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  • Undetermined  (99)
  • French  (1)
  • Oxford : Oxford University Press
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  • 1
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (337 p.)
    Keywords: Revenue bargaining; fiscal contract; political settlement; Africa; taxation; state-society relations; political economy; domestic revenue mobilisation; reciprocity; comparative politics ; thema EDItEUR::K Economics, Finance, Business and Management::KC Economics::KCM Development economics and emerging economies ; thema EDItEUR::K Economics, Finance, Business and Management::KC Economics::KCP Political economy ; thema EDItEUR::J Society and Social Sciences::JP Politics and government::JPB Comparative politics ; thema EDItEUR::J Society and Social Sciences::JP Politics and government::JPQ Central / national / federal government::JPQB Central / national / federal government policies ; thema EDItEUR::1 Place qualifiers::1H Africa
    Abstract: This book examines the politics of revenue bargaining in Africa in a time when attention to domestic revenue mobilisation has expanded immensely. Measures to increase taxes and other revenues can -but do not always- lead to a process of bargaining, where revenue providers negotiate for some kind of a return. This book offers in-depth analyses of micro-instances of revenue bargaining across five African countries: Mozambique, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, and Uganda. All case studies draw on a common theoretical framework combining the fiscal contract theory with the political settlement approach, which enables a systematic exploration into what triggers revenue bargaining; how these processes unfold; and finally, if and when they reach an agreement (whether a fiscal contract or not). From the empirically rich case narratives emerges a story of how power and initial bargaining position influence not only whether bargaining emerges in the first place, but also the processes and their outcomes. Less resourceful taxpayers are in a more difficult position to raise their voice, but in some cases even these groups manage to ally with other civil society groups to protest against tax reforms they perceive as unfair. Indirect taxes such as VAT often trigger protests, and so do sudden changes in tax practices. Revenue providers rarely call for improved services in return for paying tax, which would be expected to nurture the foundation for a fiscal social contract. Instead, revenue providers are more likely to negotiate for tax reductions, implying that governments’ effort to increase revenue is impeded. We do find many instances of state-society reciprocity when ruling elites try to be responsive to revenue providers’ demands. Hence, this book gives insight into the nature and dynamics not only of revenue bargaining but of policy-making in general as well as the implications hereof for state-society reciprocity in Africa
    Note: English
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  • 2
    ISBN: 9780197747360 , 9780197747391 , 9780197747377
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (353 p.)
    Keywords: Sociology and anthropology ; Religion and beliefs ; Historical geography ; Indigenous peoples ; Relating to Indigenous peoples ; landscape, religion, supernatural, space, place, folklore, folk belief, Iceland
    Abstract: Landscape, Religion, and the Supernatural presents a summa of current and classic theorizing on religion and the supernatural in relationship to the land and develops this theorizing further by confronting it with a rich set of folkloristic and historical data. Focusing on the themes of “time and memory,” “repeating patterns,” “identity formation,” “morality,” “labor,” “playfulness and adventure,” “power and subversion,” “sound,” “emotions,” “coping with contingency,” “home and unhomeliness,” and “nature and environment,” the book engages with a broad range of theoretical concepts and approaches from the interdisciplinary field of landscape theory and the study of religions. It brings this theorizing into dialogue with the rich culture of local storytelling and landscape-related traditional beliefs of the Strandir district of the Icelandic Westfjords. In this rural region, landscape-related traditions have been collected since the early nineteenth century and continue to be important to this day. Confronting this rich heritage with the insights of landscape theory both in and beyond the study of religions allows important new contributions to theorizing landscape and religion, especially when it comes to considering the perspectives on landscape held by rural populations rather than the urban upper classes that have stood in the focus of research to date. The example of the Icelandic Westfjords shows the extreme richness of religious and supernatural approaches to the landscape that can be developed in rural communities, and how they are significantly and characteristically different from the urban perspectives of literature and the arts
    Note: English
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  • 3
    ISBN: 9780197744161 , 9780197744178 , 9780197744192
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (705 p.)
    Keywords: International criminal law ; Latin America ; International human rights law ; Inter-American System, impact, human rights, Transformative Constitutionalism, Latin America
    Abstract: The Inter-American Human Rights System (IAHRS) fosters structural transformations throughout the Americas. This collection of analyses builds upon the studies on Ius Constitutionale Commune en América Latina and Latin American transformative constitutionalism to map out both the ground-level human rights impact of the IAHRS and the institutional characteristics that have enabled such fundamental changes in social reality. The volume starts with essays framing the concept and context of IAHRS impact. Then it navigates thematic analyses on specific rights and types of violations that are front and center to the protection of human rights in Latin America. The concluding essays explore whether and how it is possible to optimize the actions of the Inter-American System, indicating possible paths to increase positive human rights impact. The editors contend that the IAHRS victim-centric approach, community of practice, and openness to institutional reinvention have enabled it to create a virtuous cycle that catalyzes human rights in the Americas, furthering democracy and the Rule of Law throughout the continent
    Note: English
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  • 4
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    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (305 p.)
    Keywords: " Structural injustice, politics, philosophy, law, ontology, epistemology, feminism, power, historical injustice. " ; thema EDItEUR::J Society and Social Sciences::JP Politics and government::JPA Political science and theory ; thema EDItEUR::Q Philosophy and Religion::QD Philosophy ; thema EDItEUR::J Society and Social Sciences::JP Politics and government
    Abstract: What is Structural Injustice? is the first edited collection to bring together the voices of leading structural injustice scholars from politics, philosophy and law to explore the concept of structural injustice which has now become a central feature of all three disciplines and is considered by many to be a ‘field of study.’ The volume features specially selected original and essential works on structural injustice. The volume provides a range of disciplinary, ontological and epistemological perspectives on what structural injustice is and includes feminist and post-colonial theories to interrogate how structural injustice exacerbates and reproduces existing inequalities and relations of power. This book aims to become a touchstone text for those interested in the different ways we can understand structural injustice, how it manifests, how it relates to other forms of injustice, who is responsible for its redress and the different ways we might go about it. This book will appeal to a wide audience of students, both undergraduate and postgraduate, as well as the general academic population, experts on structural injustice, interested practitioners in politics and members of the public
    Note: English
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  • 5
    ISBN: 9780192849052
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (224 p.)
    Series Statement: Critical Frontiers of Theory, Research, and Policy in International Development Studies
    Keywords: Agricultural economics ; Agricultural and rural economics ; Africa, Congo, mining, industrialization, development, corporations, labour, global value chains, conflict, gold
    Abstract: Since the turn of the century, low-income African countries have undergone a process of mining industrialization led by transnational corporations. The process has been sustained by an African Mining Consensus uniting international financial institutions, African governments, development agencies, and various strands of the academic literature. The Consensus holds that transnational mining corporations are best placed to drive structurally transformative processes of mining-based development on the continent. State-owned enterprises and local forms of labour-intensive mining are deemed unsuitable. The former is characterized as corrupt and mismanaged, and the latter as an inefficient, subsistence activity with links to conflict financing. Through a detailed case study of gold mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Disrupted Development in the Congo reveals the fragile foundations on which this consensus rests. The book documents how foreign mining corporations in the Congo have been prone to mismanagement, inefficiencies, and rent-seeking, and implicated in fuelling conflict and violence. In addition, the book details how structural impediments to the transformative effects of mining industrialization in low-income settings occur irrespective of ownership and management structures. In light of these constraints, and the levels of overseas surplus extraction and domestic marginalization associated with foreign-owned industrial mining, a shift to domestic-owned forms of mining-based development would better meet the needs of low-income African economies for rising productivity, labour absorption, and the domestic retention of the value generated by productive activity than the currently dominant but disarticulated and disruptive foreign corporate-led model
    Note: English
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  • 6
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (337 p.)
    Keywords: Semantics & pragmatics ; Sociolinguistics ; Historical & comparative linguistics
    Abstract: Distributional semantics embodies the idea that the context in which a word occurs reveals the meaning of that word. In contemporary corpus linguistics, that idea takes shape in various types of quantitative context analysis. This monograph explores how count-based token-level semantic vector spaces, as an advanced form of such a quantitative methodology, can be applied to the study of polysemy, lexical variation, and lectometry. What can distributional models reveal about meaning? How can they be used to analyse the semantic relationship between near-synonyms? And how can they contribute to the study of lexical variation as a sociolinguistic variable? The book details the conceptual background of lexical semantic and lexical variation research, explains the mechanism of distributional modelling, and introduces distributional workflows and corpus linguistic tools to answer the questions. Combining a cognitive linguistic interest in meaning with a sociolinguistic interest in variation, it illustrates that distributional methodology with case studies on Dutch and Spanish lexical data, focusing on the value of distributional models for semantic analysis, the interaction of semasiological and onomasiological change, and sociolinguistic issues of lexical standardization and pluricentricity
    Note: English
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  • 7
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (24 p.)
    Keywords: Agricultural economics
    Abstract: This introductory chapter sets out the book’s aims and contributions, outlines its main lines of argument, and details the theoretical foundations underpinning the African Mining Consensus, which holds that transnational mining corporations are best placed to drive structurally transformative processes of mining-based development on the continent. It then moves on to document how, in establishing this Consensus position, proponents have tended to misrepresent or disregard some of the classic critiques mounted by a group of pioneering early development economists. These critiques focused on the specific challenges and constraints faced by income-poor peripheral countries seeking development through deeper integration with the global capitalist economy. Returning to these earlier critiques provides helpful lenses with which to explore, with some adaptation, several axes of tension within the ongoing process of foreign corporate-led mining industrialization in low-income African countries that are overlooked by the absent or simplistic representation of these critiques by Consensus proponents
    Note: English
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  • 8
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (22 p.)
    Keywords: Agricultural economics
    Abstract: By the 2010s, the view that state mismanagement and inefficiencies underlay the Congo’s economic malaise had become so commonplace as to permeate nearly all thinking about development in the country. The aim of this chapter is to challenge this line of thinking and question the Consensus wisdom of moving from domestic-owned to foreign-owned industrial mining based on a belief in the superior efficiency of the latter. By charting the rise and fall of Belgian-owned SOMINKI (1976-1997) and Canadian-owned Banro (1995-2019) in eastern Congo, its main line of argument is that foreign-owned and managed mining corporations are no less vulnerable to mismanagement, firm inefficiencies, and volatile prices than their state-owned counterparts. This included, in the case of Banro, rent-seeking behaviour, redirecting value to overseas directors and shareholders at the expense of productive capacity and to the detriment of the Congolese state and Congolese firms and labour
    Note: English
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  • 9
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (19 p.)
    Keywords: Agricultural economics
    Abstract: The aim of this chapter is to historically situate the case of mining in the Congo within its broader regional context. It is organized in three sections, each corresponding to a separate stage of the process that led to transnational mining corporations once again becoming the dominant force assuming ownership and management of industrial mining projects across the continent. The first stage involved a diagnosis of the economic challenges faced by African economies from the mid-1970s as due to misguided state intervention and government corruption. Based on this diagnosis, during the second stage, the IMF and the World Bank advocated for, financed, and in many instances directly oversaw the liberalization, privatization, and deregulation of mining sectors in low-income African economies. The third stage required criminalizing African miners involved in labour-intensive forms of production and, if required, forcibly displacing them to make way for the construction of capital-intensive, foreign corporate-owned mines
    Note: English
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  • 10
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (232 p.)
    Keywords: applied ethics, surveillance, emergency ethics, pandemics, public health ; thema EDItEUR::Q Philosophy and Religion::QD Philosophy::QDT Topics in philosophy::QDTQ Ethics and moral philosophy ; thema EDItEUR::Q Philosophy and Religion::QD Philosophy::QDT Topics in philosophy::QDTS Social and political philosophy ; thema EDItEUR::M Medicine and Nursing::MB Medicine: general issues::MBN Public health and preventive medicine
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic is arguably the first international emergency of the twenty-first century. In order to respond to this emergency, countries and governments around the world were forced to engage in a range of actions and policies that would not otherwise have been permitted. Looking in particular at the use of surveillance technologies, this book examines the challenge of ethics in emergencies. What can states do to keep their populations safe, what can citizens expect of their governments, and when are those government actions unjustified? By looking at the use of surveillance in times of emergency, this book explores ethical, philosophical, political, and social concepts, challenges them, and offers a set of views on where those concepts may evolve into the future. As a global population, we will be faced with emergencies, and it is possible that these will also be global in their impact. The ethics of surveillance in times of emergency is both of its time, and ongoing; we must learn our lessons from the last emergency, to be prepared for the next ones
    Note: English
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  • 11
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    ISBN: 9780199666461
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (300 p.)
    Keywords: Mathematical physics ; Relativity physics
    Abstract: This book presents basic General Relativity and provides a basis for understanding and using the fundamental theory. General Relativity is a beautiful geometric theory, simple in its mathematical formulation. It leads to numerous consequences with striking physical interpretations: gravitational waves, black holes, cosmological models, and so on. The first part of the book outlines the fundamentals of the subject. Chapters in this part look at Riemannian and Lorentzian geometry, Special and General Relativity, the Einstein equations, the Schwarzschild spacetime, black holes, and cosmology. The second part presents a number of more advanced topics such as general Einstein spacetimes, the Cauchy problem, relativistic fluids, and Relativistic Kinetic Theory
    Note: English
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  • 12
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (225 p.)
    Keywords: cities, equality, inequality, relational equality, equality in the city, inclusion, diversity, social mixing, public reflective equilibrium, urban political philosophy ; thema EDItEUR::J Society and Social Sciences::JP Politics and government::JPA Political science and theory ; thema EDItEUR::Q Philosophy and Religion::QD Philosophy::QDT Topics in philosophy::QDTQ Ethics and moral philosophy ; thema EDItEUR::R Earth Sciences, Geography, Environment, Planning::RG Geography
    Abstract: When we think about equality in the city, we are very likely to think first of the wide and growing divide between rich and poor, in material terms. Yet when we think more about a 'city of equals' it becomes apparent that how people feel treated by the city and those around them, and whether they can live according to their values, are much more central. Accordingly, combining their own reflections, a multi-disciplinary literature review, and, distinctively, more than 180 interviews in 10 cities in 6 countries, Wolff and de Shalit have derived an account of a city of equals based on the idea that it should give each of its city-zens a secure sense of place or belonging. Four underlying values structure this account. First, access to the goods and services of the city should not be based purely on the market. Second, each person should be able to live a life they find meaningful. Third, there should be diversity and wide social mixing. Fourth, there should be 'non-deferential inclusion': each person should be able to get access to what they are entitled to without being treated as less worthy than others. They should be able to enjoy their rights without bowing and scraping, waiting longer than others, or going through special bureaucratic hurdles. In sum, in a city of equals each person is proud of their city and has the (justified) feeling that their city is proud of (people like) them
    Note: English
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  • 13
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (363 p.)
    Keywords: Ancient history ; Social and cultural history ; Sociolinguistics ; early middle ages, Gaul, the Germanies, Iberian Peninsula, later Roman world, Latin, local language, sociolinguistics, western provinces
    Abstract: Languages are central to the creation and expression of identities and cultures, as well as to life itself, yet the linguistic variegation of the later-Roman and post-imperial period in the Roman West is remarkably understudied. A deeper understanding of this important issue is crucial to any reconstruction of the broader story of linguistic continuity and change in Europe and the Mediterranean, as well as to the history of the communities who wrote, read, and spoke Latin and other languages. In spite of intensive study of culture and ethnic identity in late antiquity, language has often been neglected, a neglect encouraged by the disciplinary boundaries between linguists and historians, Romanists, and medievalists. There is no single volume that sets out the main developments, key features, and debates of the later-Roman and post-imperial linguistic environment. The linguistic landscapes of the late-Roman and post-imperial West are difficult to uncover and describe, while attempts to speak across disciplinary divides are challenging. The contributors have tackled this subject by offering detailed coverage of the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa, Gaul, the Germanies, Britain, and Ireland. This volume, the third in the LatinNow series, helps readers to understand better the embeddedness, or not, of Latin, at different social levels and across provinces, to consider (socio)linguistic variegation, bilingualism and multilingualism, and attitudes towards languages, and to confront the complex role of language in the communities, identities, and cultures of the later and post-imperial Roman West
    Note: English
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  • 14
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    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (378 p.)
    Keywords: Ancient history ; Social and cultural history ; Sociolinguistics ; army, economy, education, law, Latinization, mobility, religion, Roman western provinces, sociolinguistics, status, urbanism
    Abstract: Latinization is a strangely overlooked topic. Historians have noted it has been ‘taken for granted’ and viewed as an unremarkable by-product of ‘Romanization’, despite its central importance for understanding the Roman provincial world, its life and languages. This volume aims to fill the gap in our scholarship, along with its sister volumes, Latinization, Local Languages and Literacies in the Roman West and Languages and Communities in the Late-Roman and Post-Imperial Western Provinces, all outputs of the European Research Council-funded LatinNow project. Experts have been selected to create a multidisciplinary volume with a thematic approach to the vast subject, tackling administration, army, economy, law, mobility, religion (local and imperial religions and Christianity), social status, and urbanism. They situate the phenomena of Latinization, literacy, bi-, and multilingualism within local and broader social developments and draw together materials and arguments that have not before been coordinated in a single volume. The result is a comprehensive guide to the theme, which also offers original and more experimental work. The sociolinguistic, historical, and archaeological contributions reinforce, expand, and sometimes challenge our vision of Latinization and lay the foundations for future explorations
    Note: English
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  • 15
    ISBN: 9780192871688
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (15 p.)
    Keywords: Ethical issues & debates
    Abstract: In the response to this pandemic, two vital, but controversial ethical questions are we should allocate ventilators to patients with severe respiratory failure, and how we should distribute vaccines to people at risk of contracting coronavirus. There There are opposing ethical views about how to prioritise, and countries have taken different different differentdifferentapproaches. There There is a strong ethical argument that policies should take a pluralistic approach to allocation that reflectsreflects reflectsreflectsreflectsmultiple ethical values - both because of the diversity of viewpoints within communities and the recognition that there are competing relevant ethical values. In this chapter, I look at the epistemic and normative problems raised by pluralistic allocation in this pandemic and suggest implications for future pandemics. I summarise some of the relevant evidence about the public’s views and values relating to prioritisation. I also explore some practical approaches to prioritisation of scarce resources in the face of contrasting and competing ethical values
    Note: English
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  • 16
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (416 p.)
    Keywords: Political structure & processes ; Public administration
    Abstract: How does governing work today? How does society (mis)handle pressing challenges such as armed violence, cultural difference, ecological degradation, economic restructuring, geopolitical shifts, global pandemics, migration flows, and technological change in ways that are democratic, effective, fair, peaceful, and sustainable? This book addresses this key question around the theme of ‘polycentrism’: i.e. the idea that contemporary governing is dispersed, fluctuating, messy, elusive, and headless. Chapters develop this notion of polycentrism from a broad spectrum of academic disciplines and theoretical approaches. Readers thereby obtain a full coverage of exciting new thinking about how today’s world is (mis)ruled. The book distinguishes four paradigms of knowledge about polycentric governing—organizational, legal, relational, structural—and pursues conversations across the divides that normally keep these approaches in separate research communities. These exceptional inter-paradigm exchanges focus especially on issues of techniques (how governing is done), power (what forces drive governing), and legitimacy (whether governing is rightful). Comparisons between the multiple perspectives on polycentric governing highlight, and help to clarify, the distinctive emphases, potentials, and limitations of each approach. In addition, combinations across the diverse theories generate promising novel avenues of thought about polycentrism. Through their engagement with the book, readers can develop their own understandings of governing today and thereby become more empowered political subjects
    Note: English
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  • 17
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    ISBN: 9780192871688
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (21 p.)
    Keywords: Ethical issues & debates
    Abstract: Liberty-restricting measures are basic measures in combatting any pandemic. But whose liberty should be restricted? One standard response in public health ethics is to appeal to the “least restrictive alternative” necessary to achieve a public health goal. The problem is that in practice, greater restriction of liberty can lead to greater control of the pandemic and save more lives, though with increasing burdens to others. Liberty restriction is thus a question of the distribution of benefitsbenefits benefits and burdens in a population, a question of distributive justice. In this chapter, I argue that in some pandemics, such as COVID-19, it may be a more proportionate restriction of liberty to restrict the liberty of certain groups, rather than the population as a whole. Two arguments were given in the COVID-19 pandemic for liberty restriction: (1) protection of the vulnerable; (2) protection of the health service. These These are, however, more fundamentally issues about distributive justice. I explore how several approaches to distributive justice can support the differential differential differentialdifferentialdifferential restriction of liberty. In addition, I argue that the commonly accepted justificationjustificationjustificationjustificationjustification justification justification justification for liberty restrictions (that liberty restrictions may be justifiedjustifiedjustifiedjustifiedjustified justified to prevent direct harm to others) - can be overly simplistic, as illustrated by the COVID-19 pandemic. I argue that where risk groups (such as the elderly in the COVID-19 pandemic) are more likely to utilise limited health resources, they pose an indirect threat to others during the pandemic that warrants coercion. I argue there should be a side-constraint on justice of non-maleficence.non-maleficence.non-maleficence. non-maleficence. non-maleficence. non-maleficence. This This requires that there is a limit to harm which can be imposed on individuals for others, best captured by a collective duty of easy rescue. For groups such as the young, vaccination or lockdown may not constitute an “easy rescue” of those at greatest risk. I address the issue of whether selective restriction of liberty constitutes unjust discrimination and I propose an algorithm for making decisions about selective restriction of liberty
    Note: English
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  • 18
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (301 p.)
    Keywords: British & Irish history ; Modern history to 20th century: c 1700 to c 1900 ; Social & cultural history ; Industrialisation & industrial history
    Abstract: Between 1815 and 1870, when European industrialisation was in its infancy and Britain enjoyed a technological lead, thousands of British workers emigrated to the Continent. They played a key role in several sectors such as textiles, iron, mechanics, and the railways. These men and women thereby contributed significantly to the industrial take-off in continental Europe. This book examines the lives and trajectories of these workers, who emigrated from manufacturing centres in Britain to France, Belgium, Germany, and other countries. It is interested in their mobilities, their culture, their politics, and their relations with the local populations. It reminds us that the British economy was not just orientated towards the Empire and the United States, but also towards the Continent, long before the European Union and Brexit. It shows how critical the part played by migrant workers in the industrial revolution was. Artisans Abroad is the first social and cultural history of this forgotten migration
    Note: English
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  • 19
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (1174 p.)
    Keywords: Physiological & neuro-psychology, biopsychology ; Cognition & cognitive psychology ; Cognitivism, cognitive theory ; Neurosciences
    Abstract: The subject of this book is how the brain works. In order to understand this, it is essential to know what is computed by different brain systems; and how the computations are performed. The aim of this book is to elucidate what is computed in different brain systems; and to describe current computational approaches and models of how each of these brain systems computes. Understanding the brain in this way has enormous potential for understanding ourselves better in health and in disease. Potential applications of this understanding are to the treatment of the brain in disease; and to artificial intelligence which will benefit from knowledge of how the brain performs many of its extraordinarily impressive functions. This book is pioneering in taking this approach to brain function: to consider what is computed by many of our brain systems; and how it is computed. The book is also pioneering in taking biologically plausible approaches to brain computation. The book is also pioneering in incorporating evidence on the connectivity of 360 cortical regions in the human brain, making the book highly relevant to understanding the human brain. The book will be of interest to all scientists interested in brain function and how the brain works, whether they are from neuroscience, or from medical sciences including neurology and psychiatry, or from the area of computational science including machine learning and artificial intelligence, or from areas such as theoretical physics
    Note: English
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  • 20
    ISBN: 9780192871688
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (13 p.)
    Keywords: Ethical issues & debates
    Abstract: At the time of writing, the world remains in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately 14.9 million people have died and every country in the world has been affected affectedaffectedaffectedaffected directly or indirectly (WHO 2022a). This, This,together with recent experiences of Ebola and Zika, has led to calls for the development and implementation of international strategies for pandemic preparedness, response, and prevention
    Note: English
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  • 21
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (592 p.)
    Series Statement: Cultural Heritage Law and Policy
    Keywords: Public international law ; Museology & heritage studies ; Colonialism & imperialism ; National liberation & independence, post-colonialism
    Abstract: In 1978, UNESCO Secretary General Amadou-Mahtar M’Bow compared cultural colonial objects to ‘witnesses to history’. Their treatment is one of the most debated questions of our time. Calls for a novel international cultural order go back to decolonization. However, for decades, the issue has been treated as a matter of comity or been reduced to a Shakespearean dilemma: to return or not to return. This book seeks to go beyond these classic dichotomies. It argues that contemporary practices are at a tipping point. It shows that cultural takings were material to the colonial project throughout different periods (early takings, birth of modern nation state, nineteenth-century scramble for objects) and went far beyond looting. It relies on micro histories and object biographies to trace recurring justifications and contestations of takings and returns, and the complicity of anthropology, racial science, and professional networks in colonial collecting. It demonstrates the dual role of law and cultural heritage regulation in enabling colonial injustices, and mobilizing resistance thereto. It challenges the argument that takings were acceptable according to the standards of the time. Drawing on the interplay between justice, ethics, and human rights, it develops a theory of entanglement to rethink contemporary approaches. It shows that future engagement requires a reinvention of knowledge systems and relations towards objects, including new forms of consent, provenance research, partnership and a rethinking of the role of museums themselves. It proposes principles of relational cultural justice to confront ongoing historic, legal, and economic entanglements and enable normative transformation
    Note: English
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  • 22
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    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (401 p.)
    Keywords: International law ; International organisations & institutions ; Law & society
    Abstract: How does international law change? How does it adapt to meet global challenges in an accelerated social and political context? The question is crucial for any account of international law, but it is not very well understood. This interdisciplinary volume traces drivers, conditions, and consequences of change across the different fields of international law and paints a complex and varied picture very much in contrast with the relatively static and uniform imagery in most existing accounts. It highlights the social dynamics through which different areas and institutional contexts have generated their own pathways, with different constellations of actors and authorities that condition how smoothly and speedily change proceeds. The volume presents a theoretical framework for understanding this dynamism, and its chapters explore the strategies, forms, and forces behind the many paths of change they encounter. They take into view the politics of precedent and legal restatements, they look at populist and authoritarian challenges and their effects, and they trace change in response to contestation and non-compliance. They also highlight how states are at times marginalized in change processes—and how change may take other forms when international law itself proves too inflexible. Overall, the volume offers a fascinating account of an international legal order in flux—with a degree of dynamism not captured through traditional doctrinal lenses—and helps situate change processes and their varied implications in international law and politics
    Note: English
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  • 23
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (337 p.)
    Series Statement: WIDER Studies in Development Economics
    Keywords: Development economics & emerging economies ; Employment & unemployment ; Economic growth
    Abstract: This book provides a unique, comparative assessment on how the nature of work is changing in 11 major developing countries, and the role that these changes play in shaping earnings inequality in these societies. It provides a nuanced and context-sensitive developing-country perspective with an in-depth assessment of national trends in earnings inequality, which are assessed against changes in the supply of higher skilled workers and education premia, on the one hand, and changes in the occupational structure and the remuneration of tasks, on the other, while being mindful of broader macroeconomic trends and institutional developments. We start showing that the common assumption that occupations are identical around the world tends to lead to an overestimation of the non-routine task content of jobs in developing and emerging economies. Then, we use country-specific measures of routine-task intensity, along with the standard O*NET measures, and other innovative ways to push the boundaries of existing research and make the most of the limited information that is available in each of the countries under study. We show that the large changes in the composition of workers by education and job routine-task intensity, which developing countries exhibited in the 2000s and 2010s, generally contributed to higher inequality, ceteris paribus. We also find evidence of job polarization or widening of earnings inequality driven by the evolution of routine intensity of jobs in several cases. However, changes in the education premium, along institutional factors, seem to explain inequality trends to a larger extent
    Note: English
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  • 24
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (319 p.)
    Keywords: Literary studies: classical, early & medieval ; Classical texts ; Literary studies: poetry & poets
    Abstract: Immersion, Identification, and the Iliad explains why people care about this foundational epic poem and its characters. It represents the first book-length application to the Iliad of research in communications, literary studies, media studies, and psychology on how readers of a story or viewers of a play, movie, or television show find themselves immersed in the tale and identify with the characters. Immersed recipients get wrapped up in a narrative and the world it depicts and lose track to some degree of their real-world surroundings. Identification occurs when recipients interpret the storyworld from a character’s perspective, feel emotions congruent with those of a character, and/or root for a character to succeed. This volume situates modern research on these experiences in relation to ancient criticism on how audiences react to narratives. It then offers close readings of select episodes and detailed analyses of recurring features to show how the Iliad immerses both ancient and modern recipients and encourages them to identify with its characters. Accessible to students and researchers, to those inside and outside of classical studies, this interdisciplinary project aligns research on the Iliad with contemporary approaches to storyworlds in a range of media. It thereby opens new frontiers in the study of ancient Greek literature and helps investigators of audience engagement from antiquity to the present contextualize and historicize their own work
    Note: English
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  • 25
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (272 p.)
    Keywords: Pensions ; Financial services industry ; Investment & securities
    Abstract: Since its green shoots first emerged around 50 years ago, acceptance of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) considerations in institutional investing—especially in pension funds—has evolved with distinct shifts in investor preferences. This Pension Research Council volume traces these shifts and their implications, leading up to the present day. The book notes that investors have diverse reasons for devoting attention to ESG criteria when deciding where to invest their money. Some had religious motives, such as Quakers, who focused on values; this approach can offer some risk mitigation. Nevertheless, studies that look at whether divestment actually changes behaviors of companies show that this rarely occurs. Accordingly, this book offers a variety of distinct viewpoints from numerous countries, on whether, how, and when ESG criteria should, and should not, drive pension fund investments. Authors also find that policymakers should consider fund consolidation in private sector retirement systems, along with whether service provider incentives could be better aligned with sustainability incentives. For instance, boosting transparency in these markets would help generate better-informed policies, while providing beneficiaries with information relevant to their savings choices
    Note: English
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  • 26
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    ISBN: 9780192871688
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (9 p.)
    Keywords: Infectious & contagious diseases ; Ethical issues & debates
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a defining defining event of the 21st century. Global estimates of excess mortality indicate that it has taken fifteen fifteen million lives over 2020-21 (Knutson et al. 2022). It has closed national borders, put whole populations into quarantine and devastated economies. Almost half of workers in low or middle income countries lost a job or business due to the pandemic (Anonymous 2021). The International Monetary Fund has estimated a global loss to the world economy of US$12trillion by the end of 2021 (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 2020). It led to a rise in rates of extreme poverty for the first firstfirst time in 25 years, with 37 million additional people experiencing this in 2020. The pandemic toll and the cost of measures taken to combat it—both effective effectiveeffectiveeffectiveeffectiveeffective and ineffective—has ineffective—has ineffective—hasineffective—hasineffective—hasineffective—hasineffective—has ineffective—has been paid in human lives, mental and physical suffering,suffering, suffering, suffering,suffering, and economic hardship. The costs will continue to be paid by individuals and societies for decades to come. While the COVID-19 pandemic has been catastrophic, it is not unique. It is not as severe as Spanish influenza, estimated to have killed between 50-100 million people. Recent MERS and SARS epidemics were more deadly to those infected, but less contagious. Future influenza pandemics, perhaps like the hypothetical example above, undoubtedly lie ahead. We await ‘Disease X’, the World Health Organisation’s placeholder name for “a serious international epidemic … caused by a pathogen currently unknown to cause human disease.” In some ways, the COVID-19 pandemic has been a wake up-call. Children who have been home-schooled during the COVID pandemic will almost certainly face another pandemic in their lifetime – one at least as bad—and potentially much worse—than this one
    Note: English
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  • 27
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (265 p.)
    Keywords: European history ; The Cold War ; Liberalism & centre democratic ideologies
    Abstract: The decline of the centre-left and centre-right people’s parties is arguably the most poignant feature of the crisis of democracy in Western Europe today. To understand why, this book explores the striking parallels between the life of democracy and that of the people’s parties over the course of the past century. It offers a transnational window on the history of democracy since 1918 by weaving together three epochs which are often studied apart: democracy’s troubled history in the Interwar era; the trente glorieuses after the Second World War; and the period since the 1970s. The book shows that democracy was only stabilized and legitimized when people’s parties emerged that managed to balance between facilitating popular participation from below, bridging divisions between social groups, and practising the politics of compromise. Ideas for such parties existed already in the first decades of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, Socialist and Catholic mass parties failed to transform into people’s parties, which was essential for the crisis (and breakdown) of democracy in the Interwar era. This was a traumatic experience which contributed to the unexpected stabilization of democracy after 1945 as party leaders transformed their organizations into broad-based people’s parties that embraced compromise and responsibility. However, this stability did not last, and paradoxically their transformation also harboured the seeds of democracy’s more recent problems. Over the past decades, people’s parties have struggled to connect to an individualizing society while having become increasingly absorbed by their governing responsibilities
    Note: English
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  • 28
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (225 p.)
    Keywords: European history ; Early modern history: c 1450/1500 to c 1700 ; Social & cultural history ; History of religion
    Abstract: For victims of persecution, attracting international awareness of their plight is often a matter of life and death. This book uncovers how in seventeenth-century Europe, persecuted minorities first learned how to use the press as a weapon to combat religious persecution. To mobilize foreign audiences, they faced an acute dilemma: how to make people care about distant suffering? This study argues that by answering this question, they laid the foundations of a humanitarian culture in Europe. The book reveals how, as consuming news became an everyday practice for many Europeans, the Dutch Republic emerged as an international hub of printed protest against religious violence. It traces how a diverse group of people, including Waldensian refugees, Huguenot ministers, Savoyard officeholders, and many others, all sought access to the Dutch printing presses to raise transnational solidarity for their cause. By examining their publicity strategies, this study deepens our understanding of how people tried to confront the specter of religious violence that had haunted them for generations
    Note: English
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  • 29
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (289 p.)
    Keywords: Development economics & emerging economies ; Urban economics ; Economic geography ; Political control & freedoms
    Abstract: Authoritarianism is on the rise globally, with more than twice as many countries experiencing democratic decline as democratic enhancement in recent years. This has been occurring simultaneously with unprecedented rates of urbanization in many parts of the world, raising questions about the role of cities—often considered the focal points of democratic deepening—in this authoritarian turn. With most literature on authoritarianism focusing on the national scale, in this book we train our gaze on capital cities, which as ‘containers’ of both capital and sovereignty are spaces in which authoritarian dominance is increasingly built, contested, maintained, and undone. Focusing on some of the world’s fastest urbanizing regions in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, the book explores the multiple ways in which authoritarian regimes have been attempting to build and sustain long-term dominance in capital cities in order to meet the challenge of urban political resistance. Our diverse selection of case studies spans governing regimes that have recently tried to build urban dominance and spectacularly failed, as well as those that have managed to hold onto power by constantly evolving strategies for dominance that limit the potential for urban opposition to tip into regime overthrow. With chapters on Addis Ababa, Colombo, Dhaka, Harare, Kampala, and Lusaka, this book offers the first cross-regional comparative study of the relationship between cities and political dominance. It contributes to debates on authoritarianism and authoritarian durability, urbanization, political contestation and resistance, the politics of development, and the prospects for democracy
    Note: English
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  • 30
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (401 p.)
    Keywords: Agricultural economics ; Development economics & emerging economies ; Political economy ; Political science & theory
    Abstract: Although the global food system increasingly is viewed as unsustainable for human and planetary health, the policy pathways for transforming the status quo are often highly contentious. This book brings together inter-disciplinary scholars to analyze the political economy dynamics central to food system transformation and to identify pathways for enhancing the political feasibility of necessary reforms. Drawing on original surveys, interviews, empirical modeling, and case studies from around the world, the book delves into the power dynamics, interest group coalitions, narratives, and institutional structures that shape decisions related to agricultural productivity, agro-industry, trade, and food consumption
    Note: English
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  • 31
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (244 p.)
    Keywords: Philosophy of language ; Social & political philosophy ; Political science & theory
    Abstract: If we don’t know what the words “democracy” and “democratic” mean, then we don’t know what democracy is. This book defends a radical view: these words mean nothing and should be abandoned. The argument for abolitionism is simple: those terms are defective and we can easily do better, so let’s get rid of them. According to the abolitionist, the switch to alternative devices would be a significant communicative, cognitive, and political advance. The first part of the book presents a general theory of abandonment: the conditions under which language should be abandoned. The rest of the book applies this general theory to the case of “democracy” and “democratic”. The book shows that “democracy” and “democratic” are semantically, pragmatically, and communicatively defective. Abolitionism is not all gloom and doom. It also contains a message of good cheer: we have easy access to conceptual devices that are more effective than “democracy”. We can do better. These alternative linguistic devices will enable us to ask better questions, provide genuinely fruitful answers, and have more rational discussions. Moreover, those questions and answers better articulate the communicative and cognitive aims of those who use empty terms such as “democracy” and “democratic”
    Note: English
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  • 32
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (540 p.)
    Keywords: Literary studies: classical, early & medieval ; Literary studies: c 1500 to c 1800 ; Literature: history & criticism
    Abstract: Literature and the Senses critically probes the role of literature in capturing and scrutinizing sensory perception. Organized around the five traditional senses, followed by a section on multisensoriality, the collection facilitates a dialogue between scholars working on literature written from the Middle Ages to the present day. The contributors engage with a variety of theorists from Maurice Merleau-Ponty to Michel Serres to Jean-Luc Nancy to foreground the distinctive means by which literary texts engage with, open up, or make uncertain dominant views of the nature of perception. Considering the ways in which literary texts intersect with and diverge from scientific, epistemological, and philosophical perspectives, these essays explore a wide variety of literary moments of sensation including the interspecies exchange of a look between a swan and a young Indigenous Australian girl; the sound of bees as captured in an early modern poem; the noxious smell of the ‘Great Stink’ that recurs in the Victorian novel; the taste of an aubergine registered in a poetic performance; tactile gestures in medieval romance; and the representation of a world in which the interdependence of human beings with the purple hibiscus plant is experienced through all five senses. The collection builds upon and breaks new ground in the field of sensory studies, focusing on what makes literature especially suitable to engaging with, contributing to, and challenging our perennial understandings of the senses
    Note: English
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  • 33
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (304 p.)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Pockets of effectiveness and the politics of state-building and development in Africa
    RVK:
    Keywords: Politik ; Öffentliche Verwaltung ; Bürokratie ; Erfolgsfaktor ; Nationenbildung ; Entwicklung ; Ghana ; Kenia ; Ruanda ; Sambia ; Uganda ; Nationenbildung ; Staat ; Funktion ; Fähigkeit ; Sozioökonomischer Wandel ; Politischer Wandel ; Effektivität ; Beispiel ; Development studies ; Political economy ; Public administration ; Africa ; Afrika ; Aufsatzsammlung ; Fallstudiensammlung
    Abstract: Why do certain parts of the state in Africa work so effectively despite operating in difficult governance contexts? How do 'pockets of bureaucratic effectiveness' emerge and become sustained over time? And what does this tell us about the prospects for state-building and development in Africa? Repeated economic and social crises have demanded that development thinkers and policy actors have had to engage with the critical role that states play in delivering development. Pockets of Effectiveness and the Politics of State-building and Development in Africa shows that politics is the driving factor that shapes how well state agencies perform their roles. It deploys a new conceptual framework – the power domains approach – to explore the shifting fortunes of key state agencies in five countries – Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia – over the past three decades. Our original research reveals when, how and why political rulers decide to build effective state agencies and enable them to deliver certain forms of economic development – often through forming strategic coalitions with senior bureaucrats and with international support – and also when this support falters and gives way to a politics of survival. Comparative analysis identifies two potential trajectories towards state-building in Africa, each shaped by different configurations of social and political power. The book critiques the role that international development agencies have played in (mis)shaping the state in Africa and suggests a new strategic agenda for building the state capacities required to deliver sustained development at the current juncture. The book closes with critical commentaries from two leading scholars in the field, to help place our work in context and establish the next steps for research and strategy in this increasingly important area of development theory and practice
    Note: English
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  • 34
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (321 p.)
    Keywords: Philosophy of mind ; Philosophy: aesthetics ; Perception ; Philosophy ; Cognition & cognitive psychology ; Neurosciences ; mental imagery, imagination, perception, philosophy, psychology, neuroscience
    Abstract: This book is about mental imagery and the important work it does in our mental life. It plays a crucial role in the vast majority of our perceptual episodes. It also helps us understand many of the most puzzling features of perception (like the way it is influenced in a top-down manner and the way different sense modalities interact). But mental imagery also plays a very important role in emotions, action execution, and even in our desires. In sum, there are very few mental phenomena that mental imagery doesn’t show up in—in some way or other. The hope is that if we understand what mental imagery is, how it works and how it is related to other mental phenomena, we can make real progress on a number of important questions about the mind. This book aims at an interdisciplinary audience. As it aims to combine philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience to understand mental imagery, I have not presupposed any prior knowledge in any of these disciplines. As a result, readers with no background in any of these disciplines can also follow the arguments
    Note: English
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  • 35
    ISBN: 9780198858751
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (288 p.)
    Keywords: Economics ; Development economics & emerging economies ; The arts
    Abstract: The notion of development influences and is influenced by all aspects of human life. Social science is but one representational option among many for conveying the myriad ways in which development is conceived, encountered, experienced, justified, courted, and/or resisted by different groups at particular times and places. This wide-ranging collection from a diverse group of academic and non-academic authors engages with the broad field of development through twelve chapters that deal with music, theatre, fiction, photography, festivals, computer games, the arts, blogging, and other media. It explores three broad areas of alternative forms of knowledge about development, organized around the three themes of 'translation', 'advocacy', and 'engagement'. The first of these is concerned with how popular representations of development can successfully compete with and complement formal social scientific representations; the second relates to the politics of popular representations of development, and the way that popular productions shape debates; and the third asks whether popular representations of development can generate alternative critiques that allow for the articulation of views that would be unacceptable to more orthodox means
    Note: English
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  • 36
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (xv, 180 Seiten)
    Keywords: Literary studies: general ; Literature: history & criticism ; Ethical & social aspects of IT
    Abstract: This book delivers an introduction and overview of developing intersections between digital methods and literary studies. The Digital Humanities and Literary Studies serves as a starting place for those who wish to learn more about the possibilities, and the limitations, of the oft-touted digital humanities in the literary space. The volume engages with the proponents of digital humanities and its detractors alike, aiming to offer a fair and balanced perspective on this controversial topic. The book combines a survey and background approach with original literary research and, therefore, straddles the divide between seasoned digital experts and interested newcomers
    Note: English
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  • 37
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (333 p.)
    Keywords: European history ; Postwar 20th century history, from c 1945 to c 2000
    Abstract: This book examines the European Left’s attempt to think and give shape to an alternative type of European integration—a ‘social Europe’—during the long 1970s. Based on fresh archival research, it shows that the western European Left—in particular, social democratic parties, trade unions, and to a lesser extent ‘Eurocommunist’ parties—formulated a broad project to turn ‘capitalist Europe’ into a ‘workers’ Europe’. This alternative model of European unity favoured coordinated measures for wealth redistribution, market regulation, a democratization of the economy and of European institutions, upward harmonization of social and fiscal systems, more inclusive welfare regimes, guaranteed employment, economic and social planning with greater consideration for the environment, increased public spending to meet collective needs, greater control of capital flows and multinational corporations, a reduction in working time, and a fairer international economic order favouring the global South. During the pivotal years following 1968, deeply marked by labour militancy, new social movements, economic crisis, and the unmaking of the ‘postwar compromise’, a window of opportunity opened in which European integration could have taken different roads. The defeat of ‘social Europe’ was a result of a decade-long social conflict which ended with the affirmation of a neoliberal Europe. Investigating this forgotten power struggle and the reasons of its defeat can be useful not just to scholars and students eager to understand the historical evolution of European integration, the European Left, and European capitalism, but also to anyone interested in building alternative European and global futures
    Note: English
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  • 38
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (304 p.)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Legitimation and delegitimation in global governance
    Keywords: International relations ; Political science & theory ; Political structures: democracy ; Internationales politisches System ; Völkergemeinschaft ; Weltgesellschaft ; Governance
    Abstract: This book explores processes of legitimation and delegitimation of global governance institutions (GGIs). How, why, and with what impact on audiences, are GGIs legitimated and delegitimated? The book develops a comprehensive theoretical framework for studying processes of (de)legitimation in global governance and provides broad comparative analyses to uncover patterns of (de)legitimation processes. It covers a diverse set of global and regional governmental and nongovernmental institutions in different policy fields. Variation across these GGIs is explained with reference to institutional setup, policy field characteristics, and broader social structures, as well as to the qualities of agents of (de)legitimation. The approach builds on a mixed-methods research design that uses both quantitative and qualitative new empirical data. Three main interlinked elements of processes of legitimation and delegitimation are at the center of the analysis: the varied practices employed by different state and non-state agents that may boost or challenge the legitimacy of global governance institutions; the normative justifications that these agents draw on when engaging in legitimation and delegitimation practices; and the different audiences that may be impacted by legitimation and delegitimation. This results in a dynamic interplay between legitimation and delegitimation in contestation over the legitimacy of GGIs
    Note: English
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  • 39
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (416 p.)
    Keywords: Political science & theory ; Comparative politics ; Elections & referenda ; Political structure & processes ; Germany
    Abstract: Over the past half century, the behavior of German voters has changed profoundly-at first rather gradually but during the last decade at accelerated speed. Electoral decision-making has become much more volatile, rendering election outcomes less predictable. Party system fragmentation intensified sharply. The success of the Alternative for Germany (AfD) put an end to Germany's exceptionality as one of the few European countries without a strong right-wing populist party. Utilizing a wide range of data compiled by the German Longitudinal Election Study, the book examines changing voters' behavior in the context of changing parties, campaigns, and media during the period of its hitherto most dramatically increased fluidity at the 2009, 2013, and 2017 federal elections. Guided by the notions of realignment and dealignment, the study addresses three questions: How did the turbulences that increasingly characterize German electoral politics come about? How did they in turn condition voters' decision-making? How were voters' attitudes and choices affected by situational factors that pertained to the specifics of particular elections? The book demonstrates how traditional cleavages lost their grip on voters and a new socio-cultural line of conflict became the dominant axis of party competition. A series of major crises, but also programmatic shifts of the established parties promoted this development. It led to a segmentation of the party system that pits the right-wing populist AfD against the traditional parties. The book also demonstrates the relevance of coalition preferences, candidate images as well as media and campaign effects for voters' attitudes, beliefs, and preferences
    Note: English
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  • 40
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (336 p.)
    Keywords: Language: history & general works ; Poetry by individual poets ; Literary studies: poetry & poets ; Historical & comparative linguistics ; c 1700 to c 1800
    Abstract: This study traces the development of philology (the analysis of literary language) in the Persian tradition in India, concentrating on its socio-political ramifications. The most influential Indo-Persian philologist of the eighteenth century was Sirāj al-Dīn ʿAlī Ḳhān (d. 1756), whose pen-name was Ārzū. Besides being a respected poet, Ārzū was a rigorous theoretician of language whose intellectual legacy was side-lined by colonialism. His conception of language accounted for literary innovation and historical change in part to theorize the tāzah-goʾī [literally, "fresh-speaking"] movement in Persian literary culture. Although later scholarship has tended to frame this debate in anachronistically nationalist terms (Iranian native speakers versus Indian imitators), the primary sources show that contemporary concerns had less to do with geography than with the question of how to assess innovative "fresh-speaking" poetry, a situation analogous to the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns in early modern Europe. Ārzū used historical reasoning to argue that as a cosmopolitan language Persian could not be the property of one nation or be subject to one narrow kind of interpretation. Ārzū also shaped attitudes about reḳhtah, the Persianized form of vernacular poetry that would later be renamed and reconceptualized as Urdu, helping the vernacular to gain acceptance in elite literary circles in northern India. This study puts to rest the persistent misconception that Indians started writing the vernacular because they were ashamed of their poor grasp of Persian at the twilight of the Mughal Empire
    Note: English
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  • 41
    ISBN: 9780192873361
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (529 p.)
    Keywords: Political science & theory ; Political structures: democracy
    Abstract: Research Methods in Deliberative Democracy is the first book that brings together a wide range of methods used in the study of deliberative democracy. It offers thirty-one different methods that scholars use for theorizing, measuring, exploring, or applying deliberative democracy. Each chapter presents one method by explaining its utility in deliberative democracy research and providing guidance on its application by drawing on examples from previous studies. The book hopes to inspire scholars to undertake methodologically robust, intellectually creative, and politically relevant research. It fills a significant gap in a rapidly growing field of research by assembling diverse methods and thereby expanding the range of methodological choices available to students, scholars, and practitioners of deliberative democracy
    Note: English
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  • 42
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (365 p.)
    Keywords: Comparative religion ; History of religion
    Abstract: The Hebrew Bible formulates two sets of law: one for the Israelites and one for the gentile “residents” living in the Holy Land. Law Beyond Israel: From the Bible to the Qur’an argues that these biblical laws for non-Israelites form the historical basis of qur’anic law. The study corroborates its central claim by assessing laws for gentiles in late antique Jewish and especially in Christian legal discourse, pointing to previously underappreciated legal continuity from the Hebrew Bible to the New Testament and from late antique Christianity to nascent Islam. This volume first sketches the legal obligations that the Hebrew Bible imposes on humanity more broadly and, more specifically, on the non-Israelite residents of the Holy Land. It then traces these laws through Second Temple Judaism to the early Jesus movement, illustrating how the biblical laws for residents inform those formulated in the Acts of the Apostles. Building on this legal continuity, the study employs detailed historical and literary analyses of legal narratives in order to make three propositions. First, rabbinic laws for gentiles, the so-called Noahide Laws, while offering a more lenient interpretation than the one we find in Acts, are equally based on the biblical laws for gentile residents of the Holy Land. Second, Christians generally appreciated and even expanded the gentile laws of Acts. Third, the Qur’an remakes traditional Arabian religious practice by formulating its own distinctive approach to the biblical laws for gentiles, in close continuity with—and at times in critical distance from—late antique Jewish and especially Christian gentile law
    Note: English
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  • 43
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (336 p.)
    Keywords: Development economics & emerging economies ; Economic growth
    Abstract: This book explores this developer’s dilemma or ‘Kuznetsian tension’ between structural transformation and income inequality. Developing countries are seeking economic development—that is, structural transformation—which is inclusive in the sense that it is broad-based and raises the income of all, especially the poor. Thus, inclusive economic growth requires steady, or even falling, income inequality if it is to maximize the growth of incomes at the lower end of the distribution. Yet, this is at odds with Simon Kuznets hypothesis that economic development tends to put upward pressure on income inequality, at least initially and in the absence of countervailing policies. The book asks: what are the types or ‘varieties’ of structural transformation that have been experienced in developing countries? What inequality dynamics are associated with each variety of structural transformation? And what policies have been utilized to manage trade-offs between structural transformation, income inequality, and inclusive growth? The book answers these questions using a comparative case study approach, contrasting nine developing countries while employing a common analytical framework and a set of common datasets across the case studies. The intended intellectual contribution of the book is to provide a comparative analysis of the relationship between structural transformation, income inequality, and inclusive growth; to do so empirically at a regional and national level; and to draw conclusions from the cases on the varieties of structural transformation, their inequality dynamics, and the policies that have been employed to mediate the developer’s dilemma
    Note: English
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  • 44
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (545 p.)
    Keywords: Comparative politics ; Public administration ; Politics & government ; Central government policies ; Political science & theory
    Abstract: This book presents 23 in-depth case studies of successful public policies and programmes in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Iceland. Each chapter tells the story of the policy’s origins, aims, design, decision-making and implementation processes, and assesses in which respects—programmatically, process-wise, politically and over time—and to what extent it can be considered a policy success. It also points towards the driving forces of success, and the challenges that have had to be overcome to achieve it. Combined, the chapters provide a resource for policy evaluation researchers, educators and students of public policy and public administration, both within and beyond the Nordic region
    Note: English
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  • 45
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (225 p.)
    Keywords: Political science & theory ; Public administration
    Abstract: There is a broad consensus across European states and the EU that social and economic inequality is a problem that needs to be addressed. Yet inequality policy is notoriously complex and contested. This book approaches the issue from two linked perspectives. First, a focus on functional requirements highlights what policymakers think they need to deliver policy successfully, and the gap between their requirements and reality. We identify this gap in relation to the theory and practice of policy learning, and to multiple sectors, to show how it manifests in health, education, and gender equity policies. Second, a focus on territorial politics highlights how the problem is interpreted at different scales, subject to competing demands to take responsibility. This contestation and spread of responsibilities contributes to different policy approaches across spatial scales. We conclude that governments promote many separate equity initiatives, across territories and sectors, without knowing if they are complementary or contradictory. This outcome could reflect the fact that ambiguous policy problems and complex policymaking processes are beyond the full knowledge or control of governments. It could also be part of a strategy to make a rhetorically radical case while knowing that they will translate into safer policies. It allows them to replace debates on values, regarding whose definition of equity matters and which inequalities to tolerate, with more technical discussions of policy processes. Governments may be offering new perspectives on spatial justice or new ways to reduce political attention to inequalities
    Note: English
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  • 46
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (288 p.)
    Keywords: Political economy ; Social issues & processes ; Development studies ; Development economics & emerging economies
    Abstract: This book provides a systematic analysis of the political processes shaping the distribution of social transfers in six countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In doing so, the book addresses a notable gap in recent research on social protection concerning the politics of implementation. While considerable attention has been devoted to debating the merits of different policy designs and the political factors shaping the adoption and diffusion of different policy models, ultimately the ability of any social transfer programme to deliver on its promises is dependent on the effective implementation and distribution of social transfers in line with intended objectives. The chapters in this book examine international and sub-national variation in programme implementation in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nepal, and Rwanda, drawing on a common analytical framework that highlights the importance of state capacity and reach, rooted in histories of state formation, and contemporary political competition in shaping the distribution of social transfers. Comparative analysis of the case studies supports the view that variation in the capacity and reach of the state within countries is a centrally important factor shaping the effectiveness and impartiality of distribution. Yet state capacity alone is insufficient. Rather, political competition and power relations shape how this capacity is actually deployed in practice. As such, the book underscores the inherently political nature of implementation and questions common technocratic efforts to improve implementation by de-politicizing the social protection policy process
    Note: English
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  • 47
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (400 p.)
    Keywords: Finance ; International economics ; Economic history
    Abstract: Modern civilization revolves around money. However, money is a paradox. It is nothing more than a representation of and medium for decentralized networks of social trust, but its production is controlled by highly centralized networks of firms, places, and governments, and there is never enough of it to go around. Moreover, given that the creation of money, as credit, is based on expectations, money is at its heart an instrument for human agency to change the future. At the same time, however, the financial systems that produce money are deeply rooted in the past, and perpetuate themselves through history. This book seeks to deepen our understanding of the paradox of money, by introducing a novel conceptual lens-that of Global Financial Networks-to cast new light on the geography, history, politics, and sociology of finance from the middle ages to the global financial crisis and beyond. It shows that the power of finance is inherently "sticky"; with what are generally assumed to be new innovations such as "offshore" finance actually dating back centuries, and the architecture of global financial networks more broadly adapting to the rise and fall of empires and new technologies while changing surprisingly little in their basic character; or at most changing very slowly. A recognition of the mechanics of this durability, it is argued, calls for a new approach to reforming finance which is less reactively focused on regulation, and more proactively focused on building new institutional systems with a long-term "sticky power" of their own
    Note: English
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  • 48
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (240 p.)
    Keywords: Philosophy: logic ; Philosophy: epistemology & theory of knowledge
    Abstract: This book concerns mental states such as thinking that Obama is tall, imagining that there will be a climate change catastrophe, knowing that one is not a brain in a vat, or believing that Martina Navratilova is the greatest tennis player ever. Such states are usually understood as having intentionality, that is, as being about things or situations to which the mind is directed. The contents of such states are often taken to be propositions. The book presents a new framework for the logic of thought, so understood-an answer to the question: Given that one thinks (believes, knows, etc.) something, what else must one think (ditto) as a matter of logic? This should depend on the propositions which make for the contents of the relevant thoughts. And the book defends the idea that propositions should be individuated hyperintensionally, i.e. not just by the sets of worlds at which they are true (as in standard 'intensional' possible worlds semantics), but also by what they are about: their topic or subject matter. Thus, the logic of thought should be 'topic-sensitive'. After the philosophical foundations have been presented in Chapters 1−2, Chapter 3 develops a theory of Topic-Sensitive Intentional Modals (TSIMs): modal operators representing attitude ascriptions, which embed a topicality or subject matter constraint. Subsequent chapters explore applications ranging from mainstream epistemology (dogmatism, scepticism, fallibilism: Chapter 4), to the nature of suppositional thinking and imagination (Chapter 5), conditional belief and belief revision (Chapter 6), framing effects (Chapter 7), probabilities and indicative conditionals (Chapter 8)
    Note: English
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  • 49
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (288 p.)
    Keywords: International relations ; Political science & theory ; Political structure & processes
    Abstract: Contemporary society has witnessed major growth in global governance, yet the legitimacy of global governance remains deeply in question. This book offers the first full comparative investigation of citizen and elite legitimacy beliefs toward global governance. Empirically, it provides a comprehensive analysis of public and elite opinion toward global governance, building on two uniquely coordinated surveys covering multiple countries and international organizations. Theoretically, it develops an individual-level approach, exploring how a person's characteristics in respect of socioeconomic status, political values, geographical identification, and domestic institutional trust shape legitimacy beliefs toward global governance. The book's central findings are threefold. First, there is a notable and general elite-citizen gap in legitimacy beliefs toward global governance. While elites on average hold moderately high levels of legitimacy toward international organizations, the general public is decidedly more skeptical. Second, individual-level differences in interests, values, identities, and trust dispositions provide significant drivers of citizen and elite legitimacy beliefs toward global governance, as well as the gap between the two groups. Most important on the whole are differences in the extent to which citizens and elites trust domestic political institutions, which shape how these groups assess the legitimacy of international organizations. Third, both patterns and sources of citizen and elite legitimacy beliefs vary across organizations and countries. These variations suggest that institutional and societal contexts condition attitudes toward global governance. The book's findings shed light on future opportunities and constraints in international cooperation, suggesting that current levels of legitimacy point neither to a general crisis of global governance nor to a general readiness for its expansion
    Note: English
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  • 50
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (288 p.)
    Keywords: Philosophy: metaphysics & ontology ; Philosophy of mind
    Abstract: This book offers an account of perceptual experience-its intrinsic nature, its engagement with the world, its relations to mental states of other kinds, and its role in epistemic norms. One of the book's main claims is that perceptual experience constitutively involves representations of worldly items. A second claim is that the relevant form of representation can be explained in broadly biological terms. After defending these foundational doctrines, the book proceeds to give an account of perceptual appearances and how they are related to the objective world. Appearances turn out to be relational, viewpoint dependent properties of external objects. There is also a complementary account of how the objects that possess these properties are represented. Another major concern is the phenomenological dimension of perception. The book maintains that perceptual phenomenology can be explained reductively in terms of the representational contents of experiences, and it uses this doctrine to undercut the traditional arguments for dualism. This treatment of perceptual phenomenology is then expanded to encompass cognitive phenomenology, the phenomenology of moods and emotions, and the phenomenology of pain. The next topic is the various forms of consciousness that perceptual experience can possess. A principal aim is to show that phenomenology is metaphysically independent of these forms of consciousness, and another is to de-mystify the form known as phenomenal consciousness. The book concludes by discussing the relations of various kinds that perceptual experiences bear to higher level cognitive states, including relations of format, content, and justification or support
    Note: English
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  • 51
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (528 p.)
    Keywords: Politics & government ; Political science & theory ; Central government policies ; Public administration
    Abstract: This book offers twenty-two in-depth case studies of public policies and programs of both provincial and federal governments in Canada that have been markedly successful. Using a common analytical framework, each case study describes the history and evolution of the policy, and assesses the extent of its programmatic, process, political and long-term success. Combined, the cases provide a unique collection of stories about instances in which Canadian institutions and policymakers actually worked as taxpayers would hope they always do. The volume provides a key and open access resource for teachers and researchers of both Canadian and comparative public policy
    Note: English
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  • 52
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (272 p.)
    Keywords: Political economy ; Development economics & emerging economies ; Economic systems & structures
    Abstract: Few concepts have captured the imagination of the conflict and development communities in recent years as powerfully as the idea of a 'political settlement'. At its most ambitious, 'political settlements analysis' (PSA) promises to explain why conflicts occur and states collapse, the conditions for their successful rehabilitation, different developmental pathways from peace, and how to better fit development policy to country context. Yet despite the meteoric rise of the term and its tremendous promise, not all is well in the world of PSA. Rival definitions of the concept abound; there are disagreements about its scope and the way it should be used; a growing schism between conflict specialists and economists; basic concepts are ambiguous; and little progress has been made on measurement. This book consequently has three main aims. The first is to argue for a revised definition of a political settlement, capable of unifying its diverse strands. The second is to put the concept on a more solid theoretical and scientific footing, providing a method for measuring and categorizing political settlements, using both qualitative case studies and a large-n statistical analysis to illustrate its potential. And the third is to examine the implications of the findings for mainstream social science analysis and for policymakers
    Note: English
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  • 53
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (640 p.)
    Keywords: Data protection law ; IT & Communications law ; Intellectual property law
    Abstract: This book examines various policies, including the legal and commercial aspects of the Open Source phenomenon. Here, 'Open Source' is adopted as convenient shorthand for a collection of diverse users and communities, whose differences can be as great as their similarities. The common thread is their reliance on, and use of, law and legal mechanisms to govern the source code they write, use, and distribute. The central fact of open source is that maintaining control over source code relies on the existence and efficacy of intellectual property ('IP') laws, particularly copyright law. Copyright law is the primary statutory tool that achieves the end of openness, although implemented through private law arrangements at varying points within the software supply chain. This dependent relationship is itself a cause of concern for some philosophically in favour of 'open', with some predicting (or hoping) that the free software movement will bring about the end of copyright as a means for protecting software
    Note: English
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  • 54
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    ISBN: 9780197655887 , 9780197655870 , 9780197655900 , 9780197655894
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (624 p.)
    Keywords: Public international law ; Economics ; International law
    Abstract: This comprehensive textbook applies economic analysis to public law. The economic analysis of law has revolutionized legal scholarship and teaching in the last half-century, but it has focused mostly on private law, business law, and criminal law. This book extends the analysis to fundamental topics in public law, such as the separation of government powers, regulation by agencies, constitutional rights, and elections. Every public law involves six fundamental processes of government: bargaining, voting, entrenching, delegating, adjudicating, and enforcing. The book devotes two chapters to each process, beginning with the economic theory and then applying the theory to a wide range of puzzles and problems in law. Each chapter concentrates on cases and legal doctrine, showing the relevance of economics to the work of lawyers and judges. Featuring lucid, accessible writing and engaging examples, the book addresses enduring topics in public law as well as modern controversies, including gerrymandering, voter identification laws, and qualified immunity for police
    Note: English
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  • 55
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (272 p.)
    Keywords: Abnormal psychology ; Psychology: emotions ; The self, ego, identity, personality ; Psychiatry ; Care of the mentally ill
    Abstract: Voices in Psychosis: Interdisciplinary Perspectives deepens and extends the understanding of hearing voices in psychosis in a striking way. For the first time, this collection brings multiple disciplinary, clinical and experiential perspectives to bear on an original and extraordinarily rich body of testimony: transcripts of forty in-depth phenomenological interviews conducted with people who hear voices and who have accessed Early Intervention in Psychosis services. Voice-hearing experiences associated with psychosis are highly varied, frequently distressing, poorly understood, and deeply stigmatized, even within mental health services. Voices in Psychosis responds to the urgent need for new ways of listening to and making sense of these experiences. The book addresses the social, clinical and research contexts in which the interviews took place, thoroughly investigating the embodied, multisensory, affective, linguistic, spatial, and relational qualities of voice-hearing experiences. The nature, politics, and consequences of these analytic endeavours is a focus of critical reflection throughout. This volume presents a collection of essays by members and associates of the Hearing the Voice project that were written in response to the transcripts. Each chapter gives a multifaceted insight into the experiences of voice-hearers in the North East of England and to their wider resonance in contexts ranging from medieval mysticism to Amazonian shamanism, from the nineteenth-century novel to the twenty-first-century survivor movement
    Note: English
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  • 56
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (427 p.)
    Keywords: Economic history ; Social & cultural history ; British & Irish history ; 20th century history: c 1900 to c 2000
    Abstract: This book is a first cultural legal history of advertising in Britain, tracing the rise of mass advertising circa 1840–1914 and its legal shaping. The emergence of this new system disrupted the perceived foundations of modernity. The idea that culture was organized by identifiable fields of knowledge, experience, and authority came under strain as advertisers claimed to share values with the era’s most prominent fields, including news, art, science, and religiously inflected morality. While cultural boundaries grew blurry, the assumption that the world was becoming progressively disenchanted, itself closely related to concepts of boundaries, was undermined as enchanted experiences multiplied with the transformation of everyday environments by advertising. Non-rational ontologies and a play of mystery became apparent, involving possibilities for metamorphoses, magical efficacy, animated environments, affective connections between humans and things, imaginary worlds and fantasies that informed mundane lifed. These disrupted assumptions that the capitalist economy was a victory of reason. The Rise of Mass Advertising examines how contemporaries came to terms with the disruptive impact by mobilizing legal processes, powers, and concepts. Law was implicated in performing boundary work that preserved the modern sense of field distinctions. Advertising’s cultural meanings and its organization were shaped dialectically vis-à-vis other fields in a process that mainstreamed and legitimized it with legal means, but also construed it as an inferior simulation of the values of a progressive modernity, exhibiting epistemological shortfalls and aesthetic compromises that marked it apart from adjacent fields. The dual treatment meanwhile disavowed the central role of enchantment, in what amounted to a normative enterprise of disenchantment. One of the ironies of this enterprise was that it ultimately drove professional advertisers to embrace enchantment as their peculiar expertise
    Note: English
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  • 57
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (501 p.)
    Keywords: History of medicine ; Social & cultural history ; Modern history to 20th century: c 1700 to c 1900 ; European history
    Abstract: Doctors writing about menopause in France vastly outnumbered those in other cultures throughout the entire nineteenth century. The concept of menopause was invented by Frenchmen medical students in the aftermath of the French Revolution, becoming an important pedagogic topic and a common theme of doctors’ professional identities in postrevolutionary biomedicine. Older women were identified as an important patient cohort for the expanding medicalisation of French society and were advised to entrust themselves to the hygienic care of doctors in managing the whole era of life from around and after the final cessation of menses. However, menopause owed much of its conceptual weft to earlier themes of women as the sicker sex, of vitalist crisis, of the vapours, and of astrological climacteric years. This book is the first comprehensive study of the origins of the medical concept of menopause, richly contextualising its role in nineteenth-century French medicine and revealing the complex threads of meaning that informed its invention. It tells a complex story of how women’s ageing featured in the demographic revolution in modern science, in the denigration of folk medicine, in the unique French field of hygiène, and in the fixation on women in the emergence of modern psychiatry. It also reveals the nineteenth-century French origins of the still-current medical and alternative-health approaches to women’s ageing as something to be managed through gynaecological surgery, hormonal replacement, and lifestyle intervention
    Note: English
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  • 58
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (265 p.)
    Additional Information: Rezensiert in Levin, Jeff [Rezension von: The spirit of global health : the World Health Organization and the 'spiritual dimension' of health, 1946-2021] 2024
    Additional Information: Rezensiert in Flanagan, Bernadette [Rezension von: The spirit of global health : the World Health Organization and the 'spiritual dimension' of health, 1946-2021] 2023
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als The spirit of global health
    Keywords: Religion & science ; Religion & politics ; History of religion ; History of medicine ; Weltgesundheitsorganisation ; Medizin ; Spiritualität ; Geschichte 1946-2021
    Abstract: Since the beginning of the World Health Organization, many of its staff members, regional offices, Member States, and directors-general have grappled with the question of what a 'spiritual dimension' of health looks like, and how it might enrich the health policies advocated by their organization. Contrary to the widespread perception that 'spirituality' is primarily related to palliative care and has emerged relatively recently within the WHO, this book shows that its history is considerably longer and more complex, and has been closely connected to the organization's ethical aspirations, its quest for more holistic and equitable healthcare, and its struggle with the colonial legacy of international health organizations. Such ideals and struggles silently motivated many of its key actors and policies-such as the provision of universal primary healthcare-which for decades have embodied the organization's loftiest aspirations. The WHO's official relationship with 'spirituality' advanced in fits, leaps, and setbacks. At times creative and interdisciplinary, at others deeply political, this process was marked by cycles of institutional forgetting and remembering. Rather than a triumph of religious lobbyists, this book argues, the 'spiritual dimension' of health may be better understood as a 'ghost' that has haunted-and continues to haunt-the WHO as it comes to terms with its mandate of advancing health as a state of 'complete well-being' available to all
    Note: English
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  • 59
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (240 p.)
    Parallel Title: Erscheint auch als Sommerer, Thomas, 1977 - Global legitimacy crises
    Keywords: Internationale Organisation ; Legitimationskrise ; Wirkung ; Auswirkung ; Global Governance ; Multilateralismus ; International relations ; International institutions ; Political structures: democracy ; Political science & theory ; Erde
    Abstract: This book addresses the consequences of legitimacy in global governance, in particular asking: when and how do legitimacy crises affect international organizations (IOs) and their capacity to rule. The book starts with a new conceptualization of legitimacy crisis that looks at public challenges from a variety of actors. Based on this conceptualization, it applies a mixed-methods approach to identify and examine legitimacy crises, starting with a quantitative analysis of mass media data on challenges of a sample of 32 IOs. It shows that some, but not all organizations have experienced legitimacy crises, spread over several decades from 1985 to 2020. Following this, the book presents a qualitative study to further examine legitimacy crises of two selected case studies: the WTO and the UNFCCC. Whereas earlier research assumed that legitimacy crises have negative consequences, the book introduces a theoretical framework that privileges the activation inherent in a legitimacy crisis. It holds that this activation may not only harm an IO, but could also strengthen it, in terms of its material, institutional, and decision-making capacity. The following statistical analysis shows that whether a crisis has predominantly negative or positive effects depends on a variety of factors. These include the specific audience whose challenges define a certain crisis, and several institutional properties of the targeted organization. The ensuing in-depth analysis of the WTO and the UNFCCC further reveals how legitimacy crises and both positive and negative consequences are interlinked, and that effects of crises are sometimes even visible beyond the organizational borders
    Note: English
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  • 60
    Language: Undetermined
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence
    Abstract: Recent technological developments and potential technological developments of the near future require us to try to think clearly about what it is to have moral status and about when and why we should attribute moral status to beings and entities. What should we say about the moral status of human non-human chimeras, human brain organoids, artificial intelligence, cyborgs, post-humans, and human minds that have been uploaded into a computer, or onto the internet? In this introductory chapter we survey some key assumptions ordinarily made about moral status that may require rethinking. These include the assumptions that all humans who are not severely cognitively impaired have equal moral status, that possession of the sophisticated cognitive capacities typical of human adults is necessary for full moral status, that only humans can have full moral status, and that there can be no beings with higher moral status than ordinary adult humans. We also need to consider how we should treat beings and entities when we find ourselves uncertain about their moral status
    Note: English
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  • 61