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  • 1
    Language: German
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (86 Seiten)
    Dissertation note: Masterarbeit Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 2023
    DDC: 300
    Keywords: Hochschulschrift ; Elternzeit ; BEEG ; Geschlechtergleichstellung ; Bildungsungleichheiten ; Sequenzanalyse ; Masterarbeit ; Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin ; Sozialwissenschaften ; parental leave ; gender equality ; educational inequalities ; sequence analysis ; social sciences ; Masterthesis ; Humboldt University Berlin ; Sozialwissenschaften
    Abstract: Mit der Einführung des Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeitgesetz (BEEG) im Jahr 2007 wurde der Familienpolitik in Deutschland ein Paradigmenwechsel bescheinigt, da erstmals Individuen an die Stelle von Familien in den Fokus der Unterstützungsmaßnahmen rückten. Aus der Familienforschung liegen bereits einhellige Befunde vor. Zwar kann das BEEG zur Förderung der Geschlechtergleichstellung beitragen, doch seine einkommensabhängige Ausgestaltung verträgt sich eher weniger mit den Voraussetzungen einer sozialen Gerechtigkeit. Die hier vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit zwei zentralen Forschungsfragen. Zum einen soll mithilfe der Multichannel Sequence Analysis (MCSA) untersucht werden, ob sich werdende Mütter in ihren drei Jahre lang beobachteten Erwerbsverläufen mehr, weniger oder gleichermaßen den Erwerbsverläufen ihrer Partner annähern. Zum anderen wird die Hypothese überprüft, ob bei Müttern eine höhere Bildung mit einer privilegierten BEEG-Wirksamkeit einhergeht. Für diesen zweiten Forschungsaspekt der Arbeit wird die Methode der multi-nomialen logistischen Regression herangezogen. Um beide Fragestellungen bearbeiten zu können, werden die Längsschnittdaten des Soziookonomischen Panels (SOEP) genutzt und in zwei Zeitepochen (1990–2006; 2007–2018) unterteilt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen zunehmend heterogene Frauenerwerbsverläufe. Rückläufigen Berufsausstiegs- und Hausfrauenmuster sowie die deutlich vermehrte Übergänge in Teilzeitbeschäftigungen erfahren Frauen nahezu exklusiv. Dabei erhöht ein hohes bis mittleres Bildungsniveau die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer zeitigen und planbaren Erwerbsrückkehr. Damit kann dem BEEG einerseits zugestanden werden, die richtige Richtung in der Geschlechterangleichung vorzugeben. Andererseits gilt es, identifizierte Schwachstellen in der Sozialverträglichkeit des Gesetzes anzuerkennen und zugunsten von Müttern mit geringerer Bildung auszubessern.
    Abstract: The introduction of the Federal Parental Allowance and Parental Leave Act (Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeitgesetz, BEEG) in 2007 marked a paradigm shift in family policy in Germany, as for the first time individuals took the place of families as the focus of support policies. There are already consistent findings from family research. Although the BEEG can contribute to the promotion of gender equality, its income-dependent design is rather less compatible with the requirements of social justice. This paper addresses two central research questions. First, it uses multichannel sequence analysis to investigate whether mothers-to-be converge more, less, or equally to their partners' employment trajectories in their three-year observed employment trajectories. Second, the hypothesis is tested whether mothers with higher education experience a privileged BEEG effectiveness. For this second research aspect of the paper, the method of multinomial logistic regression is used. To address both questions, lon-gitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) are used and divided into two time epochs (1990-2006; 2007-2018). The results show increasingly heterogeneous female employment trajectories. Declining career exit and housewife patterns, as well as significant-ly increased transitions to part-time employment, are experienced almost exclusively by women. At the same time, a high to medium level of education increases the probability of a prompt and predictable return to the labor force. Thus, on the one hand, the BEEG can be credited with setting the right direction in gender equalization. On the other hand, it is important to recognize identified weaknesses in the social compatibility of the law and to remedy them in favor of mothers with lower levels of education.
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin : Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
    In:  American sociological review 88,2023,2, Seiten 220-251
    ISSN: 0003-1224 , 0003-1224
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (32 Seiten)
    Titel der Quelle: American sociological review
    Publ. der Quelle: Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage
    Angaben zur Quelle: 88,2023,2, Seiten 220-251
    DDC: 300
    Keywords: cultural change ; life course ; panel data ; attitudes ; mixed-effects models ; Sozialwissenschaften
    Abstract: Prior literature finds stability in personal culture, such as attitudes and values, in individuals’ life courses using short-running panel data. This work has concluded that lasting change in personal culture is rare after formative early years. This conclusion conflicts with a growing body of evidence for changes in personal culture after significant life course transitions, drawing on long-running panel data. To integrate these conflicting findings, the current study develops and applies a life course adaption model of personal culture, accounting for early imprinting and the continued possibility for change. Drawing on rich data from six long-running panel studies from five countries (BHPS, HILDA, PSID, SHP, SOEP, UKHLS) and 428 measures of personal culture, I test the theoretical expectations using mixed-effects modeling and an individual participant data meta-analysis. Results support the life course adaption model. Although lasting, non-transitory, within-individual changes in personal culture are relatively small compared to stable between-individual differences, I find strong support for the proposition that individuals change persistently in their personal culture as they move through the life course. These changes are partly dependent on prior biographical experiences. Finally, personal culture fluctuates substantially from year to year. Change in personal culture is increasingly varied for younger birth cohorts.
    Abstract: Peer Reviewed
    URL: Volltext  (kostenfrei)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (307 Seiten)
    Dissertation note: Kumulative Dissertation Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 2022
    DDC: 301
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    Keywords: Hochschulschrift ; Lebensverlauf ; Kausalinferenz ; Kindheit ; Jugend ; Familie ; life course ; causal inference ; childhood ; adolescence ; family ; Soziologie und Anthropologie
    Abstract: In dieser Dissertation gehe ich auf verschiedene statistische Modellierungs- und Messprobleme ein, die eine kausale Interpretation der in der Literatur zu Familiensoziologie und sozialer Ungleichheit gefundenen Zusammenhängen erschweren. Erstens legt die Lebensverlaufsforschung nahe, dass das Problem der Verzerrung durch Selektion in der Literatur über die Abwesenheit von Vätern komplexer sein könnte als angenommen. Durch die Korrektur von dynamischen Verzerrungen wird die Schätzung des kausalen Effektes der Abwesenheit des Vaters auf das Wohlergehen der Kinder reduziert. Zweitens wird angenommen, dass familiäre Instabilität in der Kindheit das Wohlbefinden der Kinder negativ beeinflusst. Allerdings könnten zeitabhängige konfundierende Faktoren, die durch vergangene Episoden familiärer Instabilität beeinflusst werden und sich auf die künftige Stabilität der Familie auswirken, einen Teil der angenommenen negativen Auswirkungen erklären. Ich zeige, dass eine dynamische Version der Selektionshypothese eine wesentliche Rolle bei der Entkräftung der Hypothese der familiären Instabilität spielt. Drittens deuten die Forschungsergebnisse darauf hin, dass die soziale Stratifizierung bei den Sprachkenntnissen von Vorschulkindern durch Eingriffe in den Erziehungsstil von Eltern mit wenig Ressourcen erheblich verringert werden könnten. Mit Hilfe einer kausalen Mediationsanalyse zeige ich, dass die elterliche Erziehung nur etwa ein Drittel des Gesamteffekts des sozioökonomischen Status auf die frühen Sprachfähigkeiten mediieren. Viertens wird die Messung kognitiver Fähigkeiten durch verschiedene Merkmale standardisierter Beurteilungen erschwert. Diese Probleme haben wichtige Auswirkungen auf die Quantifizierung sozialer Ungleichheit bei unbeobachtbaren Variablen und auf die Forschung zu kausalen Effekten. Die Dissertation schließt mit einem Plädoyer zur rigoroseren Anwendung von Methoden der kausalen Inferenz in Familiensoziologie und Forschung zu sozialer Ungleichheit.
    Abstract: In this dissertation, I consider various statistical modeling and measurement issues that complicate the causal attributions made about those associations in the literature in family sociology and social inequality. First, life course informed research suggests that the problem of selection bias in the father absence literature may be more complex than currently thought. After adjusting for dynamic biases, estimates of father absence's effect on children's wellbeing are reduced. Second, family instability experienced during childhood is said to negatively affect children's wellbeing. However, time-dependent confounders affected by past episodes of family instability and affecting future family stability might explain away part of the negative impact. I show that a dynamic version of the selection hypothesis counters the family instability hypothesis, and the effects of cumulative family instability are small and not consistent with the family instability hypothesis. Third, research suggest that socioeconomic status gaps in language skills among preschoolers could be substantially reduced by intervening on the parenting styles, practices, and parental investments of low-resource parents. Employing interventional causal mediation analysis, however, I show parenting mediates around one third of the total effect of SES on early language skills. Fourth, the measurement of cognitive abilities is complicated by various features of standardized assessments. Those problems have important implications for the quantification of social inequality in unobservable variables and for causal inference research because test scores capture non-random noise. The dissertation concludes by making a plea for furthering causal inference thinking in family sociology, social inequality, social mobility, and family demography research.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0042-0980
    Language: Undetermined
    Titel der Quelle: Urban studies
    Publ. der Quelle: London : Sage Publications Ltd
    Angaben zur Quelle: Vol. 50, No. 5 (2013), p. 1011-1029
    DDC: 300
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  • 5
    Language: German
    Pages: XVI, 612 S. : , Ill.
    Edition: 2., unveränd. Aufl.
    DDC: 616.8/9
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    Keywords: Identität ; Psychologie ; Persönlichkeitsforschung. ; Persönlichkeitstheorie. ; Persönlichkeitsforschung ; Persönlichkeitstheorie
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  • 6
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Berlin : Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
    In:  Journal of marriage and family 83,2020,2, Seiten 516-533
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (18 Seiten)
    Titel der Quelle: Journal of marriage and family
    Publ. der Quelle: Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell
    Angaben zur Quelle: 83,2020,2, Seiten 516-533
    DDC: 300
    Keywords: family dynamics ; family economics ; family resource management ; gender ; inequalities ; marriage ; Sozialwissenschaften, Soziologie, Anthropologie
    Abstract: Objective This study examines fairness perceptions of experimentally manipulated savings arrangements in couples (i.e., distribution of control and ownership of savings) to identify distributive justice principles in marriage. Background Theoretically, competing norms about individual ownership rights and autonomy (equity principle) and marital sharing (equality principle) in interaction with gender ideology (entitlement principle) may explain how individuals perceive the fairness of different savings arrangements, but these explanations have not been tested against each other yet. Method In a nationally representative factorial survey experiment, implemented in the German GESIS Panel, 3,948 respondents evaluated the fairness of randomly presented savings arrangements (N = 19,648 evaluations). Results Respondents rated equal control as more important than equal ownership to establish fairness in marriage. The ownership of savings does not seem to be directly linked to control, providing evidence against the equity principle. Inequality in ownership is rated fairer if it is in favor of the husband, whereas inequality in control is rated fairer if it is in favor of the wife. This suggests that gender is an ascriptive characteristic according to which resources should be allocated (entitlement principle). Conclusion The results indicate that the ideal of marital sharing is widespread, but is rather accomplished by equal control than by equal ownership. Individuals' fairness perceptions of inequality in marriage are gendered, that is, depend on whom inequality favors.
    Abstract: Peer Reviewed
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  • 7
    Language: German
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Dissertation note: Masterarbeit Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 2023
    DDC: 306.874
    Keywords: Familienpolitik ; Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf ; Mutter ; Elternzeit ; Berufstätigkeit ; Berufslaufbahn ; Deutschland ; Hochschulschrift
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  • 8
    Language: German
    Pages: 255 S. ; , 23 cm.
    Edition: 2. Aufl.
    DDC: 302
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    Keywords: Sociale psychologie ; Sozialpsychologie ; Social psychology ; Mensch. ; Sozialpsychologie. ; Einführung ; Einführung ; Einführung ; Einführung ; Einführung ; Einführung ; Mensch ; Sozialpsychologie
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  • 9
    ISBN: 978-3-9812131-0-2
    Language: English
    Pages: 21 Seiten
    Titel der Quelle: Japan 2007
    Publ. der Quelle: 2007
    Angaben zur Quelle: (2007), Seite 265-285
    Angaben zur Quelle: year:2007
    Angaben zur Quelle: pages:265-285
    DDC: 304
    Keywords: Japan ; Migration ; Nichtstaatliche Organisation ; Zivilgesellschaft
    Abstract: The number of foreigners in Japan is increasing. So is the number of migrant support organizations. But what exactly is it that migrant support organizations in Japan do? And what conclusions can we draw from the content and character of their activism for the »state of civil society« in Japan? The paper at hand addresses these questions with a mixed-method approach. First, weintroduce findings from a survey conducted among 100 migrant support organizations in early 2007. Secondly, we provide a close-up look at one of the largest migrant support organizations in Japan, Ijuren. Both the results from the quantitative and the qualitative research approach lead us to argue that migrant support organizations reflect the dual structure of Japan’s civil society in general: they are highly active in service provision, and highly passive in political advocacy. Most migrant support organizations are concerned with improving the living and working conditions of migrants rather than revising immigration policy and/or the legal framework of migration to Japan. Furthermore, the overwhelming majority of the organizations are rooted in local activism; almost none of them – not even the larger ones such as Ijuren – expand their range of action to the national or transnational level. Migrant support organizations, as many other civil society organizations in Japan, too, find their range of action bound by Japan’s tight political opportunity structure. At this moment, however, it seems they do not seek to strengthen their level of transnational activism, which – as contemporary social movement literature argues – would be a step toward greater independence from restrictions laid upon them by a strong state. This would also be a step toward taking over more responsibility in the policymaking process itself.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Dissertation note: Dissertation Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 2022
    DDC: 306.85
    Keywords: Familie ; Kind ; Wohlbefinden ; Familienbeziehung ; Elternschaft ; Soziale Unterstützung ; Jugend ; Hochschulschrift ; Hochschulschrift
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