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  • 1
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Financial Sector Study
    Keywords: Equity ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Interventions ; Fiscal Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Policy Reforms
    Abstract: The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) is facing economic challenges. The country is experiencing a growth slowdown with high levels of public debt. Growing current expenditure and debt service obligations amid sluggish tax revenue led to a widening fiscal deficit in the early 2010s, which remained high into the 2020s despite fiscal consolidation efforts. COVID-19 and deteriorating macroeconomic conditions have disrupted human capital investment and are expected to have worsened the incidence of poverty and inequality. Fiscal policy can be an instrument to address these challenges, but its role has been constrained by a precarious fiscal position. This report analyzes the distributive effects of the Lao fiscal system and potential reforms to address current economic challenges. The analysis adopts the Commitment to Equity (CEQ) methodology to assess the distributional impact of the Lao fiscal system on household welfare. The methodology disaggregates income to include or exclude fiscal interventions to analyze the impact of the fiscal system and each intervention on poverty and inequality. Fiscal interventions can be classified into three categories according to how they are imposed on households: direct interventions (direct taxes, social security contributions, and cash transfers), indirect interventions (indirect taxes and subsidies), and in-kind interventions (public health and education). The framework assesses how progressive a fiscal system and each fiscal intervention are and measures their impacts on poverty and inequality
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  • 2
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    Keywords: Conflict and Development ; Damages ; Earthquake ; Environment ; Grade Methodology ; Herat Province ; Natural Disasters
    Abstract: Following the Herat province (Western Afghanistan) earthquake sequence of October 7 to 15, 2023, the World Bank carried out a remote desk-based assessment of the physical damages using the Global RApid post-disaster Damage Estimation (GRADE) methodology. The objective of the assessment is to develop a model-based estimate of the direct physical (economic) damages to residential buildings (houses), non-residential buildings (e.g., education, health, worship, commercial, industrial assets) and infrastructure (e.g., transport, power, water, telecommunications), and to evaluate the spatial distribution of damages in order to support the development of a roadmap for recovery and reconstruction. This report summarizes the key findings of the assessment
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  • 3
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (210 pages)
    Series Statement: International Debt Report
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als
    Keywords: Bonds ; Creditor ; Data ; Debt ; Debtor ; Developing ; Development ; Economic ; FDI ; Finance ; Foreign Direct Investment ; Government ; Interest Payments ; Interest Rates ; Loans ; Maturity ; Principal ; Private Sector ; Public Sector ; Statistics
    Abstract: The International Debt Report (IDR) is a longstanding annual publication of the World Bank featuring external debt statistics and analysis for the 122 countries that report to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System. IDR 2023 is the 50th annual edition and includes (1) analyses of external debt stocks and flows as of end-2022 for these countries; (2) the macroeconomic and debt outlook for 2023 and beyond; (3) a focus on improved public debt transparency and the quality of debt reporting; (4) a discussion of the need for innovative approaches to debt management; (5) a commentary on how the International Debt Statistics database serves as an indispensable resource for researchers and policy makers; and (6) a one-page snapshot of relevant debt indicators and summary of debt stocks and flows for six years (2010 and 2018-22) for each country, plus global income group and regional aggregates. Unique in its coverage of the important trends and issues fundamental to the financing of low- and middle-income countries, IDR 2023 is an indispensable resource for governments, economists, investors, financial consultants, academics, bankers, and the entire development community. For more information on IDR 2023 and related products, please visit the World Bank's Debt Statistics website at www.worldbank.org/debtstatistics
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  • 4
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Energy Study
    Keywords: Anchoring and Mooring ; Energy ; Energy Resources Development ; Energy Yield ; Environment ; Environment and Energy Efficiency ; Floating Solar Photovoltaics ; FSPV Ecosystem ; HSE ; Inverter ; Power Plants
    Abstract: This report builds a compelling case for India to look beyond land and institute an ecosystem that supports the installation and operationalization of floating solar photovoltaics (FSPV) power plants. Since these plants are installed on the underutilized surfaces of large water bodies, no land needs to be diverted from other uses. The installation of FSPVs also spurs job creation and catalyzes the development of a domestic value chain as some of the components, such as floaters, need to bemanufactured close to installation sites. They also provide a range of other benefits as they generate relatively more power than ground-mounted solar plants (due to the cooling effect of water) and better utilize shared infrastructure such as transmission systems, wherever available
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Social Analysis
    Keywords: Communicable Diseases ; Education ; Health Policy and Management ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Job Skills ; Labor Market Policy and Programs ; Reproductive Health ; Social Protections and Labor ; Social Safety Nets
    Abstract: The report is structured as follows. Chapter 1 discusses the labor market constraints facing different segments of the working-age population, which can inform how to make work attractive. Chapter 2 explores the factors that are discouraging older people from re-entering the labor market and the need to optimize pension design to promote healthier and longer working lives. Chapter 3 explores ways to enhance human capital formation through the lifecycle, starting with early childcare and education, followed by upper secondary school, secondary VET, tertiary education, TVET and adult training. Chapter 4 identifies the enabling conditions needed to ensure that net migration can have a positive impact on the growth of economic participation and productivity. Chapter 5 focuses on ways to leverage public-private partnerships to providetraining and activation services and on how ALMPs could best be used to increase labor market participation. Finally, Chapter 6 explores the role that social protection can play in stimulating participation in the labor market
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Decent Work and Economic Growth ; Early Childhood Education ; Education ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Primary Education ; Quality Education ; SDG 4 ; SDG 8
    Abstract: As Malaysia strives to become a high-income economy, the need for advanced and specialized skills will be crucial to maintain its economic competitiveness. Sophisticated skills, whether cognitive, technical or socio-emotional, are built on strong foundational skills. Malaysia has expanded early childhood education and achieved near universal primary education with remarkable equity in resources and student experiences. Part 1 of this Malaysia Economic Monitor (MEM) presents a review of recent economic developments and a macroeconomic outlook. Part 2 begins by outlining the learning outcomes challenge and identifying the bottlenecks that the Malaysian education system faces in improving learning outcomes. This section attempts to understand why overall learning outcomes in Malaysia are low relative to expectation, with low-income students doing especially poorly. Reflecting this, the special thematic topic identifies the steps that can be taken to improving foundational skills and learning outcomes in Malaysia
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  • 7
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Adolescent Girls ; Economic Growth ; Family Planning ; Gender ; Gender Equality ; Good Health and Well-Being ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Labor Markets ; Reproductive Health ; SDG 3 ; SDG 5
    Abstract: Adolescence is a dynamic period of biological development and social change, and also a period when adolescent girls are at risk of school dropout, early marriage, pregnancy, and gender-based violence. Adolescents have the highest unmet need for family planning in Bangladesh, and married adolescents have a significantly lower contraceptive prevalence rate than other age groups, leading to a high adolescent fertility rate. The Government of Bangladesh developed a national strategy for adolescent health 2017-2030 and a costed action plan to improve adolescent health, including sexual and reproductive health. The Strategy addresses overall health needs of adolescents, including menstrual hygiene management, prevention of violence and mental health. The Government of Bangladesh is currently implementing the 4th Health, Population and Nutrition Sector Program which includes support for a school-based adolescent health and nutrition program. Furthermore, programme implementers often work in silos and focus on single platforms, id est at the health facility, school, or community levels. Presently adolescents receive sexual and reproductive health information and services largely from private sector providers with variable quality
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Law and Justice Study
    Keywords: Discrimination ; Female ; Finance and Development ; Gender ; Genital Mutilation ; Human Rights ; Law and Development ; Violence Against Women ; Women's Rights
    Abstract: In 2012 and in 2018, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolutions urging the international community to intensify global efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). It also called upon "States, the United Nations system, civil society and all stakeholders to continue to observe 6 February as the International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM/C and to use the day to enhance awareness raising campaigns and to take concrete actions against female genital mutilations". FGM/C is an extreme type of violence against women and girls which impairs their development potential and impacts the societies in which they live and work, their children, their families and ultimately their countries. FGM/C also undermines the World Bank's efforts to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity. Women and girls affected by FGM/C may not be able to reach their full personal, productive and professional potential. FGM/C causes a large number of physical and psychological problems and complications and can even lead to death. It imposes unnecessary suffering and prolonged pain. The international community recognized that FGM/C is an important development challenge that affects more than 200 million women and girls in the world. Sustainable Development Goal 5 (SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls) includes a target on eliminating all harmful practices against women, such as female genital mutilation by 2030 (target 5.3). This eighth edition describes the international and regional instruments that address FGM/C as well as the national legislations adopted to outlaw FGM/C. This is a practical online tool to empower those fighting FGM/C
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  • 9
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Climate Change Impacts ; Employment Growth ; Fiscal Consolidation ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty Reduction ; Western Balkans
    Abstract: Economic growth in the Western Balkans slowed to 2.6 percent in 2023, from the 3.4 percent reached in 2022, reflecting the impact of a weak European economy weighed down by sequential shocks. Overall, the WB6 region has experienced a rise in total hours worked driven by employment growth and labor force expansion, especially driven by women joining the labor force. Poverty in the Western Balkans returned to its declining trend during 2023, but at a slower pace than pre-pandemic. A robust fiscal performance and solid rate of gross domestic product (GDP) growth led to a fall in debt as a share of GDP. After increasing to levels not seen in several decades, inflation rates in the WB6 fell significantly during 2023. Growth projections for the medium term have increased slightly, reflecting cautious optimism that, having weathered a flurry of shocks over recent years, the Western Balkans is beginning to see a return to trend economic performance. However, while the WB6 region is expected to return on its pre-pandemic trend in 2024, this is insufficient to enable meaningful convergence with European Union (EU) income levels over the medium term. The spotlight in this edition of the Western Balkans Regular Economic Report focuses on the role of cities as engines of growth and leading actor in the green transition. This spotlight recommends action on three main fronts to make cities in the Western Balkans greener. First, it is crucial to reduce urban sprawl and make cities more compact. Second, cities must bring down their emissions, also because this will have immediate improvement on socio-economic and environmental outcomes. And third, cities must take actions to reduce extreme urban heat and enhance preparedness for it
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  • 10
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Digital Finance ; Digital Government ; Digital Manufacturing ; Digitization ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Natural Resources Management
    Abstract: With only 16 years remaining to achieve Uganda's Vision 2040, the digital transformation of the land sector is critical to accelerating social well-being and economic growth. Uganda has made notable progress on land sector reforms, such as establishing the Uganda National Land Information System (UgNLIS) and piloting an approach for systematic demarcation. However, challenges persist. Low levels of registered properties, cumbersome processes for sporadic land registration, and incomplete support systems to enable data transparency and accessibility, all contribute to the persistently limited digitalization. These challenges are compounded by population growth and internal migration, which drive complex, competing demands for land and are likely to increase the prevalence of land-related conflicts in the future. Digital transformation can unlock Uganda's land sector by accelerating systematic demarcation, enabling maintenance of the land registry and helping to establish supporting systems for data transparency and informed decision-making. This note offers key recommendations to update the legal and policy framework for the land sector; standardize, digitalize, and scale the registration of land rights, and; advance establishment of National Spatial Data Infrastructure
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  • 11
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Agribusiness ; Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems ; Climate Change and Agriculture ; Macroeconomic Analysis of Economic Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Poverty ; Poverty Measurement ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Latin America and the Caribbean region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 12
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Disease Control and Prevention ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Health Economics and Finance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Public Sector Accounting Analysis ; Public Sector Accounting Management ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: The PULSE web-based tool facilitates the management of a PULSE assessment. Since the assessment process may take up to six months and involves many experts to perform tasks (like scoring and quality assurance), the PULSE Tool enables the process to be managed easily in a logical, methodical way. It guides the Assessment Team Leader and other experts through the assessment lifecycle such that no important step can be overlooked. The PULSE Tool is available 24*7 and also contains a communications module that keeps all the experts informed of progress. The PULSE Handbook contains all the details and definitions of the assessment process. This manual assumes that users are at least familiar with the handbook and the assessment process. In the introductory paragraphs that follow, important concepts that pertain to use of the PULSE Tool will be reiterated for the convenience of users
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  • 13
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Climate Action ; Communities and Human Settlements ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Life on Land ; Migration ; Migration Policies and Jobs ; SDG 13 ; SDG 15
    Abstract: The Dominican Republic (DR) is vulnerable to climate change and has a high rate of natural degradation. The DR shows evidence of significant human mobility flows of (i) internal migration, mainly rural to urban; and (ii) international cross-border migration, especially from Haiti. Given this context, the DR is an important place to study migration induced by the impacts of climate change and natural degradation. In this report, climate migration refers to migration that can be attributed largely to the slow-onset impacts of climate change on livelihoods through natural degradation such us shifts in water availability, crop productivity, ecosystem productivity, or to factors such as sea-level rise. This note builds upon previous studies undertaken regarding climate migration in the DR, and combines a quantitative modeling approach with a qualitative case study
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  • 14
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Impacts ; Economic Policy ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Green Growth
    Abstract: There is growing awareness globally about the potential impacts of climate change on financial stability. Climate-related financial risks can be broadly grouped into two categories: (i) climate physical risks, which are financial risks stemming from the gradual and abrupt impacts of climate change (primarily droughts and floods in the case of Morocco, as highlighted by the ongoing severe drought event and recent floods), and (ii) climate transition risks, which are financial risks that can result from the transition to a low-carbon economy, for example, due to changes in climate policy, technology, or market sentiment. The purpose of this report is to better understand the impact of these climate risks on Morocco's banking sector. This includes understanding the banking sector's exposure to sectors and regions that are vulnerable to climate physical and transition risks, as well as a quantification of climate impacts on banks' balance sheets under different scenarios. This report also takes stock of the Moroccan banking sector's current risk management practices and the supervisory response to climate-related financial risks
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  • 15
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Landscape Management ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Sector Development ; Public Sector Management
    Abstract: This guide presents the Landscape Governance Assessment Tool (LGAT) and the Decision Support System (DSS). It is intended for people addressing a variety of problems linked to forested landscapes, such as alleviating rural poverty, restoring degraded lands, meeting national climate commitments, or conserving biodiversity. The LGAT measures the strengths and weaknesses of governance in a forested landscape. Drawing on expert and stakeholder knowledge, the LGAT assesses the quality of governance and produces a summary rating, called the Landscape Governance Index (LGI). The tool can be used at many stages of a project, but it is primarily intended to provide an informed starting point for discussing and designing governance reforms. The DSS component creates a roadmap for reform by identifying priority areas, generating ideas for reform, and analyzing them to arrive at practical ways forward. Overall, the tool identifies reform pathways that have a good chance of making a difference in the landscape. The LGAT score demonstrates the need, while stakeholder and expert involvement in both the measurement and DSS steps shape and garner support for reforms. The DSS analysis screens the reforms to identify those likely to be practical and effective
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  • 16
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Agriculture Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Agribusiness ; Agricultural Finance ; Agriculture ; Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Climate Change Policy and Regulation ; Crops and Food Security ; Small and Medium Size Enterprises
    Abstract: Argentina's agrifood sector drives both prosperity and crisis. While agrifood generates essential foreign currency earnings, tax revenue and employment, the sector's vulnerability to external shocks can wreak havoc on the larger economy. This agriculture sector review addresses the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of Argentina's agrifood sector. The economic dimension is vital, due to the influence of agrifood productivity and its growth on Argentina's macroeconomy. The social, or inclusion, dimension highlights the potential to improve the livelihoods of the rural poor as well as access to affordable food for the urban poor. Finally, the environmental dimension examines the urgent need to increase the resilience of agricultural production systems and support their adaptation to climate change, as well as the agrifood sector's potential to mitigate climate change and other externalities. This summary report is based on a series of more detailed sectoral background papers and is aimed at public sector policymakers and other key stakeholders, with the goal of identifying potential reforms in public policies and programs and contributing to the development of a new shared vision for the Argentine agrifood sector
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Agribusiness ; Agricultural Finance ; Agriculture ; Gender and Economic Policy ; Gender and Social Policy ; Quality of Employment ; Social Conflict and Violence ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: In Burkina Faso, agriculture is the primary source of employment for the population, but it faces challenges due to low productivity and poor water management, exacerbated by the adverse effects of climate change. Increases in grain production have been achieved through the expansion of cultivated areas, thereby putting significant pressure on natural resources. At the policy level, agriculture has been identified as a priority sector for the transformation of Burkina Faso's economic structure as outlined in the Second National Plan for Economic and Social Development (PNDES II). At the institutional and organizational level, the implementation of the program budgeting since 2017, shifting from funds-based budgeting to outcome-based budgeting, aims at enhancing the efficiency of public expenditure by focusing on outcomes. The structure of the program budgeting includes more than twenty distinct budget programs. This large number of budget programs poses challenges in terms of coordination, optimization, and capitalization of public action in favor of the agricultural sector. In this context, the World Bank undertakes this third agriculture public expenditure review to help the Government of Burkina Faso produce evidence on the structure of public expenditures. In addition to the classic analysis of the efficiency of expenditure allocation, the efficiency of budget execution, as well as coordination, monitoring and evaluation, and accountability mechanisms in the sector, the report will examine the incidence and impact of public expenditures by analyzing four specific cases: (i) input subsidies, (ii) hydro-agricultural facilities and irrigation; (iii) agricultural finance, and (iv) expenditures allocated to forestry and natural resources
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  • 18
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Developing Countries ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; Inflation ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; No Poverty ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction ; SDG 1
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Sub-Saharan Africa region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product, and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 19
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Economic Development ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Macroeconomics ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; No Poverty ; Poverty ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Reduction ; SDG 1
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 20
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Blue Economy ; Employment and Unemployment ; Environment ; Industrial Management ; Labor Markets ; Maritime Space ; Natural Capital ; Sustainable Growth
    Abstract: With an accessible and attractive coastline of untouched natural splendor, Adriatic Croatia is a strategic driver of national economic development. It boasts rich cultural heritage and biodiversity and abundant coastal and marine resources providing the country with high socioeconomic value. A decade of strong growth of maritime tourism has fueled stable economic development in the coastal zone. Despite this progress, Adriatic Croatia faces multiple environmental challenges stemming from anthropogenic pressures and climate change. Negative impacts from over-tourism, urbanization, and pollution underline the urgency of adopting a sustainable maritime economy approach. The demographic decline and the lack of economic diversification could diminish future economic opportunities of Adriatic Croatia to grow sustainably and provide new jobs. The emerging challenges call for close attention in the context of the national development goals, sustainable development commitments and Croatia's aspiration to achieve blue growth. This report discusses the concept of blue economy while trying to understand and define the impacts of current challenges on the Republic of Croatia's transition to blue economy
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  • 21
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Economic Development ; Gross Domestic Product ; Macroeconomics ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; No Poverty ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Measurement ; Poverty Reduction ; Poverty, Environment and Development ; Public Sector Development ; SDG ; Suatainable Development Goals
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 22
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Agribusiness ; Climate Finance ; Forestry Management ; Governance ; Local Governance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Abstract: Local governments--especially cities and municipalities--in developing countries will be at the forefront of confronting and mitigating the impacts of climate change, and they need substantial financing to address this challenge. However, they often lack the fiscal resources for such investments. To address this financing gap, they will need to utilize a variety of financing sources and instruments. This joint publication of the World Bank and the UN Capital Development Fund aims to help cities and local governments better understand the various climate finance instruments and sources available to them, including intergovernmental fiscal transfers, own-source revenues, municipal borrowing (loans and bonds), public-private partnerships and credit-enhancement instruments such as guarantees. It provides information on each of these instruments - organized in a conceptual framework -- and highlights international experience and 18 case studies on their use from around the world. The report also recommends various actions that cities, local and national governments and development partners can take to increase access to these instruments to help meet climate investment needs in cities
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  • 23
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Capital Markets and Capital Flows ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Rural Development ; Urban Development
    Abstract: This study's aim was to assess the growing flood risk Sao Tome and Principe (STP) faces due to climate change. It achieved this by carrying out a nationwide risk assessment for riverine and coastal flooding. The study used recently completed high-resolution national flood hazard data for the present climate (2020) and two projected climates (in 2050 and 2080), based on the climate scenario Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP)3-7.0, a medium to high reference scenario resulting from no additional climate policy under the SSP3 socioeconomic development narrative. This flood risk assessment examines the potential impacts and risks to people, buildings, healthcare facilities, the education sector, and tourism under both present and future climate conditions. It shows that flood risk is driven frequent flood events. There is a significant increase of flood risk under future climate conditions
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education ; Bhutan ; Domestic Revenue Administration ; Early Childhood Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Policy ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public Expenditure Management
    Abstract: Despite Bhutan's distinctive geographical and economic challenges, Bhutan has maintained a relatively high average real GDP growth rate of 8.8 percent over FY00-01-FY09-10, which is greater than the average of South Asian countries as well as low and middle-income economies. Bhutan's mountainous topography and dense network of rivers offer vast hydropower potential, which the country has been harnessing since the mid-1980s with the commissioning of the Chhukha Hydropower Project in 1986. However, due to a slower rate of growth of hydropower capacity, real GDP growth in Bhutan declined over the last decade, averaging only 3.5 percent, which was lower than the growth rates of regional peers and middle-income economies. Bhutan maintained a relatively strong fiscal position prior to COVID, but the situation has deteriorated recently. Bhutan's revenue to GDP ratio averaged at around 30 percent of GDP over FY10-11 and FY21-22, supported by revenue from hydropower projects and sizable external grants. However, revenue was on a declining trend that was further exacerbated by the onset of COVID-19. The pandemic necessitated an expansionary fiscal stance and led to delays in the commissioning of new hydropower projects. In the aftermath of the pandemic, despite a rapid phasing out of extraordinary outlays and containment in current expenditures, the government continued to provide fiscal support to boost economic activity by frontloading the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP) covering 2018-2023, resulting in a rise in capital expenditure. Consequently, the fiscal deficit widened from around 2 percent in FY18-19 to 6.7 percent of GDP in FY20-21 and further to 8.4 percent in FY21-22, the highest in over a decade. A Fiscal Sustainability Analysis (FSA) based on the MTMF assumptions indicates that fiscal consolidation is critical to ensure fiscal sustainability. The fiscal situation significantly worsens if capital expenditures are maintained at current levels of 18.1 percent of GDP rather than reducing them to 10.2 percent in the medium term as assumed in the MTMF. The fiscal outlook depends crucially on the commissioning dates of the hydropower projects. Bhutan needs to prepare for contingent scenarios and create fiscal buffers that could protect the country from negative shocks
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  • 25
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Carbon Market ; Climate Change ; Digital Divide ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; ICT Applications ; Information Technology ; Private Sector Development ; Public Expenditure Management ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: Enterprises in Kenya encompass a diverse and dynamic landscape, representing a crucial driver of economic growth and employment opportunities in the country. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a pivotal role, contributing significantly to the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) and accounting for 90 percent of the labor force. Enterprises must scale their climate action to meet Kenya's climate mitigation and adaptation goals. However, the lack of funding has limited their contribution to the climate agenda. Debt constitutes most of enterprises' funding, but the price of debt remains very high and loan tenors are short. The availability of patient capital, including private equity, is also low. Carbon markets can be an important vehicle to support an enterprise's climate action. Crucially, carbon markets function as a source of non-debt, results-based financing that does not require prior assets or collateral, potentially enabling enterprises in Kenya that struggle to access other sources of climate finance to grow. Despite this potential and the government of Kenya's commitment to scale carbon markets, Kenya's participation in international carbon markets remains concentrated, with most credits issued by a handful of developers. Many enterprises also have limited understanding on how they should develop and monetize carbon credits. The purpose of this guidebook is therefore to provide practical step-by-step guidance to help enterprises navigate the complex and fast-evolving landscape of carbon markets
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  • 26
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Policy Notes
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Economic Growth and Planning ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Poverty Reduction
    Abstract: Pakistan is at a critical decision point. While there have been recent important examples of reform progress, economic policies over past years and decades have had overall negative impacts on sustainability, productivity, and investment. As Pakistan has fallen behind its peers, progress with poverty reduction has ceased. Human development outcomes remain dire, while the benefits of growth have accrued disproportionately to a narrow elite. Amid continued rapid population growth and a youth bulge, a growing number of young Pakistanis are frustrated by the lack of opportunities, with prospects for young women especially bleak. Pakistan is among the countries most impacted by climate change, and recent events, including the 2022 floods, have highlighted the urgent need for investment in climate resilience. The economy is now, again, sustained by a short-term International Monetary Fund (IMF) program, inflation is at record highs, the rupee has depreciated sharply, while foreign exchange reserves remain at uncomfortably low levels. Recent policy measures (including the restoration of exchange rate flexibility, subsidy reforms, and movements towards fiscal constraint) have supported economic stabilization, but the underpinning drivers of Pakistan's economic fragility remain to be addressed. This note presents critical policy shifts required to move beyond the current low equilibrium towards sustainable and inclusive economic development and poverty reduction. This note summarizes the accompanying series of policy notes. It: (i) outlines Pakistan's current development challenge; (ii) identifies the critical constraints to faster development progress; (iii) describes the major policy shifts that will be required to address current constraints; and (iv) presents broad principles to guide implementation of required reforms
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  • 27
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Equitable Growth, Finance and Institutions Insight
    Keywords: Anti-Corruption ; Beneficial Ownership Registers (BOR) ; Education Reform and Management ; Governance ; Law and Development ; Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions ; Primary Education ; Property and Land Law ; SDG 16
    Abstract: This EFI Insight distills critical insights from the implementation of Beneficial Ownership Registers (BORs) in Nigeria, North Macedonia, Kenya, and the United Kingdom. The experiences of these countries offer valuable lessons for similar reform efforts worldwide aimed at enhancing beneficial ownership transparency
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  • 28
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Education Equity ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal Policies ; Infrastructure Economics ; Private Sector Management ; Public Finance Management ; Regional Urban Development ; Renewable Energy ; Sustainable Land Management
    Abstract: This report presents a review of the intergovernmental fiscal transfer reforms program (IGFTRP) and its performance since 2015, as part of a broader Public Expenditure Review (PER) that aimed to explore avenues for improving efficiency effectiveness in cross cutting areas of service delivery. The report is based on extensive documentary review, analysis of available data on local government (LG) finances, fieldwork in selected LGs and consultations with national ministries, departments, and agencies (MDAs) involved in the management of the IGFTRP. Ministry of Finance, Planning, and Economic Development (MoFPED) provided data in various forms, and some data was publicly available at its website. It also includes data analysis on aspects of LG financing outside the IGFTRP system, but with implications to its delivery. These aspects include LG Own Source Revenues (OSR), Other Government Transfers (OGT) and External Finance that are captured by LG budgets and reports (available on the MoFPED website)
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  • 29
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Fiscal Measures ; Innovative Entrepreneurship ; Labor Market ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Real and Intellectual Property Law ; SDG 8 ; Social Protections and Labor ; Tax Law
    Abstract: Viet Nam's economy slowed sharply in 2023, with three key drivers of growth -- exports, consumption, and private domestic investment -- is losing momentum. On the production side, the slowdown was led by industrial production. In the first quarter of 2024, the economy registered 5.66 percent (y/y) growth, mostly driven by the low base effect in exports, with consumption and investment recovering more gradually. Employment growth slowed and real average monthly incomes stagnated. Viet Nam's external position improved in 2023, underpinned by a large current account surplus. Viet Nam needs to increase domestic private sector productivity to realize its ambitious target of becoming a high-income country by 2045, and innovative entrepreneurship is essential to drive this growth. Improving the conditions for entry and growth of innovative startups, through development of a conducive entrepreneurial ecosystem, can help build a pipeline of highly productive firms in new and established sectors
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  • 30
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Energy Resources Development ; Financial Reporting System ; Governance ; Governance and Growth ; Governance in Public Sector ; Industry ; Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Natural Resources Management ; Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions ; SDG 16 ; SDG 9 ; State-Owned Enterprises
    Abstract: This report is part of a World Bank review of state-owned enterprise (SOE) governance practices in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The focus on governance is motivated by research pointing to good governance as an important precondition for successful and sustainable SOE reform. This report summarizes findings of six SOE governance reviews of Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, and Tunisia, while also drawing on other regional studies. The six country reports, as well as this cross-cutting report, concentrate on the core dimensions of corporate governance of SOEs as identified in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for Corporate Governance of SOEs, and the World Bank's Integrated SOE Framework (iSOEF). These include: (i) the legal and regulatory framework for corporate governance; (ii) state ownership arrangements; (iii) performance management frameworks; (iv) Board structures and functioning; (v) financial reporting, accountability, control, and transparency; (vi) procurement policies and practices; and (vii) climate change reporting practices. The report also provides an overview of the SOE landscape in terms of the size, composition, employment, subsidies, and financial risks of the SOE sectors
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  • 31
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Developing Countries ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; Gender and Health ; Gender and Law ; Gender and Social Policy ; International Law ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; No Poverty ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction ; SDG 1
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the South Asia region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: CHVA ; Climate Change ; Climate Change Adaptation ; Environment ; Finance and Development ; Health Risks ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Vulnerability
    Abstract: Due to global warming, the climate in most regions, especially Africa, is predicted to become more variable, and extreme weather events are expected to be more frequent and severe. These include increasing risks of droughts, flooding, and inundation due to sea-level rise in the continent's coastal areas, potentially reducing economic prospects and national development. It will be imperative for countries to mitigate and adapt to these changing climatic conditions. To succeed, the potential impacts of climate change and variability must be identified along with the country's capacity to adapt and the means to overcome barriers to successful adaptation. This climate and health vulnerability assessment (CHVA) aims to assist decision-makers in Ghana with planning effective adaptation measures to deal with climate-related health risks. The report identifies the impact of climate risks on health and health systems, the adaptive capacities in place to deal with these risks, and the gaps in the adaptive capacities. It also provides recommendations to close the identified gaps. The report adopts the World Health Organization's (WHO) operational framework for building climate-resilient health systems to analyze Ghana's adaptive capacity to adequately deal with current and future identified health risks of climate change
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  • 33
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: General Economy, Macroeconomics, and Growth Study
    Keywords: Early Childhood Development ; Economic Development ; Industry ; Infrastructure ; Nautical Tourism ; Primary Education ; Tourism ; Yacht Tourism
    Abstract: The study aims to determine the opportunity for Cabo Verde in yacht tourism and provide investment and policy recommendations for Cabo Verde to achieve its potential in this sector. Cabo Verde is a relative newcomer in the yacht tourism industry. With only one marina in the country, the industry is still nascent. Still, there is opportunity for Cabo Verde to grow and succeed in yacht tourism. In this context, a team of yacht and marine tourism expects conducted this research study looking at: (i) demand for yacht tourism globally; (ii) current state of infrastructure, policy and marketing in Cabo Verde to support said demand; and (iii) international case studies of competitive destinations who have captured more of the yachting market
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Urban Study
    Keywords: Affordable and Clean Energy ; Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance ; Energy ; Environment ; Environment and Natural Resource Management ; Industrial Management ; Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure ; Infrastructure Economics and Finance ; Land Assets ; Life on Land ; Rural Development ; SDG 11 ; SDG 15 ; SDG 7 ; SDG 9 ; Sustainable Cities and Communities ; Urban Development
    Abstract: This Guidance Note represents a call to action, dedicated to enhancing access to land and unlocking the full potential of land assets for urban and infrastructure development, as well as renewable energy investments. It not only underscores the importance of improving land access but also highlights the pathways towards leveraging land assets, creating value, and capturing its dividends
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  • 35
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Health Study
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Health Service Delivery ; Health Service Management and Delivery ; Health Systems and Policies ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; Human Development and Gender ; Natural Disasters ; Reproductive and Maternal Health
    Abstract: There are multiple obstacles to use of health information systems (HISs) in Yemen, including fragmented systems, insufficient infrastructure, a lack of skilled personnel, and the absence of standardized registries with identical terminology and coding. The absence of unified strategic visions1, standards, vocabulary, and terminologies further complicate the situation. Despite these challenges, Yemen has made strides in implementing various HIS with support from international partners, including the most widely used--the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2), for routine health data collection and analysis. However, it should be noted that the DHIS2 is not intended to serve as an electronic medical record (EMR) system in Yemen. This note underscores the potential of digital health solutions in transforming Yemen's HIS. Introduction of a Digital Health Platform (DHP), designed to enhance the interoperability and integration of current and future HIS, is an opportunity for Yemen. The DHP helps improve data governance, management, and usage by encouraging the efficient use of digital health standards and open-source tools. A gradual, flexible, and demand-driven approach is encouraged, emphasizing the integration of existing HIS. Recognizing challenges and opportunities around HIS in Yemen, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPHP) intends to effectively utilize digital solutions to foster greater improvements in HIS governance, architecture. The MoPHP intends to establisha foundational blueprint that can be synergized with the DHP and other proposed digitalhealth solutions, thereby accelerating the pace of implementation and ensuring a cohesiveapproach to health care transformation
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  • 36
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Environment ; Inflation ; Macroeconomic Analysis of Economic Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; No Poverty ; Poverty and Climate Change ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Poverty Measurement ; Poverty Reduction ; SDG ; Sustainanble Development Goals
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 37
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Education Study
    Keywords: Access To Education ; Economic Development ; Economic Forecasting ; Education ; Education Governance ; Inflation ; Public Sector Development
    Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the benefits of investing in early childhood education (ECE) for human capital development and economic growth, which lays the foundation for cognitive development, socioemotional skills, and lifelong learning. Recognition of the need to expand participation in preschool education in the Philippines is increasing. In response to the increasing demand for ECE, the Philippine Development Plan (PDP) 2023-2028 aims to increase the participation rate in early learning programs of children aged 0 to 4 years from 16 percent to 63 percent by 2028. The current National System for Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) aims to promote the holistic development of children aged 0 to 4 years throughout the country. this report focuses specifically on center-based ECE programs for 3 to 4-year-old children to demonstrate that gaps and opportunities still remain in ECE service provision in this setting and age group. Chapter 1 discusses the early education system in the Philippines. Chapter 2 presents case studies on the implementation of ECE programs at the local government unit (LGU) level. Chapter 3 presents country case studies of Malaysia, Indonesia, and Peru from which the Philippines may derive lessons in ECE implementation. Finally, the report summarizes key findings and policy recommendations submitted for the consideration of the Philippine government
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  • 38
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Infrastructure Study
    Keywords: Digital Divide ; Digital Finance ; Digitalization ; ICT Applications ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Information Technology
    Abstract: Jamaica's progress in digital transformation is paving the way for a foundational change in how the economy and society operate and create value. This report serves as input to guide Jamaica's digital transformation strategy, in line with the country's aspirations and its Vision 2030 National Development Plan. The report is based on the World Bank's Digital Economy Assessment methodology, which analyzes the digital economy across six pillars: digital infrastructure, digital public platforms, digital financial services, digital businesses, digital skills, and trust environment. It examines the current state of Jamaica's digital ecosystem, including its strengths and weaknesses, and outlines a set of priority actions for the GOJ to accelerate its digital transformation. The report also provides a comprehensive set of recommendations that the GOJ may consider incorporating into its short- and medium-term policy and budget planning cycles to leverage digital technologies across the six pillars outlined above. Although the implementation of some of the recommendations entails new legislation or regulation, many actions can be pursued without legal changes. The report organizes the findings of the six pillars into three main digital economy work streams that have an impact on the overall economy or that can be implemented across different sectors: the digital economy enabling environment, digital public infrastructure and platforms, and digital skills and technology adoption
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  • 39
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Public Sector Study
    Keywords: Civil Registration ; Digital Societies ; Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; Environment ; Governance ; Identification Systems ; Information and Communication Technologies ; Sustainable Development
    Abstract: The World Bank Group's Identification for Development (ID4D) Initiative harnesses global and cross sectoral knowledge, World Bank financing instruments, and partnerships to help countries realize the transformational potential of identification (ID) systems, including civil registration (CR). The aim is to enable all people to exercise their rights and access better services and economic opportunities in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. This is especially important as countries transition to digital economies, digital governments, and digital societies, where inclusive and trusted means of verifying identity are essential to ensure accessibility and data protection
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  • 40
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth Diagnostics ; Labor Diagnostics ; Macroeconomic Analysis of Economic Development ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public and Municipal Finance
    Abstract: Bhutan's economy has recovered from the series of shocks resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and Russia's invasion of Ukraine. After experiencing contractions of 2.5 percent and 3.3 percent in FY19/20 and FY20/21, respectively, the economy exhibited signs of recovery in subsequent years. As pandemic-related relief measures were gradually phased out and capital expenditures moderated, the fiscal deficit saw a decline in FY22/23. Borders were open for tourists in September 2022, though tourists' arrivals remained below the pre-COVID level. In December 2023, Bhutan achieved the milestone of graduating from the United Nations (UN) least developed country (LDC) status. Yet, the country faces several macroeconomic challenges. Fiscal deficit is widening due to slowdown in revenue and increase in current expenditure. The national investment in cryptocurrency mining operations resulted in a significant decline of international reserves and a widening of the current account deficit (CAD) due to imports of information technology (IT) equipment and related goods for cryptocurrency mining. Going forward, a fiscal consolidation to keep the fiscal deficit and public debt at a sustainable level and improvement in the external balances would be important to achieve Bhutan's medium to long term goals
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  • 41
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Environmental Study
    Keywords: Adolescent Health ; Affordable and Clean Energy ; Circular Business Models ; Climate Sustainability ; Economic Sustainability ; Energy ; Environment ; Family Planning Research ; Gender and Health ; Life on Land ; Power Systems ; Reproductive Health ; SDG 7 ; Vanadium
    Abstract: This report examines the potential of circular business models for vanadium, focusing on the leasing model for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFB). VRFBs are posited to become increasingly significant in the decarbonization of power systems due to their unique attributes as a grid-scale energy storage solution--characterized by long duration, modularity, and site independence. While the report does not delve into the technological advancements or energy-specific applications of VRFBs, it does underscore their economic and climate sustainability benefits. Additionally, the report discusses how innovative business models, particularly leasing, can overcome the challenge of high initial costs and promote broader adoption of VRFBs. The leasing model is presented as one of several feasible strategies to facilitate the deployment of VRFBs in the energy storage market
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  • 42
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other Poverty Study
    Keywords: Debt Indicators ; Developing Countries ; Economic Growth ; Fiscal Indicators ; GDP ; Inflation ; Living Standards ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; No Poverty ; Poverty Indicators ; Poverty Reduction ; Public Sector Development ; SDG 1
    Abstract: This edition of the Macro Poverty Outlooks periodical contains country-by-country forecasts and overviews for GDP, fiscal, debt and poverty indicators for the developing countries of the Europe and Central Asia region. Macroeconomic indicators such as population, gross domestic product and gross domestic product per capita, and where available, other indicators such as primary school enrollment, life expectancy at birth, total greenhouse gas emissions and inflation, among others, are included for each country. In addition to the World Bank's most recent forecasts, key conditions and challenges, recent developments and outlook are briefly described for each country in the region
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  • 43
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: World Bank Gender Thematic Policy Notes Series
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases ; Economic Development ; Fragility, Conflict and Violence ; Gender ; Gender and Economic Development ; Gender and Employment ; Poverty Diagnostics ; Private Sector Development ; Social Development
    Abstract: Fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) significantly impact women and girls, exacerbating gender-based violence and limiting access to rights and services due to weakened institutions. Positive changes can emerge from crises, providing opportunities to reshape social norms and empower women. Achieving gender equality in these settings requires tailored approaches that consider local dynamics and involve influential non-state actors. The World Bank Group's experience suggests that partnerships, strengthened laws, and inclusive policies can enhance outcomes. Sustainable progress demands increased investment, innovation in data collection, and collaboration among governments, NGOs, and the private sector to address these complex challenges effectively
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  • 44
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Other ESW Reports
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Matching Grants ; Mutual Funds ; Science and Technology Development ; Tech Incubator Program for Startup ; Technology Innovation ; Tips
    Abstract: This report investigates the case of a Korean public-private matching grant program called the Tech Incubator Program for Startup (TIPS). Launched in 2013, the program provides a package of support to selected startups, including matching grant for research and development (R and D) and mentorship, for up to three years. After ten years in operation, TIPS is particularly well suited to answer the question of whether public funding can help startups innovate and subsequently improve their performance. Using a dataset that includes 1,650 startups that applied for TIPS between 2013 and 2020, this research analyzes the effects of TIPS on recipients' performance and offers empirical evidence to inform entrepreneurship policy. The results show that TIPS positively affected startup performance one year after selection in terms of innovation input and output, although it did not have a significant effect on revenue or research collaboration activities. The report concludes with five lessons derived from Korea's policy experience in designing and implementing TIPS: (i) a well-designed coordination mechanism may serve as a viable public-private partnership model for fostering innovative startups, (ii) a co-investment model can crowd in private investment and achieve a multiplier effect by reducing the risk of investment in early-stage startups, (iii) complementary supports that target different stages of the startup lifecycle are needed, (iv) patient capital and continuity in entrepreneurial policy with a long-term view are key to nurturing a vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystem, and (v) constant engagement with beneficiaries through data collection and monitoring enables the development of a dynamic monitoring and evaluation mechanism
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  • 45
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Growth ; Gender ; Gender and Development ; Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Saudi Arabia ; Women ; Women and Labor
    Abstract: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) economies have been a bright spot in an otherwise gloomy economic landscape. Average growthin the GCC surpassed 7 percent in 2022 led by Saudi Arabia, its biggest economy, which was globally the fastest growing large economy. This growth was not just a result of buoyant hydrocarbon prices but also continued growth of non-oil sectors. The latter was the result of persistent structural reforms undertaken by several GCC countries to improve the investment environment, promote flexible labor markets, and encourage women to join the labor market. GCC countries have used the windfall revenues from oil and gas to rebuild their buffers, pay down their debt, and shore-up their sovereign wealth funds. They have also sought to protect their vulnerable populations with continued subsidies on food, fuel, and utilities. Such policies have limited the impact of inflation on the domestic economy. Finally, GCC countries have also used their financial muscle to support economically weaker countries in the region. The stellar growth of 2022 is slowing down and growth is expected to moderate to 1 percent in 2023 before picking up again to 3.6 percent in 2024. The decline in economic activity in 2023 is driven by consecutive production cut decisions by OPEC+ in an effort to stabilize global oil prices. However, non-oil GDP continues its growth trajectory reaching 3.9 percent, resulting weaker integration between oil and non-oil sectors. To maintain this track record, GCC countries will need to continue to exercise prudent macroeconomic management, stay the course with structural reforms, and increase non-oil exports. Downside risks remain and it would be amiss not to mention them. The conflict in the Middle East presents major risks to the region and the GCC outlook if it extends or expands to include other regional players. While it is too early to quantify the impact and channels of the conflict, we already witness a 4 percentsurge in global oil futures. Although China is bouncing back after emerging from tight Covid-19 lockdowns, troubles in the real estate sector could still disrupt this trajectory. Persistent high inflation in the world's major economies has not been entirely vanquishedsuggesting a high interest rate environment for a longer period. Windfall revenues are anticipated as a result of higher oil prices driven by the conflict in the Middle East. However, the extent and duration of the conflict will play a pivotal role in determining economicramifications not only on energy markets but also on regional financial and trade markets and overall economic confidence. The Special Focus section of the report discusses the power of structural reforms and social norms in advancing female labor force participation in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia experienced an unprecedented surge in female labor force participation since 2016 as a result of: (i) changing regulations and the removal of legal barriers, shifting social norms, (ii) the implementation of sound structural reforms and (iii) effective government communications. Saudi Arabia's success in increasing female labor force participation from 17.4 percent in 2017 to 36 percent in 2023 offers important lessons to other countries in the region and the world
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  • 46
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Economic Forecasting ; Economic Growth ; FDI ; Foreign Direct Investment ; FX ; Import Bans ; Improved Welfare ; Inflation ; International Economics and Trade ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Oil Flows ; Private Sector Credit
    Abstract: Important reform decisions have been taken for Nigeria to avoid a fiscal cliff, and temporary compensation is being provided to help the poorest and most vulnerable households. In May and June 2023, the incoming administration undertook two critical policy decisions, which have resulted in price and exchange rate adjustments in the second half of the year. Targeted cash transfers are helping to cushion the adjustment to higher gasoline prices. On fiscal policy, budget planning for the next several years is consistent with sustaining the fiscal savings from the subsidy reform and mobilizing more revenues. However, the reforms are yet to be completed to fully realize the economic benefits. The FX market has remained volatile and is still in a period of continuing adjustment to the new policy approach. Revenue gains from the FX reform are visible, but more clarity is needed on oil revenues, including the fiscal benefits from the PMS subsidy reform. The economic outlook for Nigeria in the short to medium term hinges on the continuation and effectiveness of its macroeconomic stabilization agenda. Successful implementation of the initiated reforms will be the first step toward improving Nigeria's growth prospect. Moving decisively onto a higher long-term growth and poverty reduction path requires not only a stable macroeconomic environment but also concerted structural reforms
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  • 47
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Economic Updates and Modeling
    Keywords: Adaptation to Climate Change ; Climate Change ; Environment ; Food Security ; Fragile Recovery ; Pollitical Challenges ; Water Resources ; Water Security
    Abstract: Somalia has remained on a strong economic reform path despite the various global and exogenous shocks that have continued to buffet the economy. Recurrent climate-related shocks, such as cycles of droughts, floods, locusts' infestation, higher international commodity prices, as well as increased insecurity and conflict, have interrupted the country's growth trajectory. However, this has not deterred the country's commitment to continue advancing reforms to strengthen key economic institutions and promote macroeconomic stability and recovery. As a result, Somalia has continued to make progress toward meeting the conditions for achieving the heavily indebted poor country (HIPC) completion point in December 2023. Within the framework of resilience, the eighth edition of the World Bank's Somalia economic update series provides an in-depth analysis of recent economic developments and growth outlook and makes a case for integrating climate change with Somalia's growth agenda. This report highlights macroeconomic policies and reforms that promote inclusive growth and institutional building including enhancing fiscal space for development priorities while strengthening expenditure controls; strengthening financial integrity; integrating Somalia into the global financial system; and improving debt management
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  • 48
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: Finance and Development ; Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Financial Support ; IDA ; Jobs ; Labor Markets ; Reform ; Social Protections and Labor
    Abstract: This evaluation is the first stage of the Independent Evaluation Group's assessment of the World Bank's support for more, better, and more inclusive jobs through International Development Association (IDA) financing, and it assesses the implementation of IDA-supported interventions directly supporting its jobs objectives across the three Replenishment cycles from fiscal years 2015 to 2022. Supporting the creation of more, better, and more inclusive jobs is critical towards achieving the goals of poverty reduction and shared prosperity in countries. This is especially true for countries that are eligible for International Development Association (IDA) financing. Since 2014, IDA has included jobs as a special theme, and subsequent IDA replenishments have had what this evaluation calls an 'IDA jobs strategy.' This strategy included explicit objectives, a series of policy commitments to achieve them, and results indicators to track them. This evaluation represents the first stage of the Independent Evaluation Group's assessment of the World Bank's performance in supporting more, better, and more inclusive jobs through IDA financing. It assesses the implementation of IDA-supported interventions that directly supported its jobs objectives across the three Replenishment cycles from fiscal years 2015 to 2022. The evaluation answers two questions: (i) To what extent IDA's strategy on jobs was grounded in sound analytics, adaptive, and operationally relevant (ii) To what extent the strategy has been translated into relevant and effective jobs interventions that directly address the objectives of more, better, and more inclusive jobs The scope of the evaluation is limited to the three main channels for achieving IDA jobs objectives: acting on labor demand, increasing labor supply, and improving labor market flexibility and geographic mobility. The report offers recommendations for further strengthening of the IDA jobs agenda towards the objective of supporting more, better, and more inclusive jobs
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  • 49
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: IEG Independent Evaluations and Annual Reviews
    Keywords: IDA ; Private Investment ; Private Sector ; Private Sector Development ; Private Sector Economics ; Private Sector Window (PSW)
    Abstract: The private sector is essential for creating jobs and prosperity in poor countries, but developing it is challenging, especially in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS). The IDA Private Sector Window (PSW) is a blended finance facility that enables the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and third-party private sector investors to conduct high-risk transactions in International Development Association (IDA) countries and FCS countries. This evaluation aims to assess the usage, market development potential, and enabling factors of the PSW. The evaluation assesses how the usage of the PSW has changed from its inception in 2017 to 2023 and explores its potential market development effects and its enabling factors, namely concessionality (for IFC and MIGA) and additionality (for IFC). Concessionality is the level of subsidy needed for IFC and MIGA to offer transactions in PSW-eligible countries at market prices. Additionality is the unique support IFC brings to private investments (on a project basis) that is not offered by commercial sources of finance. It comprises financial and nonfinancial additionality. This evaluation assesses the PSW across three IDA cycles: IDA18, which covers FY18-20; IDA19, which covers FY21-22; and IDA20, which covers FY23-25. It updates the 2021 IEG early-stage assessment of the PSW (FY18-20) and complements the IDA20 PSW Mid-Term Review, which was prepared jointly by IDA, IFC, and MIGA
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Washington, D.C : The World Bank
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Public Expenditure Review
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development ; Fiscal and Monetary Policy ; Macroeconomic Performance ; Macroeconomics and Economic Growth ; Public and Municipal Finance ; Public Expenditure ; Public-Private Partnership ; Revenue Mobilization ; State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs)
    Abstract: The Lao PDR is facing unprecedented macroeconomic challenges, which jeopardize hard-won development gains. Over the past two decades, the country attracted considerable foreign investment and fostered regional integration, which contributed to a long period of high economic growth. Many human development indicators improved during the period 2000-2019, including child and maternal mortality, school enrolment, income poverty, and gender equity. However, economic growth was predominantly driven by large-scale investments in capital intensive sectors, such as mining and hydropower, which created few jobs and entailed environmental costs. Moreover, many public investments were financed by external debt, gradually jeopardizing debt sustainability and macroeconomic stability. Long-standing structural vulnerabilities have been exacerbated by the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and adverse global macroeconomic conditions. Since 2021, the national currency has depreciated considerably, and inflation soared. This has had a large negative impact on living standards, with many households struggling to cope. Meanwhile, limited spending on education, health, and social protection is undermining human capital and thus economic growth prospects. Significant debt pressures, especially short-term external liquidity constraints, have pushed the country into debt distress. This Public Finance Review identifies priority reforms to restore macroeconomic stability and boost prosperity. The objective of this review is to assess recent macro-fiscal performance, evaluate emerging fiscal risks, and propose policy reforms to secure fiscal sustainability, restore macroeconomic stability, and promote shared prosperity. This report is comprised of five chapters covering the main aspects of fiscal management: chapter 1 evaluates recent macroeconomic performance while placing fiscal policy in the broader macroeconomic context. Chapter 2 assesses domestic revenue mobilization efforts and scope for reforms to enhance tax collection. Chapter 3 investigates the size and composition of public expenditure, as well as measures to increase its efficiency and effectiveness. Chapter 4 discusses reforms of state-owned enterprises with a view to improving their financial performance, operational management, and corporate governance. Chapter 5 documents the experience with public-private partnerships and provides recommendations to maximize value for money and reduce fiscal risks
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  • 51
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Series Statement: Health Sector Review
    Keywords: Health Insurance ; Health Monitoring and Evaluation ; Health, Nutrition and Population ; KIRIBATI ; PHP ; PHPCPI ; Vital Signs Profile
    Abstract: The assessment of Kiribati's primary health care (PHC) system, carried out by the World Bank in collaboration with the Government of Kiribati under the Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI), marks a unique opportunity to identify the system's strengths and gaps and to catalyze further improvements. The PHCPI tools, including the Vital Signs Profile (VSP) methodology, provide important insights into the country's PHC system and generate actionable policy recommendations for improvement
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