to opportunities: (a) endowments, such as health and education; (b) economic opportunities, such as access to labor, land, and financial markets; and (c) agency, including norms, representation, and freedom from violence. The report takes advantage of the existing literature as well as different sources of publicly available data for the country and aims to provide a panorama of the prevailing gender gaps and areas for work to close those gaps, covering a wide range of outcomes. As such, it seeks to serve as a guiding document for policy action and dialogue, further research, and public discussion
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Partnership Frameworks
    Abstract: This Country Partnership Framework (CPF) sets out the World Bank Group's approach to supporting the reform agenda in North Macedonia over January 2019-June 2023. The CPF builds on the results and lessons of the previous World Bank Group Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) that originally covered the period from July 2014 to June 2018 and was subsequently extended by six months to December 2018. The new CPF seeks to address the priorities identified by the recently completed Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) for North Macedonia. The strategic objective of the CPF is to support North Macedonia's ability to achieve faster, inclusive, and sustainable growth and provide its citizens with greater opportunities for a better life. The CPF aims to support the Government's program and medium-term strategy, which present a vision of accelerated economic growth with better employment opportunities, social cohesion and inclusion, and a plan to tackle the persistent bottlenecks. The Government strategy is consistent with the SCD's vision of a better-connected, vibrant domestic economy engaged in the region and beyond as it secures its footing in areas of strong comparative advantage
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Abstract: Poland's capital markets can play a crucial supporting role to the ongoing economic development and efficient allocation of credit. Capital markets will become increasingly important to meet the long-term funding needs of strategic sectors, including large, medium and small entities. Expansion and diversification of capital market instruments and hedging tools will also be essential to provide adequate investment and risk management vehicles to much needed long-term savings. While capital market offers different sources of financing, this note focuses primarily on the fixed income markets. This technical note is structured as follows. Section II covers each of the main market segments, including money markets, government and non-government bond markets and derivatives markets. Section III provides an examination of the investor base, the current participation of the different investor segments in the bond markets, and recommendations to reach broader and more effective investor diversification. The Section IV is focusing on the critical reform of the Employee Capital Plan (PPK), as one critical group of institutional investors
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  • 21
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Women in Development and Gender Study
    Abstract: This study attempts to explore the impacts of labor influx related to roads construction on poor rural communities in Malawi with particular attention to the impacts on girls and women
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  • 22
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Financial Sector Assessment Program
    Abstract: This technical note reviews the cooperative bank and credit union sectors. It focuses on: (i) thesituation of the two sectors that are both in states of transition; (ii) the regulatory and supervisory arrangements; and (iii) the safety net and resolution regime within the context of the crisis management framework. In addition, key perspectives are provided as to the sustainability ofinstitutional models and the sectors within a modernizing and competitive banking sector. This note was prepared using information from the authorities and market participants that was received in the first semester of 2018 at the time of the visit of the authors. Although in some instances there is subsequent improvement in the performance of some cooperative banks and credit unions, the authors believe such changes do not modify substantially the main conclusions and recommendations made. Most cooperative banks and credit unions are stable, but each sector has its own issues. The FSAP is broadly supportive of the policy direction for cooperatives, while it questions whether the credit union sector should remain standalone. Combined, cooperative banks and credit unions represent less than 8 percent of deposit takers, though more importantly they serve about 18 percent of the population
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Gross domestic product (GDP) growth in Nepal is estimated at 7.1 percent in FY2019, driven mainly by the service and agriculture sectors. The service sector is likely to grow by 7.5 percent due to a boost in the retail, hotel, and restaurant subsectors, driven by an uptick in tourist arrivals and remittance-fueled private consumption. Agriculture is estimated to grow by 5 percent in FY2019, well above its 30-year average of 3.1 percent, due to good monsoons, increased commercialization, availability of fertilizers and seeds, and improved irrigation facilities. Industrial growth is also likely to be strong at 8.1 percent, well above its 30-year average of 5 percent, mainly due to improved power availability from increased electricity generation. Private investment and consumption are likely to be the main contributors to growth on the demand side. However, public investment is projected to contract due to a slowdown in post-earthquake reconstruction and delays in national pride projects like Melamchi water supply and Upper Tamakoshi hydroelectric
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: In the wake of the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (Ebola) crisis, the international development community, including the World Bank Group (WBG), have taken various institutional and operational steps to improve the advice, investments, and financing instruments to support both the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency responses to infectious disease outbreaks. Several World Bank instruments have been developed or adapted to more promptly deliver financial resources. The objective of the study is to inform the design and implementation of financing for rapid response to outbreaks through an analysis of lessons learned from recent outbreaks in West and Central Africa. This report will explain the methodology used to collect and analyze study data. It will then review the background, findings, and observations on mobilizing domestic and external funds for response in light of the evolution of epidemics in West Africa, Nigeria, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. The report summarizes the recent changes and key remaining challenges globally and in select countries summarized by the four selected themes (governance, effective financing, efficient use of resources, and preparedness). This report then offers conclusions and recommendations from this qualitative study
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Abstract: The rapid technological advancement is now disrupting the global economy and creating new business and development models, offering countries opportunities to leapfrog over traditional paths for economic growth. Over the past years, digital technologies have been spreading throughout the world at a faster pace than previous waves of technological innovation, re-shaping consumer behavior, social interaction, businesses and governments. The digital economy (DE), which encompasses a wide range of new applications of information technology in business models and products, can spur economic growth, productivity and employment and, with appropriate policies to mitigate inherent risks, has a potential to support inclusive outcomes. In this global context, digital transformation of the economy has become a major objective for the government of Senegal (GoS). This report provides a snapshot of the state of DE in Senegal and uses several World Bank tools and international best practices to provide actionable recommendations to the GoS
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: The Malawi Economic Monitor (MEM) provides an analysis of economic and structural development issues in Malawi. This edition was published in June 2019. It follows eight previous editions of the MEM and is part of an ongoing series, with future editions to follow twice each year. The aim of the publication is to foster better-informed policy analysis and debate regarding the key challenges that Malawi faces in its endeavor to achieve high rates of stable, inclusive and sustainable economic growth. The MEM consists of two parts: Part 1 presents a review of recent economic developments and a macroeconomic outlook and risks. Part 2 focuses on a special topic relevant to Malawi's development prospects
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Gender Assessment
    Abstract: The Croatia Country Gende ...
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: This paper is part of additional efforts supported by the World Bank Global Tobacco Control Program to inform the Government of Vietnam on options for tobacco taxation by providing estimates of the impact of cigarette price increase across five income groups for the period 2020-2022 under two scenarios. Vietnam is an important country for global tobacco control, and currently has about 15 million males who smoke. to support government efforts to strengthen tobacco controlpolicies, most notably through a substantial increase in the excise tax of tobacco, weconducted an extended cost-effectiveness analysis to examine the distributional impactof a 32 percent and a 62 percent increase in cigarette prices under Scenario A and Scenario B,respectively. In conclusion, we found that higher cigarette prices would particularly benefit the poorest income quintile of the population, in terms of deaths averted, life-years saved, out of pocket expenditures for treating tobacco-attributable diseases, catastrophic health expenditures, and extreme poverty averted. The additional tax burden is, however, borne mostly by the top income group in the 62 percent price increase scenario. Thus, tobacco taxes are an effective way to improve health and reduce poverty in Vietnam
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: This country brief provides an overview of tobacco control legislation, use, and taxation in the country. This country brief provides an overview of tobacco control legislation, use, and taxation in the country. Nicaragua became a Party to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2008 and was the first country in the world which ratified the FCTC Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. Data on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption in Nicaragua are scarce, and it is difficult to estimate recent tobacco consumption trends among adults. However, the decline in the prevalence of current smoking among GYTS participating adolescents from 20.4 percent in 2003 to 13.8 percent in 2014 among boys and from 12.8 percent in 2003 to 10.3 percent in 2014 among girls may be considered an indicator of tobacco control policy success. In 2009, Nicaragua switched from ad valorem to specific excise system for cigarettes. The specific excise tax rates and cigarette prices increased in 2012-2016. Available data demonstrate some decline in cigarette sales in Nicaragua in 2013-2017, as cigarettes became less affordable after the price increase and the taxation policy was beneficial for public health. Specific excise rates in 2017 and 2018 were increased by only 5 percent annually, and it was insufficient both for the reduction of tobacco affordability and for the increase of the government revenue. In February 2019, Nicaragua adopted rather substantial cigarette excise hikes: by 210 percent in 2019 and further by 25 percent in 2020 and 38 percent in 2021. These tax hikes are able to reduce tobacco consumption in the country and bring additional resources to the government coffers. However, the tobacco industry will probably try to distort positive results of the taxation reform. The government should be ready to counteract these tactics using the experience of other countries and conducting careful and timely monitoring of indicators of cigarette prices, supply, and sales. Tobacco use surveillance and monitoring should be developed in Nicaragua, including a regular collection of information on smoking prevalence, tobacco consumption and various economic indicators
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: The brief provides an overview of tobacco control legislation, use, and taxation in the country
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: This brief provides an overview of tobacco control legislation, use, and taxation in the country. Costa Rica ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2008. General Law for the Control of Tobacco and its Harmful Effects on Health was adopted in March 2012, and it regulates smoke-free places; tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship, as well as tobacco packaging and labeling in line with FCTC guidelines. This law also sets several norms on tobacco taxation, and it substantially increased the tax burden for cigarettes. In 2012, cigarette prices in Costa Rica increased by 49 percent, and in 2013, the tobacco excise revenue increased by 96 percent. Tobacco taxation and other tobacco control policies in Costa Rica were very successful in terms of public health. The prevalence of smoking both among adults and adolescents declined, and after 2012, the rates of decline increased. In 2015, only 5.8 percent of the adult population smoked daily. In 2018, cigarette production in the country was closed. The tobacco industry claimed that the closure had been caused by increased cigarette smuggling. However, there are no independent estimates of illicit cigarette share on the market, while the tobacco industry used to exaggerate the volumes of smuggled cigarettes. The difference in cigarette prices between Costa Rica and neighboring countries is rather small and is unable to encourage large smuggling. Thus, the observed illicit cigarette sales are likely caused by the factors, which are not related directly to tobacco taxation
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Abstract: Following general elections in Liberia in 2017, a new government was formed with a mandate to achieve ambitious development objectives. Following a nationwide consultative process, the new medium-term national development plan, Pro-Poor Agenda for Prosperity and Development (PAPD)-2019-2023 was developed focusing on: strengthening public institutions; accelerating infrastructure investments for productive capacity; improving productivity in the real sector through enhanced economic diversification; increasing investment in human capital (youth employment, health, and education); and improving competitiveness, while safeguarding macroeconomic and debt sustainability. The focus of fiscal policy should be twofold, raising revenues while sustaining deficit at financeable level. In such a tight fiscal situation, the imperative is to secure equal or improved quality of public services by prioritizing and improving the composition of expenditure, enhancing efficiency, and expanding the resource envelope by stepping up the revenue mobilization efforts. Sustaining pro-poor development agenda, will likely require a political resolve to reduce the share of government resources devoted to high paid public servants and discretionary expenditures, as well as improve the efficiency and transparency of government spending. Otherwise, the financing gap created by an announced decline in grants and other forms of external assistance may be difficult to close
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: On average, Vietnam has achieved remarkable improvements in nutritional status in recent decades, but improvements in national aggregates mask wide disparities and a persistent 'very high' burden among disadvantaged ethnic minority groups. Between 2000 and 2010, national stunting rates dropped from 36.5 percent to 24.2 percent. The decrease from 2010 to 2015 was not as great, but when the 2015 data are disaggregated according to ethnic group, the Kinh majority has a prevalence of 17.7 percent, whereas the prevalence in other ethnic groups is 32.0 percent. This pattern repeats itself for the prevalence of underweight (a significant drop nationally from 33.8 percent in 2000 to 14.1 percent in 2015 but a 9.7 percent prevalence in the Kinh ethnic group in 2015 versus 21.9 percent in other ethnic groups) and wasting (a decrease from 8.6 percent to 5.6 percent in national prevalence from 2000 to 2015 but a 9.1 percent prevalence for Kinh versus 5.5 percent for other ethnic groups (WB Assessment 2012). The gap between the ethnic majority and minority has persisted despite the multiple government programs aimed at reducing it. As the economy has evolved from predominantly agriculture to a mix of agriculture and technology, the requirements of the workforce have changed as well. Manual labor is still necessary but no longer enough. The need is for intelligent, highly educated and skilled workers. All of these attributes are the product of a healthy, well-nourished population. Deficiencies in nutrition and health, lower levels of education, lack of language skills in the national language, and inability to migrate to jobs in urban centers of ethnic minorities have further hindered their ability to narrow the gap in nutrition and economic well-being
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  • 34
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Abstract: Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) in Pakistan, as in most countries, will require strengthened collaboration between the public and private sectors, as the public sector often does not have the flexibility nor the fiscal space to grow service delivery capacity at sufficient pace and quality. However, successful partnering with the private sector through various forms of contracting and service agreements including public-private partnerships (PPPs), requires the appropriate analysis and identification of the gaps in service provision. to that end, this study aims to assist the government of Sindh (GoS) in identifying opportunities to engage the private health sector more effectively, to help provide affordable, quality primary health care (PHC) services to the urban poor whilst also creating evidence for the better integration of the private health sector in health service delivery. As part of the initial phase of this advisory work, and operating within a limited time-frame and funding environment, this policy note presents the initial set of observations and recommendations, based on the information collected via questionnaires and informant interviews, as well as secondary data or existing studies
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Abstract: Capital markets in Serbia are shallow and relatively underdeveloped. The only market segment that functions comparatively well is the government bond market. The contribution of capital markets to financing the economy is limited. The private sector is not making use of non-government bond markets for its financing needs, given easy access to affordable bank loans in Serbia's bank-dominated financial system. Until recently there was no IPO activity since 1940, symptomatic of Serbia's shallow public and private equity markets. This Technical Note was prepared by Zsolt Bango (Senior Financial Sector Specialist, World Bank), Sonia Marie Cattarinussi Iacovella (Senior Financial Sector Specialist, World Bank) and Eddy Rodriguez (World Bank Consultant) in the context of the Serbian Capital Market Assessment mission in Belgrade during June 2018 led by Zsolt Bango. The primary objective of the mission was to conduct a diagnostic of the Serbian capital market, with a view to make recommendations for capital market development. The note contains technical analysis and detailed information underpinning the assessment's findings and recommendations. The report was written under the guidance of Gunhild Berg (Senior Financial Sector Specialist, World Bank) and Johanna Jaeger (Senior Financial Sector Specialist, World Bank) and the team received excellent support from Tanya Konidaris (Senior Financial Sector Specialist, World Bank)
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Sierra Leone's macroeconomic performance continued to improve but at a slower pace. Yet there are significant downside risks to the medium-term economic outlook
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: This edition of the Country Economic Update is part of a semi-annual series designed to monitor recent economic developments in Uzbekistan. The report presents a broad overview of the country's macroeconomic, social, and structural developments in 2018. The Special Focus section discusses economic growth and job creation
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: The country brief provides an overview of tobacco legislation, use, and taxation in Kazakhstan. Tobacco taxation policy practiced in Kazakhstan in 2003-2013 resulted in increased tobacco excise revenues, but was not effective in terms of public health, as cigarette consumption did not decrease. Tobacco excise taxes were drastically increased in Kazakhstan from 1 January 2014; and thereafter, the tobacco affordability was substantially reduced resulting in the subsequent decline in tobacco sales and smoking prevalence in the country. Decline in consumption could have an effect on tobacco-related mortality in Kazakhstan. Mortality rates of some tobacco-related causes of death substantially declined in Kazakhstan in 2013-2015 among men and women aged 30 to 79 years: by about 20 percent for acute ischemic heart disease and stroke and by 30-40 percent for respiratory tuberculosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Kazakhstan returned to a policy of moderate tax increases in 2015-2019. The reduction in tobacco affordability in 2015 was caused not only by the excise increase but also by the tobacco industry pricing policy and a decline in real incomes. Tobacco consumption in Kazakhstan decreased in 2015, but the revenue increase was smaller than expected. A moderate excise rise in 2016- 2018 could not ensure a substantial reduction in tobacco affordability, and annual tobacco sales did not change much. The country experience shows that a policy of moderate (below 30 percent annually) excise increases cannot ensure either tobacco consumption reductions or substantial revenue increases. The planned annual cigarette excise increase for 2020-2021, however, is only 12-14 percent. In recent years, electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco appeared in the Kazakhstan market. The key consumers of such products are young adults, who follow modern trends, rather than dependent smokers looking for an effective means to quit. Heated tobacco products and liquids for electronic cigarettes will be taxed by excise from 2020, but the excise rates are very low and should be substantially increased. Kazakhstan has great potential to increase its excise rates for all kinds of tobacco products to contribute to health objectives by means of reducing tobacco consumption. The greater the excise tax increase, the larger the reduction in tobacco consumption and the higher tobacco excise revenue growth will be
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Abstract: Low productivity and the ...
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: Investing in human capital is essential for Tanzania. to generate future income and achieve sustainable development, people are the most important asset countries have. Part two of this economic update discusses where Tanzania stands in terms of its investments in human capital for both children and adults. The analysis is part of the World Bank Human Capital Project (HCP), which relies on both the Human Capital Index (HCI) and data on human capital wealth (HCW)
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Abstract: Over the last two decades, Moldova has achieved major development results: with average annual growth of 4.6 percent since 2000, poverty has decreased dramatically, and the growth has also benefitted more citizens: Inequality, as measured by the Gini Index, has declined from 36.4 in 2000 to 26.3 in 2016. Macroeconomic stability has been maintained despite the 2014 banking crisis, and monetary and the exchange rate policies have led to a declining inflation protecting the living standard of Moldova's citizens. The country has benefitted from its unique assets, such as a strategic European location and growing global integration. The authorities' focus on investment policy put the country on investors' map: commitment demonstrated in investment promotion and the level of service and attention that was given to investors led to attracting manufacturing FDI. They on the other hand helped reorient exports towards more technology-intensive products and allowed for a stronger contribution of exports to growth and employment generation. Moldova has also significantly reformed its business environment, ranking today 47th of the 190 countries measured on ease of doing business. There was also effort to improve the quality of human capital. The education system reform led to improvement of student learning outcomes in Moldova, as measured by the Program for International Students Assessment (PISA), although there are still major gaps in learning outcomes that need to be addressed. The preprimary enrollment rates increased substantially, and labor force participation rate increased to historical highs, albeit at 43 percent still comparatively low
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Abstract: This activity, Catching-up Regions 3 (CuR3), is designed as a one-year engagement with three selected regions in Poland, based on their regional needs and priorities. The activities of this initiative build on the results of the CuR Initiative delivered by the World Bank and the European Commission over the last two years across Poland. The objective of this task is to propose a service delivery model that will facilitate care for the elderly over the age of 65 years of age in Grudziadz. This effort includes care, services, investments, and new initiatives in a way that strives to prevent the institutionalization of the elderly, as long as possible. The local system of care delivery for seniors does not stand alone, and will be molded with consideration to the broader context of policy and governance arrangements for health and social care already established in Poland, together with the funding, capacity, and systems that are currently in place. All local and national stakeholders from Ministries to non-governmental organizations or local community groups can have a part in the model implementation. The model builds on the national system's focus on the changes and adjustments that need to be made at the local level
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  • 43
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Law and Justice Study
    Abstract: This report documents the results of a survey that was conducted to better understand howthe justice system affects the business environment in eight countries in South East Europe (SEE);Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia andSerbia. The primary purpose of the Survey was to analyze businesses' perceptions of and experienceswith the justice system and in particular, the performance of the courts in their respective countries. The Survey also identified the challenges businesses face in their daily operations, assessed the impact of the justice system on businesses and established which justice issues present the greatest obstacles for business operations and growth. This research is part of a broader initiative to inform justice policy dialogue and reform in the Western Balkans
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Abstract: This report summarizes the results of an Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) conducted in Tuvalu from September 21 and October 27, 2016. With funding from the Global Partnership for Education, the World Bank and Education Technology for Development (Et4d) carried out the assessment in collaboration with the Tuvaluan Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MEYS). The overall purpose of the EGRA was to inform education policymakers of students' basic reading skills in years 1-3 of primary school and to identify factors that contribute to language development in Tuvalu. The findings are expected to assist policymakers with designing effective early grade reading interventions to improve school performance and literacy outcomes in Tuvalu. This activity is part of the Pacific Early Age and Readiness Program (PEARL), which was established to improve the school readiness and literacy outcomes of children throughout the Pacific region. The report is divided into six chapters beginning with this introductory section in chapter. Chapter two will discuss the TuEGRA survey design and implementation. Chapter three presents overall results of the reading assessment per sub-test, gender and year as well as a summary of the overall strengths and weaknesses responding to questions 1, 4 and 5. The correlation between oral reading fluency and comprehension (question 2) is discussed in chapter four. As there are no established standards for reading fluency, the report used 80 percent reading comprehension benchmark as the basis for determining fluency scores. Chapter five provides an analysis of student and teacher factors associated with improved reading outcomes, which corresponds with question 6 (6a, 6b, and 6c). Finally, the conclusions and policy recommendations to improve literacy outcomes are presented in chapter six
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  • 45
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Abstract: According to a report by the World Bank published in April 2018, air pollution in Tehran incurs annual loss of billions of dollars and over 4,000 premature deaths from exposure to fine particles ambient concentrations. Particulate matter (PM), one of the primary pollutants from diesel exhaust, is associated with many different types of respiratory and cardiovascular effects, and premature mortality. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing city diesel bus fleet in Tehran with best available Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) available in the market. The report provides an updated assessment on the diesel retrofit solutions for an ageing diesel city bus fleet in Tehran based on publicly available information. The economic benefits of DPF installed in buses are evaluated with standard techniques of environmental economics, and technological assumptions about how much PM emissions can be avoided and control costs. The report highlights a number of national, regional and local examples of effective emission control program that exhibit best practices from around the world. Also, it presents important features and global experiences of successful retrofit program on heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), including benefit-cost analysis from several case studies to help Tehran city leadership in taking informed economic and policy decisions. Finally, it recommends a set of critical actions to the government both at the national and local level for implementation of an effective emission control programs
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  • 46
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Abstract: The Kenyan government remains committed to a planned fiscal consolidation pathway, which should help contain public debt stock at a sustainable level. Nonetheless, there are significant challenges stemming from a slowdown in revenue collection, a growing demand for transfers to county governments, and the need to fund the big four agenda. These issues raise the probability for fiscal slippages, requiring adequate mitigation to safeguard macroeconomic stability. This report provides an overview of the challenges in revenue mobilization, the size and composition of the national government expenditures, and the efficiency of this spending over the last five years. The analysis identifies options for supporting ongoing fiscal consolidation and creating fiscal space for the big four and broad public services delivery. There are three key messages: first, Kenya's tax revenue as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has decreased and decoupled from the growth in the economy, suggesting some important constraints to enhancing revenue collection. Second, government spending is allocated well (to infrastructure and human capital) but there is scope to improve outcomes from the use of these resources. Third, ensuring efficiency and effectiveness of public spending is critical given tight fiscal space and the expenditure needs under the big four
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Abstract: This policy note has been produced under the competition reform assessment ASA with the objective of identifying key constraints to competition in Armenia and providing recommendations on a set of actionable reforms that could help foster market contestability and competition in key sectors and across the economy. In particular, the policy note seeks to identify a menu of priority reform areas for potential engagement between the World Bank Group (WBG) and the government of Armenia (GoA). Information for this note was initially collected during a mission held in September 2018 and was subsequently validated with relevant agencies of the GoA. The assessment employs the markets and competition policy assessment toolkit of the markets and competition policy team of the WBG's equitable growth, finance and institutions Vice Presidency. In addition, selected sections of the OECD's product market Regulation Indicators questionnaire were employed to gain a sense of how Armenia compares to peer countries in the region on some specific regulatory issues which may restrict competition. Finally, a conference was held in June 2019 based on the findings emerging from this policy note and discussions with key policy makers during this conference have been used to develop a plan of action for engagement between the WBG and GoA in the short term. A summary of this conference and the action plan are included in a supplementary note delivered under this ASA
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Abstract: This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) - the first for the country - takes stock of Comoros' development progress since the early 2000s and reflects on the constraints and opportunities that the country encounters on that path. The report provides elements to answer three main questions: (1) What are the main constraints hampering output and productivity growth? (2) What are the critical factors that determine poverty reduction and inclusion? and (3) How sustainable are the current trends in growth and inclusion? As the SCD investigates these questions it identifies three main pathways which if followed could accelerate progress towards the World Bank's twin goals of poverty reduction and shared prosperity
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Abstract: This Systematic Country Diagnostic is the result of a diagnostic exercise conducted by World Bank staff. It was prepared to inform the strategic dialogue between the Government of the Central African Republic (CAR) and the World Bank about priority areas for World Bank Group engagement. This Systematic Country Diagnostic aims to identify key elements to help the country embark on a path of growth and sustainable poverty reduction and to end the cycle of conflict. The analysis was guided by three questions: (a) How can development initiatives contribute to stabilization and a peaceful resolution of the conflict? (b) How does one deliver public services in a country where state presence is limited? (c) Which investments are critical to kick-starting a process of growth, taking into account regional/geographic variation, low population density, and limited urbanization?
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Systematic Country Diagnostics
    Abstract: This Systematic Country Diagnostic analysis of growth, structural transformation, poverty reduction, and inclusion suggest that Rwanda will need to target the following outcomes to maintain rapid progress toward poverty reduction and shared prosperity: - a shift to a productivity-led growth through structural transformation, supported by increased agricultural productivity, agglomeration, and rural-to-urban transition; - an increase in the growth elasticity of poverty for inclusive growth by investing in human capital, promoting private entrepreneurship, improving accountability for service delivery, and addressing vulnerability; - increased sustainability through addressing environmental degradation, building resilience to climate change, and maintaining debt sustainability
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Enterprise Surveys
    Abstract: The Enterprise Surveys (ES) focus on many aspects of the business environment. These factors can be accommodating or constraining for firms and play an important role in whether an economy's private sector will thrive or not. Questions contained in the ES aim at covering most of these topics: infrastructure; trade; finance; regulations; taxes and business licensing; corruption; crime and informality; access to finance; innovation; labor; and perceptions about obstacles to doing business. This document summarizes the results of the Enterprise Survey for Mozambique. Business owners and top managers in 601 firms were interviewed between June 2018 and January 2019. It also provides a description of the sample breakdown across the three survey design categories: business sector; firm size; and location
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  • 52
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Abstract: The signs of digital technology adoption are evident across Southeast Asia. In big cities, the use of mobile phones for messaging and social media has become ubiquitous. Ride-sharing services and delivery riders using apps to obtain their next booking are changing the face of urban transport and other services. As consumers go online to purchase products, they are recasting the future of brick-and-mortar retail businesses. The impacts of the digital revolution are not limited to a few prominent social networking sites, online businesses, or mobile apps. Digital platforms - a combination of technical innovation, new business models, and value proposition - in the private and in some cases the public sector, offer a range of products and services via digital channels. The use of digital technology is transforming - indeed, disrupting - all sectors, notably services such as logistics and finance, but also industrial production and agriculture. These are all visible manifestations of a growing digital economy. Southeast Asia is primed to embrace this digital revolution. There is a high level of interest from governments, businesses, and individuals in the region to support the growth of the digital economy and maximize its benefits. There is significant excitement about the rise of e-commerce platforms and app-based companies - including the region's own "unicorn" technology companies. Southeast Asia leads the world in some indicators on the use of the Internet, for example in social media and messaging
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Energy Sector Management Assistance Program Papers
    Abstract: Floating solar photovoltaic installations open new opportunities for scaling up solar generating capacity, especially in countries with high population density and competing uses for available land. Advantages of floating solar over land-based systems include higher energy yield, reduced evaporation, and improved water quality, among others. Combining floating solar with hydropower plants is of particular interest. Flexible hydropower output can be used to smooth the variability of the solar generation, while making better use of existing transmission assets, particularly beneficial in countries with weak grids. With a global estimated potential of 400 gigawatts, under conservative assumptions, floating solar could double the current global installed capacity of solar PV. Although the market is still nascent and challenges in deployment remain, the floating solar market is set to accelerate as the technologies mature. Floating Solar Market Report presents an overview of floating solar technologies, current deployment market and future opportunities, challenges related to floating solar deployment, policies and regulatory considerations, and current costs and project structuring. Floating Solar Market Report is the second publication of the series Where Sun Meets Water dedicated to floating and hydro-connected solar deployment
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  • 54
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other papers
    Abstract: The majority of developing countries will fail to achieve their targets for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the health- and poverty-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) unless they take urgent steps to strengthen their health financing. The UHC financing agenda fits squarely within the core mission of the G20 to promote sustainable, inclusive growth and to mitigate potential risks to the global economy. Closing the substantial UHC financing gap in 54 low and lower middle-income countries will require a strong mix of domestic and international investment. G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors can help countries seize the opportunities of high-performance health financing by adopting and steering a UHC financing resilience and sustainability agenda
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  • 55
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Water Papers
    Abstract: Water management agencies in many parts of the world are currently missing big opportunities to increase their capacity to monitor water resources. This report presents a range of remote sensing applications to support water resources management and decision-making, and discusses implementation approaches and their sustainability going forward. These were developed within the second phase of the global initiative on remote sensing for water resources management, conceived to help mainstream beneficial remote sensing uses in operational projects of the Bank, and to facilitate the adoption in World Bank client countries. This report is addressed to water practitioners in general, technical staff in national water agencies, and project leads from development and financing institutions. The goal of the report is to present insights from innovative remote sensing applications to help address specific water resources management challenges. The results presented include constraints identified in the adoption of remote sensing, the approaches adopted to make applications functional in different contexts, the project applications themselves, insights on their sustainability, and ways forward
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  • 56
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Agricultural Study
    Abstract: In March 2018, Uganda's Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (MoFPED) formally requested technical assistance from the World Bank Group (WBG) to conduct a technical and diagnostic review of the Uganda Agricultural Insurance Scheme (UAIS) with the objective of providing recommendations to enhance the scalability and sustainability of the scheme going forward. This technical report covers the rapid assessment of agriculture finance and its recommendations, the findings of the situation and gap analysis of the UAIS, and where appropriate, presents the WBG's recommendations for strengthening the scheme; it also includes a proposal for two additional insurance programs, one for crop and one for livestock, targeted at small-scale farmers. Section one is comprised of four chapters that provide important background information: chapter one provides context for the study; chapter two describes the agricultural sector in Uganda, including the constraints and risk exposure faced by small-scale farmers; chapter three offers an overview of the agriculture finance landscape; and chapter four describes past and present agricultural insurance initiatives, including the UAIS. Section two includes the remaining chapters that present findings and make recommendations for scaling up agriculture insurance in Uganda and making programs sustainable. Specifically, chapter five describes in detail the situation and gap analysis carried out for UAIS insurance products, operating systems and procedures, and underwriting results, and it identifies possible ways to strengthen the scheme for the public-private partnership (PPP) stakeholders to consider. Chapter six presents options for the development of large-scale Area Yield Index Insurance (AYII) to complement the existing UAIS crop insurance products and programs, and it includes fiscal costings for GoU to consider. Chapter seven presents options for the development of large-scale Satellite-Based Pasture Drought Index Insurance (SPDII) for open-grazed livestock in semi-arid regions of Uganda, most notably the Karamoja subregion
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  • 57
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Abstract: The economy is recovering slowly from drought, but Somalia continues to face significant challenges.The Somali economy rebounded in 2018 from the 2016/17 drought.Public finances continued to strengthen in 2018.Credit to the private sector grew rapidly in 2018, and Somalia's financial sector supervisory capacity continued to strengthen.The current account deficit declined slightly.The medium-term outlook is for a moderate increase in GDP growth.This outlook is subject to significant risks and depends on continued policy reforms. Key risks to medium-term growth prospects include security concerns, weather and climatic shocks, and political uncertainty. The authorities have been developing a track record of reform in areas of revenue mobilization, expenditure control, and financial sector regulation. Important challenges remain, however.A slowdown in the reform momentum would not only undermine medium-term economic growth, but also could delay the normalization of Somalia's relations with international financial institutions and access to critical external resources needed for development.Finally, Somalia needs to accelerate economic growth and reorient government spending towards public investment, particularly investment to boost human capital
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  • 58
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Abstract: Despite several severe shocks in the past, conflict, unstable governments, earthquakes, and trade disruptions, Nepal has made strong progress in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity. With the decade-long peace and constitutional process concluded, the Government of Nepal is keen to accelerate economic growth and become a middle-income country by 2030. Between 1996 and 2011, the proportion of households living in extreme poverty fell from 46 to 15 percent. Nepal's macroeconomic fundamentals have remained sound. This report takes place as Nepal transitions to a federal structure. This poses a unique and unprecedented opportunity to establish clarity of functions, expenditures, and revenue assignments, as well as changing jurisdictions across various levels of governments and agencies, including as they interface with the private sector. The new government is in place and emphasizing the need for stronger cooperation between the public and private sectors. Against this background, this report assesses the energy (electricity generation, transmission, and distribution), transport (roads, airports, and urban transport), and urban (water supply, sanitation, and solid waste management) infrastructure sectors. The report recommends interventions that combine short-term and longer-term structural and policy changes with tailored project implementation approaches. Completing projects will help stress test the framework and system and identify potential bottlenecks that can be corrected. Such a learning-by-doing approach will further help prioritize the implementation of the initiatives proposed in this report and target capacity development initiatives in the areas of greatest need
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  • 59
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Commodities Study
    Abstract: This report is the World Bank's first Agriculture Sector Review (ASR) for the Union of the Comoros, the first analytic product in the Bank's reengagement with the sector after a gap of two decades. This review is a stocktaking exercise that aims to provide the Government of Comoros with the evidence base necessary for strategic policymaking and smart investments critical to jumpstarting agricultural transformation in the country. In the short-term, the findings from this ASR are intended to launch an evidence-based, participatory, and inclusive consultation process that feeds into an updated sector strategy and investment plan that charts the path towards agricultural transformation
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  • 60
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Abstract: Many emerging economies have skills shortages but fail to effectively deploy students andjob seekers towards filling those shortages. In emerging economies, new technologies,digitization, automation, and other trends like Industry 4.0 result in a constantly changing demandfor sophisticated skills. In this environment, there are often students and job seekers who couldpotentially fill skills gaps but face significant challenges in identifying job opportunities andthe skills needed to obtain them. The schools, training centers, and public service providers thatare responsible for preparing the workforce to fill skills gaps often face similar challenges in terms of deploying attention and resources towards filling those gaps. In Malaysia, the Critical Skills Monitoring Committee (CSC) is charged with producing a Critical Occupations List to serve as a platform for coordinating human capital development policies. The CSC is a specialized interagency body that was established as part of the Eleventh Malaysia Plan to monitor skills imbalances in Malaysia. To do so, the CSC created an annual Critical Occupations List (COL) of occupations that are middle- or highskilled, sought-after, and strategic. The COL has evolved during the last several years to become a best-practice tool for monitoring skills. The COL is updated regularly and improved continually, is based on rigorous evidence, and is widely circulated. The production of the list is undertaken by the CSC and incorporates a wide range of input from both the public and private sector
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  • 61
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Country Financial Accountability Assessment
    Abstract: Efficient utilization of overall resources through sound public financial management (PFM), good governance and oversight are priorities in the Lao PDR government's reform agenda. The strengthening of PFM systems is fundamental to the successful development of Lao PDR and has been center stage in the Government's policy agenda. There has been slow progress since 2010 in strengthening the quality of PFM systems and processes and there has also been a pause in the PFM reform agenda since 2013. This Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) Lao PDR 2018 is intended to assess the current state of PFM in Lao PDR. This PEFA uses the upgraded 2016 methodology that has more demanding PFM standards with new calibration and scoring criteria. While it is expected that the assessment generates relatively low scores and reveal severe PFM performance gaps. The Government expects that the narrative will also highlight the area of ongoing or planned reform action in order to link the analysis to the existing areas of the new PFM reform agenda and to support the post-PEFA dialogue on the priorities and sequencing of the reform actions. this context, the GoL agreed at the end of 2016 to carry out a PEFA self-assessment managed by the WB and financed by the EU, to establish a diagnostic study of the PFM system using the PEFA 2016 methodology. It is expected that the PEFA exercise gives further impetus to the momentum created by the launch of the PFM reform agenda, mobilizing the participating institutions on the subsequent dialogue on PFM reform policy decisions. The overall objective of the PEFA assessment is to provide a baseline with an evidence-based PFM performance assessment to guide the Government's PFM reform strategy and potential engagement with its development partners in further strengthening PFM in the country
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  • 62
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Abstract: The recent refugee influx is testing Uganda's approach to managing refugees. Ensuring the success of Uganda's refugee response is crucial. This report analyzes the living conditions, wellbeing and socio-economic profile of refugees and host communities in Uganda in order to inform this policy response
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  • 63
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Abstract: This report analyzes issues related to international migration in Armenia and its impact on Armenian households' welfare. The report uses microdata coming from two recent household surveys, the 2017 Russian-Armenian University survey, a nationally-representative household focused on international migrants and their origin households, and the 2017 Integrated Living Conditions Survey, nationally representative household conducted by the Statistical Committee focused on welfare measurement but also with information on international migrants. The report finds that among international migrants, there are some slight differences in the profile of permanent and temporary migrants. Permanent migrants tend to be younger, more educated and are more likely to come from secondary cities, in contrast to temporary migrants, who are a bit older, less educated and are more likely to come from rural areas. Employment prospects for both groups are very limited the moment they leave the country, with employment rates around 25 percent. They tend to migrate largely to the Russian Federation, where they are hired almost exclusively by firms in the private sector. Temporary workers overwhelming work in the construction sector, while permanent workers show more diversity in sectors of employment
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  • 64
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Debt and Creditworthiness Study
    Abstract: The Debt Sustainability Analysis (DSA) indicates that Honduras stands at low risk of debt distress both for public external debt and overall debt, which represents an upgrade from the 2018 DSA, where risk of debt distress was assessed as moderate. The DSA was undertaken under the revised debt-sustainability framework for low income countries (LIC DSF), whereby Honduras's debt carrying capacity was upgraded from medium to strong. Changes in the debt-sustainability framework have contributed to the risk of debt distress improvement. A proven record of compliance with the Fiscal Responsibility Law (FRL) and solid macroeconomic conditions also contributed to rate Honduras' risk of debt distress as low. Going forward, adherence to the FRL and institutional reforms to boost inclusive growth and increase the economy's potential are critical to maintain debt sustainability
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  • 65
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Debt and Creditworthiness Study
    Abstract: Lao P.D.R.'s risks of external and overall debt distress continue to be assessed as high. Under the revised low-income country debt sustainability framework (LIC DSF), its debt carrying capacity has deteriorated and most external and total public debt indicators breach their respective indicative thresholds and benchmarks under the baseline scenarios. External debt indicators are most vulnerable to shocks to exports and depreciation of the currency. Public and external debt indicators are most sensitive to the contingent liabilities shock, while recent natural disasters underscore the need for strengthening buffers. The low level of reserves adds to these vulnerabilities. Factors, such as the large share of electricity export earnings under long-term intergovernmental power purchase agreements, and a strong and growing electricity exports market help mitigate risks, keeping the debt outlook sustainable. Market access is being maintained, around 65 percent of external debt is concessional, and the stock of expenditure arrears is declining. Rebuilding fiscal space, adopting clear guidelines for sovereign debt issuance and guarantees, assessing risks from contingent liabilities, and improving debt management are immediate priorities. Assessing and targeting infrastructure projects with high growth and social returns and financing these with concessional financing would benefit debt sustainability. Strengthening the business environment and governance, would improve the investment outlook, help diversify and make growth more inclusive. Increasing the export base, continuing to maximize the proportion of concessional loans and improving primary deficits would help to keep the debt burden contained
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  • 66
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Debt and Creditworthiness Study
    Abstract: Senegal has expanded its debt perimeter to include para-public entities and state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and remains at low risk of debt distress despite short-term breaches of two external debt indicators under the most extreme scenarios. The low risk of debt distress is predicated on: (i) ongoing debt liability management, guarantees to address currency risk, access to liquid financial assets and a sound track record of market access; and (ii) adherence to the planned fiscal consolidation path, an acceleration of reforms, and a prudent borrowing strategy. Looking ahead, it will be important to contain fiscal pressures from Treasury operations and address fiscal risks from the broader public sector, including the energy sector
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  • 67
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Debt and Creditworthiness Study
    Abstract: Based on an assessment of external public debt indicators and given the continued buildup of external arrears, the Republic of Congo is classified as "in debt distress". Moreover, despite the recent restructuring agreement with China, public debt remains unsustainable with the net present value of external debt in percent of gross domestic product (GDP) and the external debt service-to-revenue ratios projected to remain above their indicative thresholds in the medium ter
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  • 68
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Debt and Creditworthiness Study
    Abstract: The Debt Sustainability Analysis (DSA) suggests that Liberia remains at moderate risk of debt distress with limited space to accommodate shocks. The country's debt carrying capacity remains medium, but the rating has declined from 3.1 to 2.77. The authorities have pursued non-concessional loans, but none has been disbursed yet. The government has instead borrowed U.S. dollars from the Central Bank of Liberia (CBL) to close the financing gap in FY2018. Such new borrowing, as well as the legacy U.S. dollar debt from the civil war time, are both incorporated in the new DSA. The State-owned Enterprises (SOE) guaranteed debt is also incorporated. Liberia will edge closer to high risk of debt distress with a small change in the terms of both domestic and external debt or a failure to adjust primary expenditure to the available revenue envelope over the medium-term
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  • 69
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank E-Library Archive
    Series Statement: Debt and Creditworthiness Study
    Abstract: Madagascar is assessed at low risk of external debt distress. This marks a change from moderate risk in the June 2018 DSA, despite a broader definition of external debt, and reflects an upgrade in Madagascar's debt carrying capacity rather than a change in the debt path. Under the baseline, external public and publicly guaranteed (PPG) debt is well below applicable thresholds. Stress tests do not breach the threshold applicable to countries with medium debt-carrying capacity. Total (external plus domestic) PPG debt is below the benchmark under the baseline, but growth shocks drive the present value of the ratio of debt to GDP above the benchmark. Shocks could also introduce liquidity problems, as the debt-service to revenue ratio could exceed 100 percent over the long term. The overall rating, of moderate debt distress, remains consistent with the 2018 DSA. These assessments continue to be supportive of Madagascar's current plans to scale up its borrowing to meet its investment needs, though other factors are also critical