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  • World Bank Group  (3,325)
  • Spamer, Adolf (1883-1953)  (3,013)
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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Madagascar urbanization review
    Keywords: Verstädterung ; Stadtentwicklung ; Stadtplanung ; Politische Planung ; Adaptation To Climate Change ; City Development Strategies ; Environment ; Government Capacity ; Integrated Approach ; Sustainable Urban Growth ; Urban Development ; Urban Policies ; Urbanization ; Madagaskar
    Abstract: The Madagascar Urbanization Review aims to: - Contribute to the 2019 National Policy for Urban Development (Politique National de Developpement Urbain), the main policy document outlining the priorities for cities in Madagascar. - Serve as a diagnostic tool to identify the key barriers to sustainable and equitable urban growth in the country - Offer a set of recommended investment priorities and their sequencing, to support governments in making informed decisions on the future development of cities. - Promote an integrated approach to urban development and improve government capacity. - Promote an integrated approach to urban development and improve government capacity. - Help city leaders and national policy makers to: i. Think strategically about the opportunities offered by urbanization; ii. Address key bottlenecks that are holding back the potential benefits of urbanization; iii. Develop plans to address cities' most pressing issues; and iv. Build consensus between the national and local levels to drive the urban policy agenda
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (210 pages)
    Series Statement: International Debt Report
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Bonds ; Creditor ; Data ; Debt ; Debtor ; Developing ; Development ; Economic ; FDI ; Finance ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Government ; Interest Payments ; Interest Rates ; Loans ; Maturity ; Principal ; Private Sector ; Public Sector ; Statistics
    Abstract: The International Debt Report (IDR) is a longstanding annual publication of the World Bank featuring external debt statistics and analysis for the 122 countries that report to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System. IDR 2023 is the 50th annual edition and includes (1) analyses of external debt stocks and flows as of end-2022 for these countries; (2) the macroeconomic and debt outlook for 2023 and beyond; (3) a focus on improved public debt transparency and the quality of debt reporting; (4) a discussion of the need for innovative approaches to debt management; (5) a commentary on how the International Debt Statistics database serves as an indispensable resource for researchers and policy makers; and (6) a one-page snapshot of relevant debt indicators and summary of debt stocks and flows for six years (2010 and 2018-22) for each country, plus global income group and regional aggregates. Unique in its coverage of the important trends and issues fundamental to the financing of low- and middle-income countries, IDR 2023 is an indispensable resource for governments, economists, investors, financial consultants, academics, bankers, and the entire development community. For more information on IDR 2023 and related products, please visit the World Bank's Debt Statistics website at www.worldbank.org/debtstatistics
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Equity ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Interventions ; Fiscal Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Policy Reforms
    Abstract: The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) is facing economic challenges. The country is experiencing a growth slowdown with high levels of public debt. Growing current expenditure and debt service obligations amid sluggish tax revenue led to a widening fiscal deficit in the early 2010s, which remained high into the 2020s despite fiscal consolidation efforts. COVID-19 and deteriorating macroeconomic conditions have disrupted human capital investment and are expected to have worsened the incidence of poverty and inequality. Fiscal policy can be an instrument to address these challenges, but its role has been constrained by a precarious fiscal position. This report analyzes the distributive effects of the Lao fiscal system and potential reforms to address current economic challenges. The analysis adopts the Commitment to Equity (CEQ) methodology to assess the distributional impact of the Lao fiscal system on household welfare. The methodology disaggregates income to include or exclude fiscal interventions to analyze the impact of the fiscal system and each intervention on poverty and inequality. Fiscal interventions can be classified into three categories according to how they are imposed on households: direct interventions (direct taxes, social security contributions, and cash transfers), indirect interventions (indirect taxes and subsidies), and in-kind interventions (public health and education). The framework assesses how progressive a fiscal system and each fiscal intervention are and measures their impacts on poverty and inequality
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy Study
    Keywords: Anchoring and Mooring ; Energy ; Energy Resources Development ; Energy Yield ; Environment ; Environment and Energy Efficiency ; Floating Solar Photovoltaics ; FSPV Ecosystem ; HSE ; Inverter ; Power Plants
    Abstract: This report builds a compelling case for India to look beyond land and institute an ecosystem that supports the installation and operationalization of floating solar photovoltaics (FSPV) power plants. Since these plants are installed on the underutilized surfaces of large water bodies, no land needs to be diverted from other uses. The installation of FSPVs also spurs job creation and catalyzes the development of a domestic value chain as some of the components, such as floaters, need to bemanufactured close to installation sites. They also provide a range of other benefits as they generate relatively more power than ground-mounted solar plants (due to the cooling effect of water) and better utilize shared infrastructure such as transmission systems, wherever available
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Damages ; Earthquake ; Environment ; Grade Methodology ; Herat Province ; Natural Disasters
    Abstract: Following the Herat province (Western Afghanistan) earthquake sequence of October 7 to 15, 2023, the World Bank carried out a remote desk-based assessment of the physical damages using the Global RApid post-disaster Damage Estimation (GRADE) methodology. The objective of the assessment is to develop a model-based estimate of the direct physical (economic) damages to residential buildings (houses), non-residential buildings (e.g., education, health, worship, commercial, industrial assets) and infrastructure (e.g., transport, power, water, telecommunications), and to evaluate the spatial distribution of damages in order to support the development of a roadmap for recovery and reconstruction. This report summarizes the key findings of the assessment
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Governance ; Health Insurance ; Health Policy and Management ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; PHC ; Primary Health Care Performance ; Vital Signs Profile
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the Vital Signs Profile (VSP) assessment conducted by the World Bank and the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) in collaboration with Fiji's Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MHMS). The VSP provides an opportunity to assess the state of the primary health care (PHC) system in Fiji, highlighting areas of strength and challenges through the lens of the PHCPI framework. The framework organizes various domains and subdomains of primary health care using a logic model approach that encompasses the traditional inputs and outputs of PHC systems and emphasizes the capacity and processes of PHC service delivery and performance. Notably, while PHCPI recognizes the role of social determinants of health and intersectoral health promotion and prevention efforts as important factors influencing population health, the VSP is primarily focused on aspects of health service delivery. Fiji is one of four Pacific countries - alongside Kiribati, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Solomon Islands that have, with support of the World Bank, used PHCPI tools to take stock of current performance, safeguard what works well, and lay out a vision for areas requiring improvement
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Covid-19 Impact ; Current Status Of Education ; Curriculum and Instruction ; Education ; Education and Employment ; Education Finance ; Education Financing ; Education Quality ; Education Resource Allocation ; Education Sector Spending ; Effective Schools and Teachers ; Motivation For Education
    Abstract: The education sector in the Lao PDR (Laos) faces significant challenges. Access to education improved over of the past decade but substantial gaps remain, and previous progress is being undermined by the impacts of COVID-19 and ongoing economic difficulties. The quality of education was already poor before these shocks. The sector is severely underfunded due to a steep decline in public resources allocated to education. In addition, limited job prospects for graduates reduce demand for quality education. To prevent these challenges from causing a lost decade for education in Laos, urgent attention is needed in three areas. First, the government should implement comprehensive economic and fiscal reforms to increase available resources for education and facilitate private sector development to create income earning opportunities for graduates. Second, resource allocation within the sector should be improved for equity and balance. Lastly, the education sector needs to better translate available resources into the learning outcomes of children and youth by reducing inefficiencies and rigidities that constrain the key drivers of learning: teachers, school financing, teaching and learning materials, and school infrastructure. Addressing constraints in these three areas will help reverse the decline in education financing, close access gaps, and enhance service quality
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Early Childhood ; Economic Growth ; Human Capital ; Human Capital Protection ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Strengths and Gaps
    Abstract: This human capital review assesses human capital outcomes in Mauritania and identifies actions to strengthen, utilize, and protect human capital. The government of Mauritania has demonstrated a strong commitment to placing human capital at the forefront of its long-term vision, with dedicated efforts focused on enhancing childhood health and education outcomes. Despite Mauritania's positive initiatives, the country's human capital wealth per capita has declined over the last 20 years; and it is imperative to look at ways to quickly reverse this situation. Children born today in Mauritania will only be 38 percent as productive when they grow up as they could have been had they enjoyed complete education and full health. Increasing the productivity of Mauritanians--both men and women--and thus allowing them to fully contribute to the development of their society entails transforming the human capital challenge to a human capital opportunity. This report takes a comprehensive, cross-sectoral approach and proposes recommendations for building, protecting, and utilizing human capital in Mauritania
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Serbia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Serbia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Serbia on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Serbia; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Serbia; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Serbia; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Serbia
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Broadband Infrastructure ; Digital Divide ; Digitalization ; ICT Legal and Regulatory Framework ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Internet ; Outdated Legal Frameworks
    Abstract: Equitable access to broadband services is imperative to narrow the digital divide and for more people to benefit from digitalization. Compared to other ASEAN countries, the Philippines' internet connectivity lags in affordability, speed, and access, creating an uneven landscape for digital participation. Limited internet access curbs digital potential for citizens and businesses, with peri-urban connectivity being critical to future growth. The country's poor broadband infrastructure is rooted in outdated policy frameworks that stifle investment in rural areas and foster a market with weak competition, both of which hinder broadband expansion. Binding constraints underlying the Philippines' poor broadband infrastructure are inter-related, requiring a comprehensive package of reforms to yield desired entry, investment, and sector performance outcomes. The open access in data transmission (OADT) bill is a promising, viable start, among several proposals in Congress. Policymakers can build on immediate reforms through the open access bill as an entry point to broader and medium- to longer-term digital connectivity agenda. The cost of inaction - loss of growth opportunity, people remaining unequipped for future jobs, and widening of the digital divide - is too high for the Philippines
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  • 11
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Zimbabwe assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Zimbabwe perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Zimbabwe on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Zimbabwe; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Zimbabwe; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Zimbabwe; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Zimbabwe
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Jamaica assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Jamaica perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Jamaica on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Jamaica; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Jamaica; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Jamaica; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Jamaica
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  • 13
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Disaster Finance ; DRFI ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Crisis Management and Restructuring ; NCA ; North Central America
    Abstract: The objective of this feasibility study is to identify disaster risk finance and insurance (DRFI) solutions for up to 1.9 million family farmers in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study is motivated by an emerging consensus on the need to design and implement large-scale DRFI solutions to improve the financial resilience of family farmers in North Central America (NCA) and reduce their vulnerability to extreme weather events and climate risks. The feasibility study provides an initial assessment of the technical, operational, financial, and policy considerations for developing and implementing DRFI solutions for family farmers in NCA. The feasibility study considers lessons learned from existing large-scale DRFI solutions in peer countries as well as ongoing programs and pilots in NCA
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  • 14
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Matching Grants ; Mutual Funds ; Science and Technology Development ; Tech Incubator Program for Startup ; Technology Innovation ; Tips
    Abstract: This report investigates the case of a Korean public-private matching grant program called the Tech Incubator Program for Startup (TIPS). Launched in 2013, the program provides a package of support to selected startups, including matching grant for research and development (R and D) and mentorship, for up to three years. After ten years in operation, TIPS is particularly well suited to answer the question of whether public funding can help startups innovate and subsequently improve their performance. Using a dataset that includes 1,650 startups that applied for TIPS between 2013 and 2020, this research analyzes the effects of TIPS on recipients' performance and offers empirical evidence to inform entrepreneurship policy. The results show that TIPS positively affected startup performance one year after selection in terms of innovation input and output, although it did not have a significant effect on revenue or research collaboration activities. The report concludes with five lessons derived from Korea's policy experience in designing and implementing TIPS: (i) a well-designed coordination mechanism may serve as a viable public-private partnership model for fostering innovative startups, (ii) a co-investment model can crowd in private investment and achieve a multiplier effect by reducing the risk of investment in early-stage startups, (iii) complementary supports that target different stages of the startup lifecycle are needed, (iv) patient capital and continuity in entrepreneurial policy with a long-term view are key to nurturing a vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystem, and (v) constant engagement with beneficiaries through data collection and monitoring enables the development of a dynamic monitoring and evaluation mechanism
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  • 15
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Health Economics and Finance ; Health Sector ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; International Financing ; Investments ; Ukraine
    Abstract: The full-scale invasion of the Russian Federation in Ukraine has immense local impact and global consequences. Ukraine is experiencing huge human and economic suffering, which will have long-lasting effects. This war has been particularly devastating for the Ukrainian health sector, tremendously increasing the urgent need for specific services and simultaneously obstructing health outcomes and access to health care due to hostilities, disruption of service delivery, and damage and destruction of health facilities. Moreover, the recovery of Ukraine is shrouded in uncertainty as the duration of the ongoing war and the frequency and localization of the attacks are unknown, all occurring against the backdrop of economic challenges within the country and at a global scale. Despite an expected international effort to finance the recovery of Ukraine akin to the Marshall Plan, financial resources may not be easily available or may become more scarce and more expensive. Investments will receive more scrutiny, and competition for funds will increase due to monetary tightening, rising interest rates, and possibly sustained high inflation (International Monetary Fund 2022). However, in the short to medium term, Ukraine is expected to have favorable access to international financing on concessional terms. While Ukraine is struggling with the gruesome immediate impact of the war and a fight for survival, the shared understanding emerges that going back to business as usual will neither be possible nor desirable. This moment may also serve as a window of opportunity for rapid reform and innovation of health service delivery in Ukraine. Improving and reconstructing services while restoring and stabilizing them is critical to aiding a suffering population and to laying strong foundations of governance that will have lasting impacts into the country's future. This document provides a proposal for stakeholdersin the Ukrainian health sector on how service delivery may need to change, how to deal with this change, and how the health sector may come out stronger in the longer term. It focuses on the organization of health care service delivery and shares considerations of how it may develop using a long-term (10+ years) perspective
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Accreditation Policies ; Childhood Development ; Early Childhood Development ; Early Education ; ECED ; Education ; GOI
    Abstract: Investments in early years of education and childhood development are among the most cost-effective and beneficial a country can make to tackle learning poverty, promote healthy child development, and enhance shared prosperity. Over the past two decades, the Government of Indonesia (GoI) has scaled up its commitment to early childhood education and development (ECED) through various educational reforms, policies, programs, and financial investments. With the expansion of Indonesia's ECED system, the GoI has committed to improving its quality since the early 2000s. As a key mechanism to raise the quality of ECED services, the GoI actively encourages PAUD centers to become accredited. An analysis of factors that influence whether and how PAUD centers participate in the accreditation system is helpful to inform continuous quality improvement of Indonesia's ECED services. The World Bank is providing the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology (MoECRT) technical assistance and advice to improve Indonesia's ECED system. Supported by the Learning for Human Capital Development Programmatic Advisory Services and Analytics (PASA), this study was conducted to inform further improvements to Indonesia's ECED accreditation system. This report presents the findings from the abovementioned ECED accreditation system assessment and is organized in four main sections after an introduction. Section I describes the study's background and the country context, with emphasis on the ECED system and its quality assurance mechanisms. Section II details the methodology used. Section III presents a summary of the survey results. Section IV discusses the implications of the findings and outlines recommendations to inform accreditation policies and programs
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Kenya assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Kenya perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Kenya on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Kenya; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Kenya; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Kenya; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Kenya
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  • 18
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Ghana assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Ghana perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Ghana on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Ghana; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Ghana; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Ghana; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Ghana
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Carbon Pricing ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Energy ; Energy and Economic Development ; Energy Prices ; Growth and Real Sector ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The twin shocks of the pandemic and weak global trade has particularly impacted Thailand due to the country's position as a trade and tourism hub. Thailand's tourism arrivals reached only 75 percent of pre-pandemic levels in September despite the ongoing growth in global services trade. Visitor numbers increased across the board, except for China and Japan which are experiencing economic slowdown. The economic recovery faltered due to global headwinds as growth fell to 1.5 percent year-on-year in 2023 Q3, well below expectations. Thailand has implemented a range of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and has taken the first steps to implementing comprehensive carbon pricing. This report explores some of the complexities involved in implementing carbon pricing. It finds that Thailand has already taken some of the most difficult steps in setting up a comprehensive carbon pricing policy instrument. Important questions remain to be addressed about what form carbon pricing should take in Thailand and which economic sectors should be included in a carbon pricing scheme. The potential benefits from carbon pricing may be substantial. Carbon pricing is likely to play an important role in meeting future emission reduction targets, reducing environmental degradation and air pollution while positioning Thailand as a regional leader in green and sustainable growth
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  • 20
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Demand Shortfalls ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Growth ; Inflation ; Investment Shifts ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Property Sector
    Abstract: Economic activity in China has picked up in 2023, but the recovery remains fragile. Real GDP growth accelerated to 5.2 percent y/y in the first three quarters of 2023, driven by demand for services, resilient manufacturing investment, and public infrastructure stimulus. The initial phase of economic reopening triggered a surge in economic activity in Q1, but growth momentum decelerated rapidly in Q2 before recovering modestly in Q3. The volatile growth performance, compounded by persistent deflationary pressures and still weak consumer confidence, suggests continued fragility in the recovery. China's investment deceleration has been one of the key drivers of the overall growth slowdown in recent years. Together with the decline in aggregate investment growth, there has been a marked shift in the composition of investment. Structural reforms are crucial both to accelerate rebalancing towards higher consumption and to mitigate risks of inefficiencies in capital allocation. Following recent statements by policymakers, a renewed focus on structural reform implementation with specific measures strengthening the rule of law, independent enforcement of regulations, fostering competition, and ensuring a level-playing field could help ensure that resources are allocated to the most productive sectors and firms. Deepening financial sector reform will enhance market-based financial intermediation. Measures to improve the progressivity of the fiscal system, reform the hukou system, and foster inclusive finance will support household consumption growth
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  • 21
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomic Performance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Expenditure ; Public-Private Partnership ; Revenue Mobilization ; State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs)
    Abstract: The Lao PDR is facing unprecedented macroeconomic challenges, which jeopardize hard-won development gains. Over the past two decades, the country attracted considerable foreign investment and fostered regional integration, which contributed to a long period of high economic growth. Many human development indicators improved during the period 2000-2019, including child and maternal mortality, school enrolment, income poverty, and gender equity. However, economic growth was predominantly driven by large-scale investments in capital intensive sectors, such as mining and hydropower, which created few jobs and entailed environmental costs. Moreover, many public investments were financed by external debt, gradually jeopardizing debt sustainability and macroeconomic stability. Long-standing structural vulnerabilities have been exacerbated by the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and adverse global macroeconomic conditions. Since 2021, the national currency has depreciated considerably, and inflation soared. This has had a large negative impact on living standards, with many households struggling to cope. Meanwhile, limited spending on education, health, and social protection is undermining human capital and thus economic growth prospects. Significant debt pressures, especially short-term external liquidity constraints, have pushed the country into debt distress. This Public Finance Review identifies priority reforms to restore macroeconomic stability and boost prosperity. The objective of this review is to assess recent macro-fiscal performance, evaluate emerging fiscal risks, and propose policy reforms to secure fiscal sustainability, restore macroeconomic stability, and promote shared prosperity. This report is comprised of five chapters covering the main aspects of fiscal management: chapter 1 evaluates recent macroeconomic performance while placing fiscal policy in the broader macroeconomic context. Chapter 2 assesses domestic revenue mobilization efforts and scope for reforms to enhance tax collection. Chapter 3 investigates the size and composition of public expenditure, as well as measures to increase its efficiency and effectiveness. Chapter 4 discusses reforms of state-owned enterprises with a view to improving their financial performance, operational management, and corporate governance. Chapter 5 documents the experience with public-private partnerships and provides recommendations to maximize value for money and reduce fiscal risks
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  • 22
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; KIRIBATI ; PHP ; PHPCPI ; Vital Signs Profile
    Abstract: The assessment of Kiribati's primary health care (PHC) system, carried out by the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Kiribati under the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI), marks a unique opportunity to identify the system's strengths and gaps and to catalyze further improvements. The PHCPI tools, including the Vital Signs Profile (VSP) methodology, provide important insights into the country's PHC system and generate actionable policy recommendations for improvement
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  • 23
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Mongolia assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Mongolia perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Mongolia on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Mongolia; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Mongolia; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Mongolia; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Mongolia
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  • 24
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: IDA ; Private Investment ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Private Sector Window (PSW)
    Abstract: The private sector is essential for creating jobs and prosperity in poor countries, but developing it is challenging, especially in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS). The IDA Private Sector Window (PSW) is a blended finance facility that enables the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and third-party private sector investors to conduct high-risk transactions in International Development Association (IDA) countries and FCS countries. This evaluation aims to assess the usage, market development potential, and enabling factors of the PSW. The evaluation assesses how the usage of the PSW has changed from its inception in 2017 to 2023 and explores its potential market development effects and its enabling factors, namely concessionality (for IFC and MIGA) and additionality (for IFC). Concessionality is the level of subsidy needed for IFC and MIGA to offer transactions in PSW-eligible countries at market prices. Additionality is the unique support IFC brings to private investments (on a project basis) that is not offered by commercial sources of finance. It comprises financial and nonfinancial additionality. This evaluation assesses the PSW across three IDA cycles: IDA18, which covers FY18-20; IDA19, which covers FY21-22; and IDA20, which covers FY23-25. It updates the 2021 IEG early-stage assessment of the PSW (FY18-20) and complements the IDA20 PSW Mid-Term Review, which was prepared jointly by IDA, IFC, and MIGA
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  • 25
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Saudi Arabia ; Women ; Women and Labor
    Abstract: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies have been a bright spot in an otherwise gloomy economic landscape. Average growthin the GCC surpassed 7 percent in 2022 led by Saudi Arabia, its biggest economy, which was globally the fastest growing large economy. This growth was not just a result of buoyant hydrocarbon prices but also continued growth of non-oil sectors. The latter was the result of persistent structural reforms undertaken by several GCC countries to improve the investment environment, promote flexible labor markets, and encourage women to join the labor market. GCC countries have used the windfall revenues from oil and gas to rebuild their buffers, pay down their debt, and shore-up their sovereign wealth funds. They have also sought to protect their vulnerable populations with continued subsidies on food, fuel, and utilities. Such policies have limited the impact of inflation on the domestic economy. Finally, GCC countries have also used their financial muscle to support economically weaker countries in the region. The stellar growth of 2022 is slowing down and growth is expected to moderate to 1 percent in 2023 before picking up again to 3.6 percent in 2024. The decline in economic activity in 2023 is driven by consecutive production cut decisions by OPEC+ in an effort to stabilize global oil prices. However, non-oil GDP continues its growth trajectory reaching 3.9 percent, resulting weaker integration between oil and non-oil sectors. To maintain this track record, GCC countries will need to continue to exercise prudent macroeconomic management, stay the course with structural reforms, and increase non-oil exports. Downside risks remain and it would be amiss not to mention them. The conflict in the Middle East presents major risks to the region and the GCC outlook if it extends or expands to include other regional players. While it is too early to quantify the impact and channels of the conflict, we already witness a 4 percentsurge in global oil futures. Although China is bouncing back after emerging from tight Covid-19 lockdowns, troubles in the real estate sector could still disrupt this trajectory. Persistent high inflation in the world's major economies has not been entirely vanquishedsuggesting a high interest rate environment for a longer period. Windfall revenues are anticipated as a result of higher oil prices driven by the conflict in the Middle East. However, the extent and duration of the conflict will play a pivotal role in determining economicramifications not only on energy markets but also on regional financial and trade markets and overall economic confidence. The Special Focus section of the report discusses the power of structural reforms and social norms in advancing female labor force participation in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia experienced an unprecedented surge in female labor force participation since 2016 as a result of: (i) changing regulations and the removal of legal barriers, shifting social norms, (ii) the implementation of sound structural reforms and (iii) effective government communications. Saudi Arabia's success in increasing female labor force participation from 17.4 percent in 2017 to 36 percent in 2023 offers important lessons to other countries in the region and the world
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; FDI ; Foreign Direct Investment ; FX ; Import Bans ; Improved Welfare ; Inflation ; International Economics and Trade ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Oil Flows ; Private Sector Credit
    Abstract: Important reform decisions have been taken for Nigeria to avoid a fiscal cliff, and temporary compensation is being provided to help the poorest and most vulnerable households. In May and June 2023, the incoming administration undertook two critical policy decisions, which have resulted in price and exchange rate adjustments in the second half of the year. Targeted cash transfers are helping to cushion the adjustment to higher gasoline prices. On fiscal policy, budget planning for the next several years is consistent with sustaining the fiscal savings from the subsidy reform and mobilizing more revenues. However, the reforms are yet to be completed to fully realize the economic benefits. The FX market has remained volatile and is still in a period of continuing adjustment to the new policy approach. Revenue gains from the FX reform are visible, but more clarity is needed on oil revenues, including the fiscal benefits from the PMS subsidy reform. The economic outlook for Nigeria in the short to medium term hinges on the continuation and effectiveness of its macroeconomic stabilization agenda. Successful implementation of the initiated reforms will be the first step toward improving Nigeria's growth prospect. Moving decisively onto a higher long-term growth and poverty reduction path requires not only a stable macroeconomic environment but also concerted structural reforms
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Childcare ; Early Childhood Development ; Education ; Legal Framework ; Policies ; Services Mapping ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: The "Comprehensive Assessment of the Childcare Landscape in Lebanon: A Mixed Methods Study" analyzes the supply and demand of formal childcare services for children aged 0-3. It provides a review of Lebanon's regulatory and institutional framework around childcare, maps out the current supply of services including cost and quality aspects, and deepens the understanding of households' childcare needs. Findings show that there is a mismatch between supply and demand, with a gap in provision for the youngest children and that supply is mostly private, costly, and concentrated in coastal areas. Childcare responsibilities limit women's ability to join the labor force, and affordability is a main constraint for families to access services, resulting in low demand for formal childcare. The study proposes measures for an inclusive expansion of quality and affordable childcare services in four areas: (i) an enabling environment for efficient, affordable provision of quality childcare services, (ii) a more equitable distribution of the unpaid care work burden within the household, (iii) improved State support to address households' care needs, and (iv) inclusive family-friendly workplace conditions in the private sector
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  • 28
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Anticorruption Agenda ; Governance ; Governance and Financial Sector ; Integrity Risks ; Law and Development ; Public Administration ; Public Procurement
    Abstract: The Armenia public sector accountability survey is instrumental in addressing the disparities between de jure laws and regulations and de facto practices and seeks to fill existing knowledge gaps and inform further definition and implementation of the government's anticorruption initiatives. The survey was implemented by the Corruption Prevention Commission (CPC) and the World Bank. It aimed to: (i) provide a comprehensive assessment of the patterns and determinants of integrity risks, and how they can impact productivity and performance in the public administration in Armenia; (ii) understand the perceptions of Armenian public servants regarding ongoing anticorruption initiatives, their awareness of integrity risks, and the needs for further interventions; and (iii) generate evidence, support and inform further definition of reforms and anticorruption initiatives that help address and counter weak integrity practices in the public sector in Armenia. By highlighting the disparities between de jure laws and de facto practices, particularly in terms of integrity within the public sector, this survey aimed to serve as a cornerstone for informing effective implementation in targeted interventions and bridging the gap between policy intentions and actual practices within Armenia's governance. The Armenia public sector accountability survey was aimed at public servants in selected public entities in Armenia, including central ministries and agencies, regional governments, and selected municipalities across the country. The analysis of the survey findings is anchored in the government production function conceptual framework and adjusted to explicitly take into account the drivers and consequences of corruption
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Social Protection Study
    Keywords: Employment ; Inclusive Society ; Income Inequality ; Labor Markets ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor ; Structural Drivers ; Wage
    Abstract: This report is intended to inform public debate and policymaking on income inequality in Thailand. It aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of income inequality in Thailand and identify opportunities to promote more inclusive growth. The analysis uses a wealth of data from a variety of sources (detailed in Appendix A) to examine the pattern, structure, and drivers of income inequality in the country, with a special focus on inequality and labor market supply-side factors. It is structured as follows. This section has laid the foundation for analysis, examining historical trends in both consumption - and income-based measures of inequality while providing geographic context and data on public perceptions about inequality. It also provided a summary of literature findings. Section 2 analyzes the pandemic's impacts on inequality, including the role that social assistance played in mitigating its effects but also the potential scarring effects on children's human capital development. Section 3 examines the structural drivers of inequality and its persistence, focusing on the role of inequality of opportunity in human capital development and access to basic services. Finally, Section 4 provides policy options to create a more inclusive society by addressing the root causes of persistent inequality and mitigating the challenges brought about by the pandemic. In particular, since a significant share of the poor in Thailand are engaged in agriculture, the report underscores that improving farm incomes is crucial for alleviating poverty and reducing inequality. As such, Section 4 draws its recommendations from a recent study on the key challenges and opportunities facing Thai farmers to raise agricultural productivity and incomes
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  • 30
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: CEMAC ; Country Level ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Outlook ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: The CEMAC Economic Barometer is a World Bank publication that presents a snapshot of recent developments in and the economic outlook of the CEMAC region, followed by a brief assessment at the country level. The Economic Barometer also includes a focused technical section on a theme of regional relevance. This edition's special topic provides policy options for the CEMAC countries to take better advantage of future commodity price booms
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Financial Sector ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Food Security ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Monetary Policy ; Real Sector
    Abstract: Notwithstanding slower global growth and lingering impacts of recent catastrophic floods, private sector activity, outside the oil sector, has been supported by a relative return to peace, and higher government spending. Nevertheless, the economy is estimated to have contracted by 0.4 percent in FY23/24, reflecting drags from oil production. Supported by a successful exchange rate liberalization, inflation averaged -3.2 percent in 2022 and around 3 percent in the first nine months of 2023. Monetary policy has tightened in recent months, but it remains imperative that the central bank refrain from financing the fiscal deficit. The FY23/24 budget projects a smaller financing gap of about 13 percent of budget expenditures comparedto previous years. However, financing vulnerabilities remain high because of limited fiscal and external liquidity buffers and limited debt-carrying capacity
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  • 32
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Access and Coverage ; Equity ; Financing ; Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; PHCPI Framework ; PHP ; Quality
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the primary health care (PHC) system in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), an assessment that the World Bank conducted in consultation with the Ministry of Health and Human Services (MHHS) of the government of RMI. The assessment provides an opportunity to understand the performance of RMI's PHC system, highlighting important areas of strengths and opportunities to address ongoing challenges. The assessment uses the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) framework, which organizes various domains and subdomains of primary care using a logic model approach that encompasses the traditional inputs and outputs of a system, emphasizing service delivery and performance
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  • 33
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Firm-Level ; Global Statistics ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Procurement ; WBES
    Abstract: Public procurement is at the intersection between the public and the private sectors. Policy makers and practitioners are increasingly paying attention to the potential catalytic role of public procurement to promote economic growth and inclusive and sustainable development, for example through participation of SMEs and women-owned firms in this market. However, despite a growing academic literature, there is still limited evidence on the link between public procurement and firms, which this paper contributes to address in two ways. First, this paper provides guidance on how to design a high-quality firm-level survey to study public procurement from the perspective of firms. Second, this paper presents some of the statistics and stylized facts that can be generated on public procurement from the existing World Bank Enterprise Surveys data, covering more than 150 countries worldwide. To sustain evidence-based policies in public procurement, firm-level survey data can be a valuable source of information on public procurement market. In particular, it can capture dimensions such as views and perceptions of firms that cannot be observed from e-government procurement data, it allows to study firms that never entered the public procurement market, and it provides data for countries that have not adopted an eGP system yet. Together with legislative and institutional reviews, and the analysis of transactional procurement data, firm-level survey data can be used to identify weaknesses of a public procurement system and inform reform efforts. This paper is part of a broader effort to continuously expand the available data, statistics, and tools for evidence-based policy making in public procurement
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Access To Education ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Impact ; Covid-19 Impact ; Education ; Food Security ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Capital Accumulation and Utilization ; Inclusive Development ; Long-Term Economic Growth ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This report is undertaken as a part of the Human Capital Project (HCP), a globalinitiative of the World Bank Group that aims to increase governments' awarenessof the importance of investing in people (World Bank date of publication not identifiedb). One of the maincomponents of the HCP is a cross-country metric--the Human Capital Index (HCI). The HCI estimates the amount of human capital a child born today can expect to accumulate by the age of 18, thus highlighting how current health and education outcomes shape the work productivity of the next generation. Moreover, given the cumulative nature of human capital, the HCI has clear milestones across the entire human life cycle: at birth, children need to survive; during childhood, they need to be well-nourished; at school age, they must complete all schooling and active adequate learning levels; and in adulthood, they need to stay in good health. Finally, the HCI includes a result: a score that ranges from 0 to 1. A country where an average child has virtually no risk of being stunted or dying before age five, receives high-quality education, and becomes a healthy adult, would have an HCI close to 1. Conversely, when the risk of being ill-nourished or prematurely dying is high, access to education is limited, and the quality of learning is low, the HCI would approach zero
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  • 35
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study
    Keywords: East Asia ; FDI ; FDI Policy Reforms ; Foreign Direct Investment ; International Economics and Trade ; Liberalization ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Abstract: A new report from the World Bank Group focuses on the trends in foreign direct investment (FDI), which encompasses foreign investment in new or existing firms and production facilities. FDI is a subset of overall capital flows, but it is perhaps the most critical because of its potential development impact and stability relative to other cross-border capital flows. Foreign capital flows to developing countries fell to an estimated USD 662 billion in 2022 from an average of over USD 1 trillion in the decade preceding the COVID-19 pandemic. Declining investment flows to developing markets largely reflect weaker macroeconomic prospects, geopolitical tensions, as well as the lasting impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The trend is also linked to the ongoing process of shifting global value chains and the transformation of investment in terms of modes of entry, sources, and sectors, among other dimensions. Growing climate change impacts, rising interest rates, and policy changes in advanced countries--such as incentives for green investments and localization of supply chains for key technologies--have also had far-reaching implications for the allocation of investment across the globe. The study seeks to provide a granular analysis of shifts in foreign direct investment flows and policy trends and suggests responses that developing countries may consider in order to reverse recent declines and to enable more private capital to support their development needs
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Cyclonic Storm ; Environment ; Grade Methodology ; Natural Disasters ; Rakhine State ; Social Protections and Assistance ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: Extremely severe cyclonic storm Mocha made landfall as a Category 4-equivalent cyclone in the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale on Sunday May 14, 2023, at 07:07 UTC (14:07 local time) around Sittwe city, the capital of Rakhine State, Myanmar. Given the fragile and conflict-affected situation with limited access in Myanmar, the World Bank has adopted the Global RApid post-disaster Damage Estimation (GRADE) methodology to estimate damages arising from Cyclone Mocha. GRADE is a remote, desktop analysis to estimate damage to capital stock. This report summarizes the results of the GRADE conducted to assess damages following the impact of Extremely severe cyclonic storm Mocha in Myanmar during May 2023
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Attitudes ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Governance ; International Governmental Organizations ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Participations and Civic Engagement ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Knowledge ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Guinea assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Guinea perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Guinea on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Guinea; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Guinea; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Guinea; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Guinea
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  • 38
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Support ; IDA ; Jobs ; Labor Markets ; Reform ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This evaluation is the first stage of the Independent Evaluation Group's assessment of the World Bank's support for more, better, and more inclusive jobs through International Development Association (IDA) financing, and it assesses the implementation of IDA-supported interventions directly supporting its jobs objectives across the three Replenishment cycles from fiscal years 2015 to 2022. Supporting the creation of more, better, and more inclusive jobs is critical towards achieving the goals of poverty reduction and shared prosperity in countries. This is especially true for countries that are eligible for International Development Association (IDA) financing. Since 2014, IDA has included jobs as a special theme, and subsequent IDA replenishments have had what this evaluation calls an 'IDA jobs strategy.' This strategy included explicit objectives, a series of policy commitments to achieve them, and results indicators to track them. This evaluation represents the first stage of the Independent Evaluation Group's assessment of the World Bank's performance in supporting more, better, and more inclusive jobs through IDA financing. It assesses the implementation of IDA-supported interventions that directly supported its jobs objectives across the three Replenishment cycles from fiscal years 2015 to 2022. The evaluation answers two questions: (i) To what extent IDA's strategy on jobs was grounded in sound analytics, adaptive, and operationally relevant (ii) To what extent the strategy has been translated into relevant and effective jobs interventions that directly address the objectives of more, better, and more inclusive jobs The scope of the evaluation is limited to the three main channels for achieving IDA jobs objectives: acting on labor demand, increasing labor supply, and improving labor market flexibility and geographic mobility. The report offers recommendations for further strengthening of the IDA jobs agenda towards the objective of supporting more, better, and more inclusive jobs
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  • 39
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Food Security ; Fragile Recovery ; Pollitical Challenges ; Water Resources ; Water Security
    Abstract: Somalia has remained on a strong economic reform path despite the various global and exogenous shocks that have continued to buffet the economy. Recurrent climate-related shocks, such as cycles of droughts, floods, locusts' infestation, higher international commodity prices, as well as increased insecurity and conflict, have interrupted the country's growth trajectory. However, this has not deterred the country's commitment to continue advancing reforms to strengthen key economic institutions and promote macroeconomic stability and recovery. As a result, Somalia has continued to make progress toward meeting the conditions for achieving the heavily indebted poor country (HIPC) completion point in December 2023. Within the framework of resilience, the eighth edition of the World Bank's Somalia economic update series provides an in-depth analysis of recent economic developments and growth outlook and makes a case for integrating climate change with Somalia's growth agenda. This report highlights macroeconomic policies and reforms that promote inclusive growth and institutional building including enhancing fiscal space for development priorities while strengthening expenditure controls; strengthening financial integrity; integrating Somalia into the global financial system; and improving debt management
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  • 40
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Environment ; IDA19 ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Rating System ; Resilience ; RRS
    Abstract: In response to the growing recognition that measuring inputs, such as climate finance, is not enough to capture the impacts of investments, the World Bank Group developed the Resilience Rating System (RRS). Developed over a two-year, multi-sectoral consultative process through close collaboration with internal and external actors, the RRS methodology aims to guide investment decisions and improve climate resilience in project design and outcomes. The methodology report is publicly available. The RRS evaluates and rates investment projects from C to A+, based on their resilience attributes in two complementary dimensions. The resilience of rating considers a project's design, reflecting the confidence that it will achieve its expected objectives and maximize development benefits in the face of climate and disaster risks. The resilience through rating considers a project's outcomes and reflects its contribution to improving climate resilience in the broader community, sector and systems, and to driving transformational adaptation. Combining the two dimension ratings provides an overall project rating, from CC to A+A+
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Mali assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Mali perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Mali on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Mali; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Mali; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Mali; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Mali
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Environment ; Environmental Protection ; Policies ; Pollution ; Solid Waste ; Waste Management ; Water Supply and Sanitation
    Abstract: Today the world faces unprecedented challenges in waste management while the state of the municipal waste management sector globally is a matter of concern. To reverse current trends related to waste generation, pollution, and resource management, active collaboration between the various waste actors including governments, civil society, and the private sector will be required along with sustained behavior change. This compendium is designed to help decision-makers - including policy makers, policy professionals, and practitioners-investigate, understand, and respond to waste management challenges in their communities through interventions considering a behavioral science lens. The document contains short case studies that uncover and highlight where and what behavioral tools were applied along three main challenges, that is, getting people to generate less waste, getting people to use waste services, and getting people to be more sustainable with their waste
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; Stakeholder Engagement ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Uzbekistan assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Uzbekistan perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Uzbekistan on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Uzbekistan; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Uzbekistan; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Uzbekistan; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Uzbekistan
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  • 44
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Decarbonization ; Energy ; Energy Transition ; Environment ; Gas Security ; Renewable Energy ; Urban Development
    Abstract: Since February 2022, geopolitical events have made clear Europe's need to diversify its energy sources and avoid excessive dependence on fossil fuel imports. The drop in Russian natural gas flows to Europe in 2022 marked the single largest supply shock in the history of global gas markets. It caused a significant increase in prices of electricity and heating services for consumers across the continent. With Europe's high reliance on imported natural gas, reestablishing energy security is a paramount objective. But how security can be achieved is subject to many uncertainties. Although Central Asia is not as dependent on gas imports as other parts of the World Bank's Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region, it has not been spared an energy crisis. Chronic underinvestment and the harshest winter conditions in decades resulted in significant blackouts in power and heating during the winter of 2022/23. -- This report analyzes the implications of the 2022/2023 energy crises over the short and long term, observing possible energy scenarios through 2060 in the Bank's ECA region and examining three key questions: -- What is the state of energy security in ECA in the wake of recent geopolitical events? -- What will it take to decarbonize the ECA energy system? -- What are the main uncertainties?
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  • 45
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Artisanal Coastal Fleet ; Blue Cabotage ; Blue Economy ; Blue Tourism ; Coastal and Marine Environment ; Environment ; Investment Projects ; STP
    Abstract: The Democratic Republic of Sao Tome e Principe (STP) is the smallest independent island state in Africa, having gained independence in 1975, following the Seychelles. STP has a predominantly young population. However, as an island micro-state, the country faces many development problems specific to islands and small countries, such as weak governance capacity, the inability to provide basic services to the population, and a lack of adequate infrastructure (ports, electricity, airports). Additionally, high production and distribution costs of goods and services, including food products, exacerbate the poverty level of the population. The virtually nonexistent corporate structure and undiversified, highly dependent economy make the country vulnerable to exogenous shocks. To address these challenges, STP developed and adopted a Transition Strategy for the Blue Economy in December 2019. This strategy aims to establish the coherence of public policies linked to oceanic resources with the policies of other sectors, such as fisheries and aquaculture, tourism, and energy. The purpose of this paper is to consolidate the analysis of the three investment projects prioritized for inclusion in the National Investment Plan for the Blue Economy. While the report does not imply endorsement of these projects by the World Bank and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), its primary objective is to illuminate the drivers of cost and benefit associated with the priorities already identified by the government of Sao Tome e Principe
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  • 46
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Financial Aid ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Algeria assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Algeria perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Algeria on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Algeria; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Algeria; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Algeria; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Algeria
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  • 47
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Opinion Surveys
    Keywords: Accountability ; Development Economics and Aid Effectiveness ; Effectiveness ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Social Accountability ; Social Development ; World Bank Group Strategy
    Abstract: The Country Opinion Survey in Cabo Verde assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in better understanding how stakeholders in Cabo Verde perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Cabo Verde on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Cabo Verde; 2) their overall attitudes toward the WBG in Cabo Verde; 3) overall impressions of the WBG's effectiveness and results, knowledge work and activities, and communication and information sharing in Cabo Verde; and 4) their perceptions of the WBG's future role in Cabo Verde
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Education ; Education Reform ; Education Reform and Management ; Existing Teachers ; Learning ; Teaching Practices
    Abstract: In 2023, growth in the Pacific islands (PIC-11) decelerated but remained robust at 5.5 percent--about two and a half times the long-term average. Fiji's output surpassed pre-pandemic levels in 2023 despite a notable deceleration, with growth rates halving from 20 percent in 2022 to eight percent in 2023. The PIC-11, excluding Fiji, experienced a noteworthy rebound of 2.7 percent growth in 2023, after a 0.5 percent output contraction in 2022. The trajectory of accelerated and sustainable growth in Pacific Island countries depends on a workforce that is well educated and equipped with enhanced skills and capabilities. Boosting education and skills is essential for long-term growth and poverty reduction in the Pacific Island countries. While multiple factors influence learning, once a child enters school, teachers have the largest impact. A robust body of evidence guides policymakers in improving teaching quality and ensuring that all young children acquire strong foundational skills. This report outlines a three-pronged program of action based on this evidence: attracting and recruiting effective teachers, enhancing existing teachers' capacity, and motivating greater teacher effort. Recognizing that 54 percent of teachers expected to teach in 2035 are already recruited, the report emphasizes a special focus on enhancing the capacity of existing teachers. It provides examples of rigorously evaluated interventions, such as structured pedagogy and access to pre-recorded lectures by highly rated teachers. Implementing these recommendations will aid regional countries in accelerating learning, allowing children and societies to achieve their aspirations
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  • 49
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Financial Protection ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health Services ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; SDI ; Service Quality ; Systems and Tools ; Workforce
    Abstract: The Service Delivery Indicators (SDI) health survey in Moldova serves as a vital tool for assessing and benchmarking the performance of health service delivery. Its primary aim is to evaluate the quality of basic health services. This comprehensive evaluation enables both governments and service providers to pinpoint deficiencies and bottlenecks in health service delivery, monitor progress over time, and make cross-country comparisons. The widespread availability of and public awareness about SDI indicators foster engagement among policy makers, citizens, service providers, donors, and stakeholders, in turn driving efforts to enhance service quality and ultimately development outcomes
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Co-Evolutionary Framework ; Diversification ; Economic Growth ; ICT Policy and Strategies ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Principle Of Relatedness ; Technology-Based
    Abstract: This research examines the diversification process by conceptualizing a co-evolutionary framework linking production and technology. The study applies the framework to retrospectively explain Korea's successful diversification path and to Viet Nam to identify how the country could further diversify into complex and value-added products. The authors apply relatedness analysis leveraging patent and trade data and present four different types of diversification patterns, namely unrelated diversification, production-based diversification, technology-based diversification, and complex diversification. Developed countries including Korea shifted toward technology-based or complex diversification strategies as their economies developed. Using a simulated scenario approach, the report outlines potential future trajectories wherein Viet Nam attains technological capabilities. The result shows that Viet Nam can diversify into 233 products if it accumulates capabilities in the 12 identified technologies. The report concludes with policy lessons that could inform policy makers in Viet Nam as well as other developing economies. Namely, that the country would need to invest more intensively in technology and capabilities upgrading to diversify into new complex products and evolve its diversification strategy alongside its economic growth and capability building process
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  • 51
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Country Climate and Development Reports (CCDRs)
    Keywords: Adaptation To Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Finance ; Inlcusive Growth ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Resilience
    Abstract: This Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) examines Liberia's development trajectory through the lens of the country's vulnerability to climate change. It identifies Liberia's development risks and opportunities, models various scenarios of climate impact and intervention, and proposes ways to strengthen resilience and finance climate actions that support Liberia's development aspirations of inclusive growth and poverty reduction
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  • 52
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Mobility and Transport Connectivity
    Keywords: Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financing ; Infrastructure ; Mobility ; Road Pricing ; Transport ; Urban Development
    Abstract: The document is structured into five chapters. Chapter 2 provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical framework surrounding road pricing. It outlines the fundamental principles and characteristics of road pricing, while exploring the relationship between social equity and road pricing. Additionally, it addresses potential implementation challenges that may arise. The subsequent chapters offer summaries of international experiences in interurban pricing (Chapter.3) and urban pricing (Chapter 4). In the case of interurban pricing, a broad spectrum of approaches is examined, including traditional methods, concession tolls, and the latest trends in variable pricing within the European Union. Lastly, chapter 5 highlights the key trends in road pricing and provides recommendations based on the evidence presented throughout the document. This chapter serves to offer valuable insights for decision-makers, drawing from the comprehensive studies presented within the document
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